Military Review

Stratospheric ghost of Stalin

29



October 23 1939 of the year (according to other data - October 17) for the first time took off BOC-15 - one of the most mysterious aircraft in the world stories. So far, no drawings or photographs of this machine have been found, and the textual information about it is very fragmentary and contradictory.
It is known that BOK-15 was built in 1938-39 according to the design of aircraft designer Vladimir Chizhevsky in order to return to the Soviet Union the world record of flight range set in 1937 by the crew of Mikhail Gromov on the ANT-25 aircraft, but already next year beaten by English pilots Vickers Wellesley plane.
According to calculations, the aircraft, built on the aerodynamic design of the ANT-25, but still capable of flying in the stratosphere and equipped with a diesel engine, could, without landing to refuel, overcome the distance in 25 thousands of kilometers. This allowed Valery Chkalov’s dream of a non-stop circling of the globe to be realized, though not at the equator, but at about the latitude of Moscow.

But in this case, a similar achievement in 30-s looked phenomenal, because the Wellesley record was only 11500 kilometers, that is, almost two and a half times less. However, the development and construction of such a machine were associated with enormous difficulties. A long stratospheric flight requires a pressurized cabin, as well as a special high-altitude turbocharged engine. Neither the one nor the other in the USSR have not yet been released, there were only undiscovered prototypes.
However, the goal was set, and its achievement was entrusted to employees of the Special Structures Bureau (BOC) of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute. The work itself is complex, and was considerably complicated by the fact that in 1937-38 a wave of arrests swept through TsAGI, which seriously weakened its design team.
However, BOC managed to complete the project and get it approved, and at the end of 1938, under the supervision of Chizhevsky, the assembly of a unique machine began at the Smolensk aircraft plant. However, in February 1939-th Chizhevsky was also arrested, and the completion of the BOK-15 was supervised by someone else, whose name the story did not preserve.
In the spring of the same year, preparations began for a record flight of two crews: the main one - under the command of the commander Gromov, and the backup one - under the direction of Colonel Baidukov. For training, the aircraft was used BOK-7 - a machine similar to the BOK-15, but earlier. Initially, the AM-34FRN carburetor engine stood on it, but in 1938 it was replaced with the AN-1РТК diesel engine with two turbo-compressors, the same one that was supposed to be installed on the WX-15. Externally, the "diesel" BOK-7 differed from the BOK-15 non-retractable landing gear.
October 9 BOK-15 rolled out of the assembly shop, and after a series of runs on the airfield, he flew into the air. Unfortunately, the flight test report also disappeared somewhere. Neither their results, nor even the approximate completion date are known.
There is only information that flying at high altitudes revealed a problem - an extremely high consumption of engine oil, which in a rarefied atmosphere was leaking through the bearings and seals of the engine. In addition, the turbochargers worked unreliably and often failed, and in a round-the-world flight the power plant required to operate continuously and without interruption for at least three days.
Apparently, these problems could not be solved in a short time, and interest in the car soon disappeared. In the conditions of the outbreak of the Second World War, the country was not up to the records, completely different tasks came to the fore. Presumably, in 1940, the WOC-15 program was postponed indefinitely, and after the war it was never returned. And the first round-the-world flight without refueling in the air was made only after almost half a century, in 1986, not by a Soviet car, but by an American designer Bert Rutan's Voyager aircraft.
After the completion of the tests, the BOK-15 stood for some time at the aerodrome of the Flight Test Institute in Zhukovsky. In July, 1941, due to the threat of German airstrikes, he was overtaken to Kazan, where traces of the aircraft are lost. Obviously, during the war or shortly after it the failed record holder was dismantled for scrap.
And on the screen saver - the poster scale model WOC-7, made from photographs by Mikhail Maslov.



BOCK-1 is the first Soviet high-altitude aircraft with a multi-seat pressurized cabin. Its further development was BOK-7 and BOK-15.



WALK-7 at LII airfield in summer of 1940. Pay attention to the planes standing in the background. These are Heinkel Non-100 fighters, Messerschmitt Bf-109 fighters purchased from Germany and tested by us, and Bükker Jungmann training biplane.

Stratospheric ghost of Stalin

BOK-7, shot in 1939 year. The characteristic hemispherical domes of the pressurized cabin with small round portholes, through which there is little to see, are well visible, and therefore landing on this machine was a very risky business.



In 1940, BOK-7 played the role of ANT-25 “The Stalin Route” in the film “Valery Chkalov”. When shooting, the cabin was not activated, and its front cap was replaced with a regular transparent lantern with a normal view.



Aviation diesel engine AN-1RTK, standing on the BOK-15. Clearly visible turbochargers mounted on the crankcase.
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29 comments
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  1. VNP1958PVN
    VNP1958PVN 31 October 2015 06: 44 New
    +9
    So maybe he still flies in orbit? The diesel fuel type is over wassat
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 31 October 2015 23: 43 New
      +1
      - laughing Here they are, the roots of the diesel engine!
  2. Tatar 174
    Tatar 174 31 October 2015 07: 08 New
    19
    Today, this whole plane seems somewhat naive, but this is a step forward and it was taken a long time ago and thereby contributed to the development of our aviation science. Interesting fact.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 31 October 2015 07: 10 New
    +9
    However, in February 1939, Chizhevsky was also arrested. Preparation of the BOK-15 for flights was going with a significant delay in schedule, the main culprit of all the troubles were the engines. The People's Commissar of the Aviation Industry MM Kaganovich, instead of supporting the Bureau of Special Designs, began to look for the culprit. V. A. Chizhevsky turned out to be the "enemy of the people". On January 28, 1938, Kaganovich reported to Stalin: "The state of the design apparatus and work of Chizhevsky's KB-29 is such that it does not give confidence in the fulfillment of the great task that was assigned to him, to build the BOK aircraft -15 ... In order to build a car without Chizhevsky, it is necessary to employ a large qualified team of designers and transfer its production to a more qualified plant ... Within a month, the team must be thoroughly strengthened and cleansed of dubious people ... With Chizhevsky the issue should be resolved immediately.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. washi
        washi 31 October 2015 15: 21 New
        +3
        Quote: rrrj
        Quote: parusnik
        ... To resolve the issue with Chizhevsky immediately. "

        Complete idiocy - felt boots into power - and felt boots felt that everything is so simple - at will, desire.

        Isn’t it right now?
        We must find the guilty.
        And diesel in aviation is generally nonsense. Given the differences in temperature and humidity., ..
        1. lelikas
          lelikas 31 October 2015 16: 48 New
          +1
          Quote: Vasya
          Isn’t it right now?

          Not this way ! Serdyukov, Vasilyeva ....
    2. dmi.pris
      dmi.pris 31 October 2015 11: 49 New
      +1
      At SmAZ, they built interesting structures in general ... In our time, the Myasishchevskaya "Geofizika" - our answer is U-2, it's bad that the plant was ruined ...
      Quote: parusnik
      However, in February 1939, Chizhevsky was also arrested. Preparation of the BOK-15 for flights was going with a significant delay in schedule, the main culprit of all the troubles were the engines. The People's Commissar of the Aviation Industry MM Kaganovich, instead of supporting the Bureau of Special Designs, began to look for the culprit. V. A. Chizhevsky turned out to be the "enemy of the people". On January 28, 1938, Kaganovich reported to Stalin: "The state of the design apparatus and work of Chizhevsky's KB-29 is such that it does not give confidence in the fulfillment of the great task that was assigned to him, to build the BOK aircraft -15 ... In order to build a car without Chizhevsky, it is necessary to employ a large qualified team of designers and transfer its production to a more qualified plant ... Within a month, the team must be thoroughly strengthened and cleansed of dubious people ... With Chizhevsky the issue should be resolved immediately.
    3. kara61
      kara61 1 May 2016 14: 55 New
      0
      Then Mamai walked through all the design bureaus. British intelligence did a good job.
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 31 October 2015 07: 12 New
    +4
    There was an incredibly noisy engine, no fastenings for the exhaust pipe were provided, but for its time a wonderful engine. weight of 1200 kg and approximately up to 2200 forces. To improve it with modern technologies and put our tanks, but .... would .... interfere. Once on Diesels we are ahead of the rest
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 31 October 2015 09: 49 New
      +4
      Quote: Free Wind
      To improve it with modern technologies and put our tanks
      Maybe you and his motor resources indicate? Can a steam locomotive be improved with modern technology, only whethersmile
      Starting from January 24, 1939, TsIAM conducted the systematic development of the AN-1RTK diesel engine. It was indicated that this engine with a dry weight of 1100 kg, a width of 1000 mm, a height of 1200 mm, a length of 2400 mm has a take-off power of 1250 liters. with. (no more than 5 minutes), with a rated power at an altitude of 5500 m - 1000 l. with. The maximum fuel consumption during operation was determined at 175 g / l. s / h, oil consumption - 12 g / l. s / h Fuel - kerosene with a specific gravity of 0,832.
      1. NIKNN
        NIKNN 31 October 2015 13: 45 New
        +5
        What a terrible expense oily.
    2. saygon66
      saygon66 31 October 2015 23: 41 New
      0
      - In-line aircraft engines, like, each cylinder has its own exhaust pipe ... And what is noisy - it’s clear ... forward flow! smile
    3. shishkin7676
      shishkin7676 17 November 2015 15: 01 New
      0
      The Germans in 1928 made a diesel engine for the Yu-86, based on his motives, in Kharkov they made a tank 5TDF, and the British did it for the Chieftain.
  5. gridasov
    gridasov 31 October 2015 10: 19 New
    0
    The key principles of the turbocharger work as they were - and remained so. Therefore, this is the main reason for their failure to work in modern rocket engines.
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 31 October 2015 12: 57 New
      0
      Quote: gridasov
      Therefore, this is the main reason for their failure to work in modern rocket engines.

      ??????????? In all modern rocket engines there are turbopumps!
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 31 October 2015 13: 37 New
        +1
        I'm not talking about where they stand or not. I mean that the physics in them works at the limit, which leads to the destruction of the rotor part as soon as the discrepancy occurs.
  6. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 31 October 2015 10: 59 New
    +4
    BOK-15 - one of the most mysterious aircraft in world history. So far, no drawings or photographs of this machine have been found, and the textual information about it is very fragmentary and contradictory.

    - Even in the book of the Soviet aviation historian V.B. Shavrov "History of aircraft designs in the USSR. 1938-1950", which, although very briefly, still describes most of the designs of Soviet aircraft of those times, incl. experimental and experimental and did not even reach the stage of flight tests, where a separate chapter is devoted to the aircraft of the Bureau of Special Designs, practically nothing has been written about the BOK-15 aircraft. Only about the pressurized cabins of BOK-7 and BOK-11 aircraft the following is written:
    "Interesting experiments with this aircraft (BOK-7) and the following BOK-11 were carried out on the ground. Several crews preparing for high-altitude long-distance flights (Gromov, Yumashev, Danilin, Spirin, Baidukov, Belyakov, etc.) lived for several days in a pressurized cockpit of the aircraft, checking the entire life cycle on himself. It was a training of pilots for future high-altitude long flights on the BOK-15 aircraft. " And that's all, the only mention of this plane in this book. Although the aircraft is certainly interesting, and the experience gained during its development (and especially the development and operation of the first pressurized cabins) was certainly in demand after the war, when the era of jet aviation and truly long-range high-altitude flights came.
    I have the honor.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. gjv
      gjv 31 October 2015 11: 47 New
      +4
      Quote: Aleksandr72
      when the era of jet aircraft and truly long-range high-altitude flights came.

      Of course, not reactive and not quite stratospheric, but it corresponds to the era, huh? Better aspirations with the new X-101 lionfish.



      A modernized experimental Tu-95MS strategic bomber (tail number "317") with an external suspension of eight new type cruise missiles. Zhukovsky, 29.10.2015/XNUMX/XNUMX (c) Alexey (other) / russianplanes.net
      1. saturn.mmm
        saturn.mmm 31 October 2015 17: 04 New
        0
        Quote: gjv
        Better aspirations with the new X-101 lionfish.

        There still in the belly 6 X-55
    3. rubin6286
      rubin6286 1 November 2015 23: 39 New
      +1
      Unfortunately, the first Soviet pressurized cabins were very primitive and the vehicles equipped with them were experimental and non-serial. By 15, the BOK-1939 concept was completely outdated and neither Chizhevsky's diesel engine nor turbochargers could save it. The era of multi-engine all-metal machines equipped with anti-icing systems, hydro and electric boosters in the control system, protected tanks, variable pitch propellers, turbochargers, reliable etc. etc. One of the first such vehicles was the American Flying Fortress. BOK-15 either did not have any of this, and what was installed did not have the proper reliability. There was still little experience in creating aircraft equipment and systems. Everything else that you wrote about can be found on the Internet. The approaching war put an end to this "raw" machine.
  7. 31rus
    31rus 31 October 2015 12: 23 New
    +2
    Thank you, I did not know about the existence of such aircraft, engine
  8. v1tz
    v1tz 31 October 2015 13: 00 New
    +3
    Hmm, if not for the 2nd World ...
  9. Raider
    Raider 31 October 2015 20: 23 New
    0
    If you circled the Earth on an airplane, you look in space in the 50s, v1tz is right! How do these warriors slow down humanity.
  10. Dimon19661
    Dimon19661 1 November 2015 05: 41 New
    0
    Quote: Raider
    If you circled the Earth on an airplane, you look in space in the 50s, v1tz is right! How do these warriors slow down humanity.

    You won’t believe it, but it is military developments that are the locomotive of progress. 3 out of 5 technologies are military.
    Quote: Bayonet
    Quote: Free Wind
    To improve it with modern technologies and put our tanks
    Maybe you and his motor resources indicate? Can a steam locomotive be improved with modern technology, only whethersmile
    Starting from January 24, 1939, TsIAM conducted the systematic development of the AN-1RTK diesel engine. It was indicated that this engine with a dry weight of 1100 kg, a width of 1000 mm, a height of 1200 mm, a length of 2400 mm has a take-off power of 1250 liters. with. (no more than 5 minutes), with a rated power at an altitude of 5500 m - 1000 l. with. The maximum fuel consumption during operation was determined at 175 g / l. s / h, oil consumption - 12 g / l. s / h Fuel - kerosene with a specific gravity of 0,832.

    One of the most serious problems of this (and not only) engine is a turbocharger. Extremely low resource + unreliability. Yes, the diesel engines themselves had so many disadvantages that they more than covered all the advantages. Even some piloting modes were difficult.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 1 November 2015 20: 29 New
      0
      The main problem of rocket engines is the work of their turbo-fuel superchargers. Without a fundamental change in the design and principles of their work, they have no future, within the framework of their stated desires. But the question is that the device of the new turbocharger should be as simple and optimal as possible in its tasks, but at the same time all its work presents the greatest difficulty in understanding what is happening in it and why, as well as how to use it in general and specific purposes.
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 1 November 2015 23: 18 New
        +1
        You have a very "good" comment. It is especially "understandable" for most readers. which saw the jet engine only from the outside, and the rocket engine on TV at the time of the launch of the rocket. The liquid-propellant engine does not have a turbo-fuel supercharger, as you write, but there is a TNA - a turbo pump unit, the design of which is quite perfect and currently does not require cardinal changes.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 1 November 2015 23: 30 New
          0
          The pun is not relevant to the subject of the discussion. Well, like children. It does not require and is not necessary! I’m talking about physics, and you’ll also mention missing commas.
          1. rubin6286
            rubin6286 2 November 2015 12: 55 New
            0
            The older and wiser a person is, the less he wants to explain something. I just want to get up, wish you all the best and leave. Just about to get rich - you have to pay for the apartment, then the shoes will break.
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 2 November 2015 14: 58 New
              0
              You're right! It is always nice to have a word with wise people. Despite the fact that even in a few lines there is a complete discrepancy in understanding what is happening at different levels. And good luck to you.
  11. Vadivak
    Vadivak 1 November 2015 14: 13 New
    +1
    Quote: .....
    Author Vyacheslav Kondratiev


    Very authoritative man. Sorry lost the connection ...
  12. Andrey77
    Andrey77 3 November 2015 17: 58 New
    0
    He loves VO such headlines ... Well, to the yellow press 1 step ... Not a shame? Molotov’s deep-sea ghost? The cemetery ghost of Beria? Not?