The project of the onboard defense complex (BSO) “President-S” was developed from the middle of the last decade. In its creation were engaged several enterprises that are part of the Concern "Radioelectronic Technologies" (KRET). The project involved the Moscow Scientific and Technical Center “Reagent”, the SKB “Zenit”, the Scientific and Technical Center “Elins” and the Scientific Research Institute “Ekran”. All these organizations were engaged in the creation of individual components of the complex, designed to solve various tasks. The main task of the "Presidential-S" space defense organization is to protect the aircraft from ground-to-air missiles, including portable SAM missiles. The existing elements of the complex are able to monitor the situation, find potentially dangerous objects, detect missile launches and take measures necessary to disrupt the attack.
The first public information about the President-S complex appeared in June 2010. Some components of the promising BSO were shown at the Eurosatory 2010 exhibition in Paris. At the same time, representatives of KRET told about the purpose of the new system and some of its features. In addition, five years ago it became known not only about the existence of the project, but also about some of the successes that were achieved by its authors.
Domestic media with reference to the developers reported that the BKO "President-S" has already passed some tests. In this case, the tests came to check the operation of the systems on the base platform. As it was then told, the converted Mi-8 helicopter, which was installed on a special mast on the dais, became a stand for such tests. The helicopter engines were brought to maximum power, which was supposed to facilitate the work of the missile guidance systems used in the tests.
From a distance of about 1 km, Igla MANPADS were fired at a helicopter. Despite the maximum mode of operation of the engine, a large amount of heat released and a relatively small distance, the “President-S” defense complex successfully detected missiles and disrupted attacks. All missiles passed their goal.
To date, quite detailed information has been published on the “President-S” complex as a whole and its individual components. According to the Ekran Research Institute, the complex consists of the following facilities: a control device, radar and laser warning stations, a missile attack warning station, an aircraft jamming device, an active jamming station, an incoherent optical-electronic suppression station, and optoelectronic laser suppression station.
The facilities of the complex are mounted on a base helicopter and, after appropriate preparation, are able to perform tasks in the search for potentially dangerous missiles with their further suppression and disruption of the attack. To detect enemy anti-aircraft weapons, a set of stations operating in different parts of the spectrum is used. Along the perimeter of the helicopter are mounted several units for the detection of radar and laser irradiation. In addition, ultraviolet missile detection systems are provided. Thus, the automated control system "President-S" is able to independently detect enemy radar and laser systems, as well as timely detect missile launches.
The central system of the complex, the control unit, receives signals about radiation or missile launches. The detection means of the complex can not only detect the fact of exposure or start-up, but also determine the direction to the detected object. These data are taken into account by the control unit, which makes decisions about the use of protection systems. To counter various threats in the complex "President-S" different systems are provided.
It is proposed to suppress enemy radar systems using an active jamming station. This station should be connected to work when the enemy uses radar or anti-aircraft missiles with radar homing heads of all types. The station of active jamming of the “President-S” complex can radiate interference in a sector of width 120 ° in azimuth and 60 ° in elevation. The manufacturer notes that the size of the sector depends on the type of the base of the aircraft and may vary.
By consuming up to 2500 VA from the 115 / 200 circuit, 400 Hz or 300 watts from the 27 B circuit, the active jamming station has an 150 watt power potential. The nomenclature of the main types of interference is implemented in the ranges from G to J. The total weight of the active interference station is 51,5 kg.
An additional means of countering the enemy’s electronic equipment is the so-called. single-use interference transmitters (PDI). These products are small devices (weight not more than 600 g) with low-power (energy potential up to 2 W) radio transmitters. One-time interference transmitters are proposed to be shot from the available devices for the release of aviation expendables. Thus, depending on the situation and the current situation, the automatics can shoot off false thermal targets or throw out the PPOI.
From the available data suggest that in the first versions BKO "President C" had only one system of optical-electronic suppression - incoherent. Later a laser system of a similar purpose was added to it. Despite the use of different equipment and different types of emitters, both stations are designed to solve the same problem. With their help, the complex should withdraw from the aircraft incoming missiles with infrared homing.
Back in 2010, KRET specialists described the general principle of operation of an incoherent suppression station. It was reported that the "working body" of this device is a special sapphire lamp. The automation of the complex, using data from existing sensors, determines the position of the rocket relative to the helicopter, after which it induces the optical device of the suppression station. The radiation of the lamp "deceives" the homing head of the rocket, because of which it loses its target in the form of an aircraft and passes by it. After a miss, the rocket self-destructs after the estimated flight time. It was noted that at that time no one in the world could solve this problem and put a new equipment in the series.
The equipment of the active jamming station from the "Presidential-S" BKO. Photo Niiekran.ru
To date, it has become known about the existence of another station of optical-electronic suppression, proposed for use as part of the onboard defense complex "President-S". This station can be made in the form of a unit for installation in the internal volumes of the aircraft or in the form of a suspension container. Regardless of the performance, the laser suppression station is capable of effectively solving the assigned tasks of countering infrared homing heads of various types of missiles.
The main element of a laser station is a laser installation based on a multispectral solid-state or gas laser. A laser is connected with an optical-mechanical unit, which is responsible for pointing the laser beam at the target. The station is also equipped with a power supply, control system and other nodes for various purposes. The design of the station allows you to suppress missiles in the working sector with a width of 360 ° in azimuth and 90 ° in elevation. In standby mode, the station consumes no more than 2000 VA, in the working mode - 5000 BA. The total weight of the equipment does not exceed 150 kg.
The laser power of the BCO Presidential S station allows you to perform assigned tasks at distances from 500 to 5000 m. Suppression of missiles is provided for both single launches and volleys. In the latter case, the laser beam consistently "blinds" the homing head of several missiles. Guidance on the target is made by target designation of other means of the defense complex. The fact of hitting the target is fixed by the station itself. The signal to suppress the enemy’s missile is the “reverse luster” of the reflected beam.
In 2015, the press service of the Concern "Radio-electronic weapons" and the domestic press several times recalled the complex "President-C". So, in early June, publications appeared that remind of the existence of a promising project and its main features. No new information was available in these messages.
November 2 RIA News published information received from the Deputy Director General of KRET on R & D of electronic countermeasure technology and innovations Yuri Maevsky. The specialist said that the prospective airborne defense complex "President-S" was tested at the sites of the Ministry of Defense and confirmed its characteristics. In the course of inspections conducted in conjunction with the military, the newest defense system showed high effectiveness in protecting the base aircraft from firing using various guided missiles.
Single-use interference transmitter. Photo Niiekran.ru
During the tests, testers fired a large number of Igla man-portable air defense systems missiles at helicopters equipped with President-S equipment. Both single and volley launches were conducted. At the same time, two rockets were simultaneously launched, including from various directions and from different distances. According to Y. Mayevsky, all the rockets during the tests failed to hit their targets. As a result of the actions of the "Presidential-S" military missile unit, the missiles went away from their targets, without causing them any damage.
According to the expert, the test results suggest that Russia has created a reliable system for protecting airplanes and helicopters from various guided missiles equipped with optical homing heads.
According to Mayevsky and RIA Novosti, some funds of the President-S complex are already being installed on aviation technique of several types. So, the optoelectronic suppression subsystems are mounted on Mi-28 and Ka-52 combat helicopters. In addition, such equipment is received by Mi-26 transport helicopters and Il-76 aircraft.
According to KRET and the media, the on-board defense complex “President-S” and its individual systems can also be mounted on other types of aviation equipment. For example, the development organization earlier mentioned the possibility of using such equipment to protect civilian airliners. It was argued that such equipment could be a convenient and simple response to emerging threats. Recent state coups and local wars have led to the fact that man-portable air defense systems can be in the arsenals of terrorist organizations. To protect against possible attacks using such weapons airline companies can use the BKO "President-S", which provides reliable protection against MANPADS.
In the summer of this year, Igor Nasenkov, First Deputy Director General of the Concern "Radio-Electronic Technologies", said that the possibility of effective protection against MANPADS missiles makes the "President-S" complex interesting for foreign partners. The potential customers are states of the Middle East, Latin America and Southeast Asia.
The materials on the “President-S” project mention that this complex is capable of protecting aircraft not only from Igla family MANPADS. Prospective BKO can also counteract the missiles of previous models, such as the Strela, as well as foreign weapons of this class, for example, American-made Stinger systems.
Also, the "target" of the equipment of the Presidential-S complex can be optical-electronic systems of various anti-aircraft artillery complexes. In this case, apparently, the complex’s facilities work using the same algorithm as in suppressing homing missiles, but taking into account the peculiarities of ground-based air defense systems. The detection systems of the complex determine the location of the enemy's optical-electronic equipment, such as sights or laser rangefinders, after which the laser or incoherent suppression station is aimed at the target and sends a powerful radiation pulse into it, making it impossible to continue to work normally.
Despite the statements of the leaders of the developer organization, information on potential orders for the delivery of the BKO "President-S" to foreign countries is not yet available. So far, there is information only about the supply of equipment of this complex to domestic aircraft manufacturers, which use it in the construction or modernization of various types of aviation technology. Thus, only Russian planes and helicopters are carriers of various elements of a promising complex.
According to the latest data, the onboard defense complex “President-S” recently passed tests at the sites of the Ministry of Defense. The complex successfully solved all the tasks assigned to it, as a result of which not one of the MANPADS missiles launched during the tests was able to hit its target in the form of a helicopter equipped with a military helicopter. Also, there was information about the installation of this equipment on domestic aircraft and helicopters. Information about the adoption of the complex "President-S" in service is not yet available. Perhaps the relevant orders of the command will appear in the near future.
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