Military Review

Fire miles of morflot radio operators

6



By the beginning of World War II, the USSR merchant marine fleet, which counted 870 ships with a total deadweight of 2,1 mln. Tons, basically completed re-equipping ships with modern, at that time, means of communication. However, many ships still had communications equipment from the late twenties and early thirties. Each sea basin has developed a certain communication system. Radio communication was carried out according to international rules, mostly in clear text using international call signs. The ships kept in touch with the radio centers (RC) of their shipping companies, if necessary using domestic and foreign intermediate radio stations.

The first military radiogram was broadcast in clear text on the night of 20 June 1941 from Germany, by the radio operator of the Baltic steamer Magnitogorsk M. Stasov: “We were detained. From the port is not released. They do violence. Do not send other ships. ” The dispatch was suspended, but Magnitogorsk and five other Baltic vessels remained in the ports of Germany.

On the night of June 22, before the German attack on our country, four German torpedo boats near Fr. Gogland, attacked the Soviet ship "Gaisma". The steamer was sinking, and the radio operator S. Savitsky, while remaining faithful to the law of his profession — to keep in touch with the land in case of disaster until the last moment, continued to transmit messages about the perfidious attack.

On the very first day of the war, all ships on the Baltic and other seas were given an order by radio, to go immediately to the nearest ports and wait for special orders. From that moment on, the Soviet transport fleet began to switch to transport operations in the conditions of war.

All the sea basins of the Soviet Union became theaters of war, and the merchant navy found itself on the front lines of the struggle against the fascist aggressors. The war set for sea transport large tasks to carry out the transport of troops and military equipment for the formations and units of the Red Army operating on the coastal directions. Merchant ships were also involved directly in the conduct of hostilities, to supply the besieged bases and to evacuate industrial equipment, wounded and civilians from areas threatened by the temporary seizure of the enemy.

Transport sailors fleet with the outbreak of war, had to swim in special conditions: the enemy put up minefields, used Aviation and submarines to combat ships, carried out acts of sabotage in ports, during cargo operations.

23 September 1941, the year Hitler signed the order: "... All merchant ships that will begin broadcasting when they meet a German submarine must be sunk." Under these conditions, the communication mode of the courts has changed significantly. While in peacetime, radio transmissions to ships occurred after the coast radio station established direct communication with the ships and the reception of radio messages was immediately confirmed, in wartime ship radio operators, as a rule, carried out only radio reception, conducting continuous monitoring at call frequencies and distress, and periodically - Circular transmissions RC. All radiograms were received by the courts without being connected, which made radio operators especially attentive. Messages are now transmitted in closed text, the call was made by specially established call signs. Radio broadcasts of daily weather reports and storm warnings have ceased. The ships transmitted messages, being, as a rule, close to their destinations, maximally reducing official negotiations.



Since the beginning of the war, part of the ships, together with their crews, was mobilized in the Navy. In the early days of the war, in the Northern Fleet, several dozen fishing trawlers, motoboats and drifters were converted into patrol ships, minesweepers and used for patrolling, anti-submarine and anti-mine defense, and other tasks of protecting the water area. The command assigned a small military command to each ship: an officer, a signalman, a specialist in arms.

The heterogeneity of the communications means of ships, ships and coastal parts of the fleet created considerable difficulties in organizing communications. During the war, the mobilized ships were re-equipped with the shipboard communications equipment of the radio systems "Blockade-1" and "Blockade-2", developed in the pre-war years by teams of radio industry enterprises under the leadership of A. Berg. Only in the first months of the war in the Northern Fleet were re-armed with the radio stations Breeze and Bukhta 56 of minesweepers and patrol ships, 10 auxiliary vessels. On 15, patrol boats (bots) installed 5AK radio stations.

In the most difficult situation during the war years, turned out to be the Baltic Shipping Company. But, despite the heavy losses in the courts, the temporary occupation of many ports by the enemy, the Balts carried out their duty, providing transportation of troops, cargo, evacuation of the population in the initial period of the war, and in the liberated Baltic areas assisted the advancing troops of the Soviet Army. Even the sunken ship on a shallow spot, 2 miles from the coastline occupied by the enemy, was turned into an observatory equipped in the bow of the ship sticking out of the water. On the very first night, observers from Barta spotted fascist long-range batteries in the area of ​​Old Peterhof, which bombarded Kronstadt, and according to their data, the gunners of the Kronstadt forts destroyed these batteries. Thanks to reports regularly transmitted from Barta, the enemy was severely damaged.

Of great importance was the organization of shipping on the Black Sea. In spite of all the dangers, the crews of the transports Belostok, Kursk, Kuban, Kalinin, Crimea, Berezina, Fabricius, the passenger-and-passenger steamer Pestel conducted their work. From 1 July to 16 in October 1941 of the year, they made 911 flights between Odessa and Sevastopol.

The work of the ship radio operators was extremely difficult. Observing the strictest radio silence to ensure the secrecy of the crossings, they continuously carried out receiving radio watches and were ready at any moment to receive orders and notifications. Timely reception of alerts, especially about the enemy's air, deprived the enemy of surprise attacks and greatly contributed to the tasks of the delivery of troops, weapons and other military goods by the courts. On the night of October 16, 1941, the radio center of the Odessa Naval Base, ceased communication with Sevastopol to the cruiser Chervona Ukraine, and its communications personnel on the boat of the Lukomsky fish fleet left Odessa.

Transport vessels also played an important role in the defense of Sevastopol. Here, communications workers ensured the successful performance of responsible fleet tasks. In conditions when the fascist submarines and aircraft tried to block areas of our ports and bases of the Caucasian coast, a special convoy service was created to protect the traffic, with the tasks of planning the traffic, forming caravans of ships and escorting them. From July 1942 to January 1943 alone, warships and transports made more than 6000 flights with troops and cargo.

At the same time, measures were developed to ensure the secrecy of communication between convoys (reducing radio traffic to a minimum, using tables of conditional signals, etc.). Only the commander of the convoy had the right to transmit radio messages, the rest of the ships could work on the transmission only when an enemy convoy was detected. Between themselves, ships and ships of the convoy carried out only a visual connection: by day with a semaphore, and at night by a darkened lantern.
The Black Sea Fleet liaison department created special liaison teams for the convoys from the personnel of the ships under repair. The communication group consisted of five radio operators, two acoustics and three signalmen with additional means of visual communication. Portable VHF radio stations were issued to the MO boats. The captains of the transports have completed short courses. Thanks to the good organization of communications, observation, reliable counter-cocking defense and other measures taken, the Black Sea seamen successfully coped with the task of providing transportation.

Fire miles of morflot radio operators


Since the Baltic and Black Seas the enemy closed for external transportation, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk turned out to be the most convenient for transporting weapons and other goods provided by the Allies to help the Soviet Union. The first allied convoy from England to the USSR was 12 August 1941, and the entire Northern Fleet forces defended the arrivals (41 transports) and 738 descending (36 transports) convoys. On internal communications was conducted 726 convoys (1548 transport). Under these conditions, the role of Glavsevmorput radio stations has significantly increased. To improve the coverage of the situation in the eastern part of the operational zone of the White Sea Flotilla, the 2951 polar stations of the Main Sea Route were operatively subordinated to its headquarters, with the assignment of observation tasks to them.

In some cases (when sailing near their shores), radio communication was carried out through the radio center and the Glavsevmorput radio station (Dickson, Amderma and others). Radio communication with ships at the beginning of the war was very weak. In 1943, in accordance with the decision of the State Defense Committee, a group of communications officers of the Navy headed by engineer I rank R. Schwarzberg, who became head of communications of the Central Marine Route, went to the Arctic. By the end of 1943, the communication of the ships with the Glavsevmorput radio stations had noticeably improved.

The successful posting of convoys was largely determined by the organization of communication, its correct use, high communication processing in general and each communications officer, as this ensured the secrecy of the transition of convoys, reliable receipt of necessary information and quick passage of reports, orders, alerts in the frequently changing situation at sea. For example, in 1943, an operation was conducted to escort the AB-55 convoy (Arctic-White Sea, convoy No. 55), which ensured the return of the icebreaker I. Stalin "and ice cutter" F. Litke "from the Arctic to Arkhangelsk.

The importance of the activity of icebreakers in the North was so great that the question of this operation was considered by the State Committee of Defense, and its leadership was entrusted to the commander of the White Sea flotilla. The communication of the flotilla headquarters with the commander of the convoy was provided for by radio and in the radio networks of the flotilla headquarters and the Main Sea Route. The ships of the convoy were ordered to strictly observe radio disguises, prohibit the transfer, and support forces to restrict short wave transmissions and extensive use of communications through monitoring and communications services (SNS) posts. To transmit the reports of the commander of the convoy, the radio station of the flagship of the convoy had to be included in the Glavsevmorutu radio network.



During the operation, icebreakers passed 2600 miles, of which 1600 was miles in ice, through areas of active activity of German ships and submarines. For 27 days of operation, the flagship ship of the convoy transmitted the entire 3 radiogram, with a low power transmitter through the nearest radio stations of Glavsevmorput. At the same time, the commander of the convoy received timely all operational information, up to and including ice reports. 44 radiograms were taken with a total capacity of the 38 043 group.

In the conditions of active radio intelligence of the enemy, special attention was paid to the stealth radio communications of ships and vessels at sea. In the late autumn, 1944, on the instructions of the State Defense Committee, again left a detachment of icebreakers from the Arctic (icebreakers "I. Stalin", "North Wind" and icebreaking vessels "Murman" and "Dezhnev"). The task was complicated by the fact that escort ships were to meet icebreakers in exactly due time and in a certain place at the edge of the ice. In the case of late ships, the ships were left unprotected, and with a premature appearance, the enemy could find a meeting place. It was necessary, with the full radio silence of the icebreakers and without using their call signs, to inform the detachment command of the situation and, in a timely manner (within 24 hours), to transmit the report to the fleet command on the time of the launch of the icebreakers to clean water.

In order to accomplish this task, the designated coastal radio stations exchanged information intended for the detachment among themselves so that they would be received by the ice-breaker communications personnel. The report of the detachment commander was transmitted at a strictly fixed time, with a short conditional signal - five points. Thanks to the reliable work of the signalists (the flagman signalman of the convoy — G. Tolstolutsky, in the post-war years, vice-admiral, head of communications of the Navy, laureate of the USSR State Prize), the important task was successfully accomplished.

Sailors of the northern shipping companies showed heroism in ensuring the maritime transport. Bright page inscribed in history World War II crew of the ship "Old Bolshevik", marching as part of the convoy PQ-16. Only in three days the sailors of the ship repulsed 47 attacks of enemy aircraft. 27 May 1942, when the convoy was subjected to another attack by bombers, one bomb landed in the bow of the ship, where anti-aircraft guns were located. A fire broke out, in which the head of the radio station, V. Nitronov, actively participated. Having coped with the fire, the team brought a load of explosives, lagging behind the convoy ship to the Soviet coast. 28 June 1942 the ship was awarded the Order of Lenin. The captain of the vessel I. Afanasyev, the first assistant to the captain K. Petrovsky and the helmsman B. Akazyonok, were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, the radio operator V. Mitronov was awarded the Order of Lenin. Almost all team members awarded orders and medals.



The icebreaking steamer “A. Sibiryakov ”, who boldly accepted the 25 on August 1942, an unequal battle with the German heavy cruiser“ Admiral Scheer ”. The steamer was killed, but its radio operators managed to notify vessels in the Arctic and Fr. Dickson, where the headquarters of the naval operations was located, was about the appearance of a fascist raider in our waters. In the course of the battle, the wounded radio operator M. Saraev raised and secured a downed antenna on the mast. Until the last minute radio operator A. Sharshavin remained on the combat post. As soon as he transmitted a radiogram: “The Pompolyt ordered to leave the ship. We burn. Farewell. 14.05 ”, an enemy shell pierced the radio room.

The message “A. Sibiryakova "helped to avoid a dangerous meeting of many ships, in particular the steamer" Belomorkanal ", the head of the radio station, F. Degtyarev, received an alarming signal.

We received a radiogram “A. Sibiryakova ”and on Dixon, where V. Ignatchenko was the communications chief of the naval operations headquarters, and managed to prepare for a pirate meeting. When the fascist raider approached the port, the gunners of the SKR-10 (icebreaking steamer “Dezhnev”), the steamer “Revolyutioner” and the field battery opened fire on him. After receiving several hits 152-millimeter guns mounted directly on the pier, the cruiser went into the sea.

The radio operator of the hydrographic vessel "Nord" L. Popov acted courageously. When the fascist submarine U-362 shot a tiny little ship from a cannon, the radio operator managed to send a message about the attack. The ships and aircraft of the Northern Fleet, dispatched by this report, a few days later discovered and destroyed the submarine.



Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the nature of work and areas of navigation of ships in the Far East changed. Pacific sailors took their ships to the shores of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, to the ports of Southeast Asia and the Persian Gulf, and this drastically changed the conditions for their radio communication with the radio center Vladivostok.

Dangers lay in wait for ships here, far from the fronts. At night they went without lights, in the fog - without sound signals. Enhanced sea surveillance became mandatory for each team member. Military training was actively conducted on all ships, and weapons installed on ships were being studied. A lot of difficulties fell to the signalers. Additional radio equipment was installed on the vessels, the organization of communications changed significantly. It became necessary to hide the ships from the radio intelligence of the enemy up to the realization of their complete radio silence and, at the same time, to ensure the confident transfer of information to them in the absence of receipts. Therefore, the command of the Pacific Fleet, already in June 1941, approved special instructions on communications to the courts of civilian organizations in the Pacific. They ordered: before going on a flight of a communication device, inspectors of a communication service should carry out only the receiving radio watch from the moment of leaving the port, transfer work was allowed only in case of accidents requiring the help of other ships, or when attacking foreign warships and airplanes. All radiograms received from ships, receiving radio centers of shipping companies reported to the addressees and the duty officer of the fleet's military communications.

The communication system of the Far Eastern Shipping Company included Vladivostok, Aleksandrovsk (on Sakhalin), Sovetskaya Gavan, Tetyukhe, Nakhodka, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky radio stations. In addition, radio communication with vessels located in the area of ​​Petropavlovsk was provided by the radio stations of the Joint Stock Company of Kamchatka (AKO), and with vessels near the bay of Provideniya and Cape Schmidt - radio stations of the Central Marine Route.

Radio communication with vessels was carried out mainly on short waves. In order to improve the reliability of radio reception of reports from vessels at the receiving centers of the fleet and the North Pacific Flotilla, permanent radio watches were opened. As P. Smirnov, head of communications of the Pacific Fleet during the war years, said, communication with the vessels of the Far Eastern State Maritime Company caused a lot of trouble, especially in the 1941 year, until the special gathering of captains and navigators of the shipping company clarified the current regulations on organizing communication with the vessels. In the future, communication has improved significantly.

The Japanese carried out openly piracy actions in relation to the Soviet courts. On the recommended course from Petropavlovsk to Vladivostok, their warships detained the steamer Angarstroy. The vessel was subjected to illegal inspection and was escorted to the port of Kushimoto by escort. Having accused of transmitting a military report over the radio, the Japanese interrogated the crew for ten days about the existing order of communication with the shipping company, tried to find and confiscate the ship’s radio magazine, which, even before the search, was burned together with other secret documents in the stoker’s furnace.

Famous sea captain N. Malakhov recalled about the tension of the situation in which the ocean navigation of the Far-Easterners took place: “We are going in a zigzag. We conduct the most careful observation of the horizon ... A radio operator brings 5-6 signals from torpedoed ships every day. ”

The head of the radio station of the Kolkhoznik steamboat torpedoed on January 16 of 1942 on the approach to the port of Halifax (Canada), N. Protsenko transmitted a distress signal, remaining in the radio room of the sinking ship, until he received confirmation of the reception of his signals from the radio stations of New York, Boston, Halifax, Sit in the boat, he did not have time.

In the spring of 1945, when there were still battles in Germany, diplomats of countries from five continents went to the founding conference of the United Nations to the shores of California across the ocean. In mid-April, the Smolny motor ship moored in the port of San Francisco. To ensure the direct and independent communication of the Soviet delegations with Moscow, a powerful radio station was mounted on the vessel. The ship was stationed in San Francisco for the entire duration of the Conference, which ended on 26 on June 1945, by signing the UN Charter, and on returning home, participated in the landing operation on Fr. Sakhalin. On August 22, Smolny brought army headquarters and a communications company to the port of Maoka (Kholmsk), and after the war with Japan ended, Lieutenant General K. Derevyanko arrived in Tokyo and accepted the surrender of Japan on behalf of the Soviet Supreme Command.



The hard test for the entire Soviet people, including the sailors of the navy, was the Great Patriotic War. Many sailors, including radio operators A. Spirov, A. Mokhovtsev, N. Karpov, E. Krivosheeva, A. Kogevin, N. Sapov, E. Divnov and many others, died in their service post. Despite the heavy losses, the seizure of many ports by the enemy, other difficulties, the navy during the war years transported about 100 million tons of cargo and more than 4 million people.


Sources:
Basov A. FLOT in the Great Patriotic War. 1941-1945. - M .: Science, 1980. C. 192-196.
Pashkov T. Transport during the Great Patriotic War. 1941-1945. Historical Chronicles. M .: Pan press, 2010. C.308-327. 346-356.
Tikhonov Yu., Soloviev V., Tarasov V. Marine Radio Operators. // Navy. 1985. No.8. C.61-63.
Kremer A. Fiery fairways. // The newspaper "Sailor". 1981. No.19.
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  1. tundra
    tundra 30 October 2015 07: 50 New
    +8
    Still, little is written about the radio operators. But few people know (not from the connection) how everything is tightly regulated there. You can slanch on a guard (smoke in tikhari), and the shift is not visible. I put the extra point or did not put it, minus the entire node in a day, if I answered the call
    after more than 2 (in my opinion) minutes of universal emergency. On the phone I have three calls: Morse code (SINGLE HAVE ALIVE, LET'S LIVE) I DIDN'T SLEEP THE CALL ONCE, (I still looked for the phone, I felt for the key in my youth), even taking it firmly on my chest, and 30 years have passed. In the pancake otter .. (sorry, dragged on), and the navy at all horror.
  2. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 30 October 2015 09: 52 New
    +9
    Excellent article.
    Thank you so much, techie engineer.
    And what, they remember about communication only when it is not. How about the air.
    Then, after a significant "heating up" there are insignificant shifts (material, I mean).
    The marine signalman himself is a fleet radio engineer.
    ..
    But it becomes easy on the soul, when being in the Nouadhibou area, you receive RDO from our search engine located in the Gulf of Mexico - help UVZJ send messages to the Leningrad shipping company.
    I knock on the Leningrad center, it is not. I take away a lot of radiograms from him, broadcast to Leningrad.
    I get thanks.
    I want to live.
    .
    Or when all of a sudden I myself, from Cape Verde, to Klaipeda can only reach through Singapore. Fiction, where is "Dune" and "Matrix".
    .
    Excellent article.
  3. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 30 October 2015 19: 31 New
    +2
    Great stuff!
  4. Raider
    Raider 30 October 2015 21: 03 New
    +4
    The first picture of an article from childhood, I remember a set of postcards dedicated to the Northern Fleet in WWII. I bought it for my father on February 23, he served on a torpedo boat in the Northern Fleet. And behind the story of the battle of an almost peaceful ship armed with 2 45 mm cannons and machine guns against a German raider. There are no postcards anymore, but they remain in my memory, then there were many such sets about weapons and exploits. Maybe I'm wrong, IMHO, we remember the war only closer to May 9. Or maybe just those postcards are missing? So that the heroes of those days remain in the memory, and not the disposable heroes of the secular bohemia? Probably time will judge every generation. But I would not like our memory to be refreshed by a new war. "The best reward on earth is human memory." A. Dumas. To the blessed memory of these brave and courageous people!
  5. ilyaches
    ilyaches 3 November 2015 13: 23 New
    0
    Thank you for the article. It was interesting to read.
  6. nznz
    nznz 14 September 2020 22: 42 New
    0
    I will add something.
    My father Zhitetsky Sergei Feofanovich (born in 1912) was drafted into the fleet for mobilization and sent to the White Sea military flotilla. He is a radio operator by profession, graduated from sailing. He spoke German as a native, as well as English and some other kind, languages ​​were given by the legendary Petrishule, and his mother was a Smolyanka graduated in 1906.
    After sailing, my father took a risky free diploma and rushed to Murmansk. There he did not know anyone, only a few of his friends arranged their careers in something like this. Father was lucky - he met a friend of Skachevsky Igor Valentinovich (in our family Skach, a sea dandy and a real captain was famous for standing behind Lanovoy, for many years after the war, of course, and he flew a schooner with scarlet sails, probably a Comrade, where he served as chief officer. He was also famous for his statement about the sailing ship turned into a restaurant Kronverk, every time he passed by he spat and said they made a tavern from the ship). Sorry for the lengths, it brings.
    Skach arranged for his father to spend the night in his cabin on the ship, where he was chief officer, and in the morning he arranged for his father on the Yukagir motor ship. The radio operator. Employment was simple, in Murmansk there was a tavern near the port, they called it Shalmanka, by the name of personnel officer Shalman. The personnel officer set up an office there, and while drinking beer sent everyone to the ships. He remembered the vacancies and salaries, the parameters of ships, captains and many applicants. An advance payment was also issued immediately (30s) if the sailor was drunk in the trash, Shalman wrote in chalk on the back of the applicant the number of the berth at which the ship was moored and the car transported the insensible bodies to the workplaces. This is how my father began his radio operator work. In 1939, my father was urgently transferred at the end of December to the icebreaker Joseph Stalin, the best at that time. As a reinforcement of the group of radio operators, it seems there were three of them, which is logical (watch for 8 hours). Joseph Stalin went out to save Georgy Sedov under the leadership of ID Papanin, having on board a pool of journalists and even a cameraman Carmen. On January 13, the Sedovites were taken aboard, those who remained, led by Konstantin Badigin, continued their drift. Father was sent to the steamer Semyon Dezhnev. The crews of the rescuers and the rescued were showered with awards, a golden rain was poured - Papanin received the 2nd Star of the Hero, Badigin and his colleagues collectively received heroes, the rest also got the same. it is better to render out of sight of different organs.
    In 1943, my father was sent to Novaya Zemlya, to organize and command the Novaya Zemye sector of the SNIS service (monitoring and communication service). Much help was provided by Tyko Vylka (Ilya Konstantinovich), he provided mushers for the teams, often his brother was a musher. My father was amazed at the amazing ability of the Nenets to navigate the tundra, more precisely, in the Arctic semi-desert (up to the Matshar Strait) and above the Arctic desert. As a New Zealander with a modest 7-year experience, I can say that it is difficult to navigate the NZ. We often stomped on Lake Pomorskoe on foot, the banks are low and steep, 30-40 meters, cut by skerries. They all seem to be the same. Some help was provided by the landmarks modern, false positions of the air defense, some kind of signs. To navigate during a blizzard, even the easiest option is the third option (the first is just horror), it seems to me, you can only use instruments. On the polar night, everything is aggravated by the absence of any landmarks at all. They simply cannot be seen. It was enough to move a few kilometers from Belushka and the lights disappeared, all around the night.
    My father drove 5500 km on sleds along the coast of the NZ, picking up points for SNIS. They took frozen food, often Nikolai Vasilyevich Fedorov became his partner. We set up a tent, lit a primus or kerosene stove and heated the soup on the fire under the howling of the wind. After heating the required amount, the rest of the ice blank was simply taken out of the vessel, after eating it was reinserted until the next rest. The handle was a frozen stick in the center of the ice cylinder. The Nenets determined the direction precisely, thanks to memory and skills. Kayur could simply feel the sastruga in the snow and indicate the exact direction. In an incomprehensible way, they remembered in what place, in winter, where the ridges of the sastrugs were directed, and from them they understood to what degree they needed to change their course. Vylka called his father Mayakovsky for his outward resemblance. In addition to natural difficulties, German submarines were also dangerous. They often got up for repairs, recharging batteries, to replenish the stock of food in small bays. They were found by Nenets and Russians fishermen, reported to the headquarters, there they called aviation, or boats. Starikov was the base of boats on the naval base. Often the Germans simply set fire to the camp, the house, everything that could burn, or they shot points and observation posts from machine guns and cannons.
    the paths of friends in Murmansk were sometimes cut off, but virtually. A friend from the circle of acquaintances Gevork Tonunts, later the famous film actor (Kamo), by the will of fate, ended up on Dezhnev, from which, at the beginning of the war, his father was drafted into the White Sea military flotilla. Tonunts took part in the battle at Dixon.
    As a result, the assigned tasks were solved in the shortest possible time - reliable communication appeared, regular exchange of reports on ice conditions, notification of all changes began to arrive in a timely and regular manner. Eyewitnesses, believe it or not, are still alive (Veniamin Popov and several other people). He told me some of the details of the work. To this day, from his boyhood years, he remembers how they hammered rocks 4 m deep by hand with crowbars and picks, in the short Arctic summer, when the ground does not thaw and there is eternal snow on the hills. These pits were then concreted and served as supports for antenna masts, which actually gave a more confident reception. The winds on the NZ are hurricane, often, during my 7 years I had to put a cup of a satellite dish 12m in diameter, at the zenith like a glass, twice in my 57 years.
    In 1941, in November, my mother gave birth to a daughter, my sister (the old woman is still alive), and as soon as the child got stronger, she rushed to her father. How she got there I can only imagine from the stories of my mother and sister. The story is that I.D. Papanin during the war was appointed chief of the NSR (Sevmorput), accidentally in Arkhara, his mother saw him leaving Emka, and rushed to him, help him get to her husband. Papanin was a simple uncle, he remembered his father well - the radiogram about The 2 star of the hero was given to him by his father. Well, there were only three radio operators and all the management and the press knew them. Papanin wrote a note on the hood of the head of the Belomorian flotilla with a request to send a citizen to the place of service. Then there was a story of penetration by railway to the place of collection of passengers and goods, to be sent to NZ. The day before (I don’t remember exactly), the Germans sank a civil caravan with Marina Raskova, sank all the ships that were trying to lift the drowning from the water. The order was not to stop. Mom was allowed to visit NZ, but there was not a word about the child. Then the sailors moved away from the checkpoint of the base and simply threw a bundle with their sister over a thorn to their father. They lived in dugouts. There was a water carrier with a horse. From the escaped transports of the PQ-17 convoy they took flour and food soaked outside. In the summer they harvested fish, caught it with nets, the char was up to 9kg, my mother was afraid of them like crocodiles, and my father yelled at her to jam them with a hammer.
    Father did not go to the bayonet, and it seems to me that he always felt embarrassed before those who fought in the trenches.
    During the Novaya Zemlya period, my father was awarded 2 Orders of the Red Star, then the Patriotic, in peacetime, probably in total he was awarded the Badge of Honorary Radio Operator of the USSR and the Order of the Badge of Honor. everyone who does not scold for confusion, and eclecticism with digressions