Military Review

Ambiguous "Tomahawk"

60



Among the fighters of the Second World War, the Curtiss P-40 aircraft occupies a special place. This car began its journey in the 1937 year with the XP-37 prototype, then went through a huge number of upgrades and earned a reputation as a workhorse for the pilots of the anti-Hitler coalition countries who fought on it until the end of the war. However, despite such a long combat life, the P-40 never shone with its real combat capabilities.

Pilots and aviation experts noted that this aircraft was not high-speed, it was characterized by low maneuverability, had low climb rates and, on the whole, looked outdated by modern fighters with an obsolete aircraft. P-40 is almost always mentioned among the most unsuccessful combat vehicles of the Second World War. All these opinions, of course, were justified, but it was also true that the P-40 honestly served its country in the initial period of the Pacific War, when it was difficult to replace it with anything. P-40s allowed the Americans to gain time in anticipation of the arrival of more modern types of fighter aircraft. In the hands of experienced pilots who are well aware of its strengths and weaknesses, the P-40 could be effectively used in air battles. Moreover, this aircraft remained in serial production for a long time after launching a series of more modern fighters replacing it - it became the third most advanced American fighter in World War II after the R-47 R-51 and North-American R-XNUMX.

By the standards of the European theater of war, the P-40 was outdated at the time of its first flight, and this situation was not corrected in the future. Such shortcomings of the fighter, such as weak weapons, lack of tank protection and booking, reflected typical for the thirties, the requirements of the US Army Air Corps to fighters. The P-40 was a product of the concept of a non-high-flying fighter that appeared at that time, direct support for troops. This concept, in turn, was the result of the idea of ​​"the dominance of bomber aircraft over fighter". In the US, they did not expect high-altitude bombers to raid, and the main task for the fighters was to consider coastal defenses and the direct cover of their ground forces on the battlefield. Therefore, the accusations against Curtiss are not entirely justified, the military received the car they ordered.

However, its shortcomings became the subject of consideration by a special commission of the US Congress. At one time, the Senate Special Commission to review national defense programs (commonly known as the "Truman Committee", which headed it) particularly criticized the large volume of production orders for the P-40, which clearly did not meet the requirements for a modern fighter, as well as after launching a series of more modern aircraft. True, the commission acknowledged that no “special” lobbying by Curtiss of its plane among the officials was revealed.

But back to the beginning. History P-40 fighter began in 1937 year, with the study of the possibility of installing on the Curtiss aircraft P-36 ("model 75"), which had a radial engine, a new liquid-cooled motor. The immediate predecessor of the P-40 was the XP-37. Glider P-36 was redesigned for the Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled engine, which resulted in a new aircraft. XP-37 received a General-Electric turbocharger and a cockpit shifted to the very tail.



The 13 YР-37 of the installation series was sourced, but because of problems with the turbocharger, the work on the Р-37 was stopped - they chose a simpler installation option for the Allison V-1710 engine, directly on the P-36 glider.

Given that the P-36A fighter with an air-cooled engine had virtually no reserves for development, designer Curtissa Donovan Berlin, in the summer of 1937, offered the Army Air Corps to install a mechanical supercharger. This project received the internal designation "model 36Р", and the army assigned it the designation XP-1710.

For the first time, the XP-40 took to the air, running Edward Elliot, 14 October 1938. The armament of the new machine consisted of a pair of 12,7-mm synchronous machine guns - standard, for American fighters of those days. Under the wing was possible suspension of six 9-kg bombs. Under the nose of the fuselage placed a small oil cooler. The air intake of a single-stage supercharger was located above the hood between the barrels of machine guns. On serial aircraft it was replaced by an elongated channel along most of the bonnet, which became a characteristic feature of the first fighter models. Initially, the radiator of the engine cooling system was located under the fuselage behind the wing, but then it was gradually moved forward until it was under the engine. Thus, two ethylene glycol and oily radiators were concentrated in the nose.

With take-off weight in 2848 kg, the XP-40 developed a maximum speed of 3720 m to 547 km / h. This was higher than that of Hurricane, but less than that of Spitfire and Bf-109. The weight of the empty aircraft was 2464 kg, the maximum take-off - 3125 kg. With a supply of fuel in 455 l at a speed of 478 km / h, the aircraft flew 736 km, and with a supply of fuel in 723 l, the maximum range was 1880 km - twice as much as Hurricane, Spitfire and Bf-109Е.

At the end of 1938, the US Army Air Corps planned to drastically increase its combat potential, and on January 25, the main aircraft manufacturers were asked to present their new fighter aircraft projects. The army still saw the fighter with a non-high-flying aircraft, with a short range. Among the contenders for the serial order were the projects Lockheed XP-1939, Bell XP-38, Seversky / Ripablik AR-39 and AP-2, and at least three Curtiss projects - H-4Р, ХР-75 and ХР-37. Although the XP-42 was inferior in height characteristics to fighters with a turbocharger, it was cheaper and could be quickly launched into mass production. In addition, the XP-40 was based on a glider from a proven machine that was already being mass-produced.

As a result, the 26 of April 1939, the army, did not resist the views of conservatives, ordered the 524 serial Curtiss fighters, designated P-40 (brand name "model 81"). By then, it was the largest fighter order in the United States. At the same time, the installation batches of the YP-38 and YP-39 fighters were ordered, and two weeks later the 13 of the YP-43 fighters were ordered.

The P-40 differed from the XP-40 only in the V-1710-33 (With 15) hp 1040 engine. and installing another pair of wing 7,62-mm machine guns. This fighter had a fairly clean, for that time, aerodynamic shape and even retractable tail wheel.

The supply of the P-40 army began in June 1940. The first three serial fighter P-40 used for military trials, as the usual installation party - the Y-series - the contract was not provided. At the same time, foreign buyers also showed interest in the aircraft. In May 1940, the French Air Force ordered the 140 fighter H-81 - export model P-40.

Only 200 aircraft from the first order for Curtiss fighters were completed in the P-40 version. The order for the remaining 324 aircraft was postponed to allow Curtiss to fulfill the contract for the supply of France's 140 H-81A. In general, they were identical to the P-40, with the exception of the French calibration of instruments and engine control knobs in the "French" manner. The first export aircraft was flown around 6 June 1940 g, but before the defeat of France, not a single H-81A got there. The British agreed to accept the French order, giving the fighter the designation "Tomahawk-I". (In the Soviet Union, it was called "Tomahawk," and often the word was simply translated as "Tomahawk.")

Ambiguous "Tomahawk"


The US Air Force Command agreed to delay acceptance of the P-40 in order to deliver the Tomahokas to the British as quickly as possible. The first fighter arrived in the UK in September 1940 of the year. It retained 12,7-mm synchronous machine guns, only the Browning 7,5-mm machine guns Browning ordered by the French were replaced with Browning 7,7-machine guns. The urge to get new fighters was such that many of the 140 The fighters arrived with French instruments and technical markings.

However, the British quickly concluded that the aircraft was not suitable for combat work, since it lacked the pilot’s armored protection and tank protection. However, since the German invasions were expected from day to day, "Tomahawk-I" were distributed among the combat squadrons. The German invasion of the British Isles did not take place, and Tomahawk-I began to be used mainly for the training of pilots. Three fighters were sold to Canada, where they were used as visual aids. And 16 "Tomahawk-I" after the invasion of Germany in the Soviet Union were sent to the Red Army Air Force.

At the same time, in North Africa, on Tomahawk, the 112 Squadron, which replaced its clearly outdated Gloucester Gladiator biplanes, was re-armed. A distinctive feature of the Tomahawks of the 112 Squadron was the "smile of a shark" painted on the hood - later also used by American volunteers in China. During the fighting over the desert, another Tomahawk flaw was revealed. Motor "Allison" was very afraid of dust. The dust was worse than the rare Italian and German fighters. Of the available flight machines, usually no more than one third were suitable.



It is worth noting that the fighter P-40 became the most popular aircraft of the Curtiss company during the Second World War. To estimate at what pace the production of P-40 was carried out, it suffices to refer to the growth of space and the number of people employed at Curtiss. During 1941, this company increased its production space four times. And the number of people employed in production reached 45000 people. To this end, two new factories were built in Buffalo, New York, and in Kolubus, Ohio headquarters, which added to the firm’s headquarters in St. Louis, Missouri. On the rise of military production, the entire Curtiss Airplane Division produced 60 airplanes daily.

Another modification of the fighter was the P-40В. (The designation of the P-40A was initially omitted, but later it was used for the P-40 aircraft No.40-326, converted in March of the 1942 of the year to Bolling Field as a photo reconnaissance.) mm machine guns in the planes of the wing. The engine remained V-40-40. In September 7,62, the X-NUMX fighter, P-1710, was ordered by the army as part of a deferred contract for the remaining fighters. The first P-33B was circled around 1940 in March 131. The weight of the empty fighter of the new modification was 40 kg, take-off - 40 kg, maximum - 13 kg. Due to the higher take-off weight, the characteristics slightly decreased: the maximum speed was 1941 km / h, the climb rate was 2543 m / s, the practical ceiling was 3333 m. The normal flight range was 3458 km

The Tomahawk-IIA model was equivalent to the American P-40B. The plane received armor, and the tanks were outside covered with a protector. They were armed with two 12,7-mm synchronous and two 7,7-mm wing machine guns. It was put the English radio station.

As part of the original P-40 contract, X-NUMX P-193C were also released. The first flight of the P-40 took place on 40 on April 10. This modification also retained the Allison V-1941-1710 engine, but the fuel system was changed - the fuel supply was brought to 33 l, the tanks were also improved, and a new radio station was installed. These improvements again led to a further increase in the weight of the aircraft and, accordingly, to a decrease in flight performance. The maximum speed fell already to 607 km / h at the height of 552 m, and the climb rate to 4575m / s.

Tomahawk-IIB was generally analogous to the American P-40C. Four 7,7-mm Browning machine guns were placed in the wing. A total of four series was released 930 machines of this model. 100 of them were sent to China. Tomahawk-IIB was used by the Royal Air Force and South African Air Force in North Africa, starting with 16 June 1941.

After the Germans attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941 of the year, the Tomahawk-IIB 195 was sent to the USSR. Some directly from the United States, others from the Royal Air Force reserve, since it was no longer necessary to expect a German landing on the British Isles. These Tomahawks have been used in battles near Moscow and Leningrad since October 1941. It was the P-40 that became the first American aircraft to join the battle on the Eastern Front.



In November, several P-1941s were sold to the Turks in order to maintain their neutrality - the Turks then took combat aircraft from allies and from the Axis countries.

Tomahawk II has been actively used by the British in North Africa since October 1941. These fighters were mainly engaged in the storming of the retreating German and Italian units. The ability of Tomahawk to withstand heavy damage from enemy fire was extremely high.

At low altitudes, "Tomahawk" had some superiority over Messerschmitt Bf-109, but this advantage quickly melted with a climb of more than 4500 m. Although the plane was generally inferior to "Messerschmitt", in the hands of experienced pilots it was a formidable fighter. For example, the wing commander Clive Caldville won the battles at Tomahawk over 20 victories. Still, it is worth noting that at the beginning of the war, “Tomahawks” had to meet more often with outdated Fiat GR-42 biplanes or with transitional type Fiat G-50 monoplanes from the Italian Air Force. Much more difficult P-40 accounted for in battles with Mackey C-202 fighter "Folgore."

100 "British" "Tomahawk-IIB" were transferred to China, where they entered into service with a group of American volunteers - the famous "Flying Tigers". It is to the Flying Tigers that the P-40 owes much of its glory. Back in November 1940 of the year, the newly appointed brigadier general of the Chinese Army, Claire Chenolt, went to the United States to recruit volunteer pilots. A group of American volunteers was officially created in August 1941. At the same time, General Chennah ordered the P-100 fighter jets from the US government. By the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, around 40, American volunteer pilots were in China at bases in Kunming and Mingaladon. Despite popular belief, American volunteers went into battle after Pearl Harbor. As already mentioned, the famous "smile of a shark", painted on the hood of their cars, repeated the coloring "Tomahok" 80-th squadron of the Royal Air Force.



The first flying sortie "Flying Tigers" made on December 20, knocking down six of the ten Japanese intercepted bombers. When the Tigers confronted the Japanese Zero, the American volunteers at first underestimated the maneuverability of the Japanese aircraft and eventually lost two pilots. It soon became clear that with a Japanese plane you should not be agile in maneuverability and climb, but you should use the best speed and diving qualities of the P-40. The most effective tactic against the "Zero" was a dive and a quick exit from the battlefield. At the same time, the P-40 gained a reputation as a durable, survivable aircraft, which allowed many pilots to return home after receiving serious combat damage.

In May, the new model, P-1941D, arrived on the Curtissa assembly lines. Its main difference was the use of the new Allison V-40-1710 engine, the 39 hp power. This engine was originally intended for an experienced XP-1150 fighter, but the US Army Air Corps decided not to stop the production of the P-46, but to modify the production aircraft. The proposal to refine the P-40 on the model of the P-40 received 46 June 10 of the year, and Curtiss agreed to use the new motor. The project received the official designation P-1940D. Since the P-40D was seriously different from the previous P-40 models, on Curtiss it wore a new designation “40 model”.



Even before the release of the first P-40D, the British in May 1940 r ordered 560 aircraft of this model. Changes in the airframe and engine led to a change of name - now the aircraft was dubbed "Kittihok" -1. But about him and the application of P-40 in the Soviet Union in the next article.



To be continued.

Sources:
Kotelnikov V. Leiko O. Fighter Р-40 // Digest "Wings". No.2. C. 2-9.
Kotlobovsky A. "Donkey Hawks" of Berlin // Aviation and Time. 2000. No.3. C. 35-39.
Firsov A. US Fighters // Aviation Collection. No.14. C. 1-4.
Ivanov S. Curtiss P-40 // War in the air. No.52. C.1-17, 43-50.
Donald D. US military aircraft of World War II. M: AST, Astrel, 2002. C. 67-71.
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  1. qwert
    qwert 7 October 2015 07: 08 New
    +4
    One of the most common Frog models in its time.
    In general, I thought that LaGG-3 had higher climb rates than P-40. It seems like I read that our pilots thought the Tomahawks worse than Lagg
    1. avt
      avt 7 October 2015 08: 48 New
      +2
      Quote: qwert
      One of the most common Frog models in its time.

      One of the first. he made it in the desert aglitsky camouflage, but then he made a flying tiger "P-40E from Hasi", bought rubber tires for it and gave P-40 from "frog".
      1. Alf
        Alf 7 October 2015 22: 50 New
        +1
        My P-40C is from the Academy.
    2. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 7 October 2015 08: 57 New
      +2
      LaGG was very difficult to manage, it required experienced pilots.
      For example, the Yak 7, with average performance, was a simple machine and even not very experienced pilots showed satisfactory results on it.
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 7 October 2015 12: 42 New
      +3
      Quote: qwert
      In general, I thought that LaGG-3 had higher climb rates than P-40. It seems like I read that our pilots thought the Tomahawks worse than Lagg

      LaGG TTX depended on the series. EMNIP, LaGG-3 8 series in tests with the Japanese showed good maneuverability.
      Plus, the performance characteristics were greatly influenced by the quality of service in units - after all, combat pilots did not fly far on new reference vehicles. smile
    4. enot73
      enot73 7 October 2015 17: 09 New
      0
      Quote: qwert
      One of the most common Frog models in its time.
      The direct successor of the Frogovsky P - 40 V in terms of prevalence is a model from Academy. And the picture on the box is beautiful. : smile
    5. Alf
      Alf 7 October 2015 22: 48 New
      0
      Quote: qwert
      One of the most common Frog models in its time.

      My P-40E.
  2. lilian
    lilian 7 October 2015 08: 21 New
    +6
    According to the characteristics, an analog of the LAS is obtained. And LaG was tenacious, since it was heavy and wooden.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 7 October 2015 11: 31 New
      +1
      All right. But also cheap! Air combat is won not by 2 cool aircraft, but by 5 cheap ones. Refers to any weapon, excluding special.
  3. Free wind
    Free wind 7 October 2015 08: 51 New
    +2
    Probably the main problem was the lack of guns on this plane, well, this is the problem of all Americans at the beginning of the war. And with machine guns against the Messers it was hard. A less capable 20mm gun, the Americans made in 42, with the help of the English roughly speaking. On the plane, the cabin is very much in the tail smile Perhaps this is inconvenient, I'm certainly not an expert. Although it may be that they hit primarily in the front of the aircraft, and the pilot is more likely to survive, and if you jump with a parachute? then you can probably fall under the tail. Thank you for the article
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 7 October 2015 10: 02 New
      +1
      Was the Mustang and Thunderbolt after 1942, as well as the F-86 in Korea, too hard?
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 7 October 2015 12: 51 New
      +2
      Quote: Free Wind
      Probably the main problem was the lack of guns on this plane, well, this is the problem of all Americans at the beginning of the war. And with machine guns against Messers it was hard

      This lime with their rifle caliber was hard. And the Yankees with their "Browning 5" battery was quite normal.

      If US aviation had such an urgent need for a 20-mm gun, then they could just order the industry aviation version of the "Erlikon", which has been in the States in series since 1941.
    3. gladcu2
      gladcu2 7 October 2015 20: 41 New
      0
      Free wind

      This cabin creates a shadow of the air flow on the vertical tail. And the keel is too small. Freak, in short.
    4. Alf
      Alf 7 October 2015 22: 53 New
      +1
      Quote: Free Wind
      A less capable 20mm gun, the Americans made in 42, with the help of the English roughly speaking.

      Actually, it was not a British cannon, but the French Spanish-Spanish Suise HS404, which was produced in Britain.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 8 October 2015 04: 32 New
        0
        And she was French because that Spanish company had a factory in France and she bought a gun license from Shvejarsky Oerlikon. crying
    5. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 8 October 2015 00: 30 New
      +1
      Guns or machine guns are a big question.
      Mustang had machine gun weapons, and this is one of the most outstanding aircraft.
  4. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 7 October 2015 08: 52 New
    +1
    Often more important than maximum speed and weapons are ease of control, crew mastery, technological effectiveness and even Japanese aircraft opposing the states were not something outstanding in terms of number or quality of aircraft. Zero is also a famous airplane.
    The article is good, I read it with interest.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 7 October 2015 11: 38 New
      0
      Zero is the same workhorse of war as the p-40. Cheap and angry.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 7 October 2015 11: 42 New
        0
        dare the first second ...
  5. Dr. Pilyulkin
    Dr. Pilyulkin 7 October 2015 09: 58 New
    0
    engine control knobs in a "French" manner

    How to understand this, does anyone know? drinks
    1. veteran66
      veteran66 7 October 2015 17: 58 New
      0
      the gas sector was meant, for the French it’s full back, for all the others - on the contrary
  6. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 7 October 2015 10: 19 New
    +1
    "Fighter flaws such as weak weapons, lack of protection
    tanks and reservations, reflecting the typical thirties army requirements
    US Air Corps to fighter jets. P-40 was a product of the appearance of this
    the time of the concept of non-high fighter direct support of troops "////

    And which fighters of the 2nd World War had tank design and armor?

    Almost all the fighters of the European theater of operations were precisely -
    non-height front-line fighters.
    It’s just that Curtiss didn’t get there - he would fly to Europe, and not fly over the ocean.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 7 October 2015 10: 54 New
      0
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Almost all the fighters of the European theater of operations were precisely -
      non-height front-line fighters.

      On the western front - no.
      Quote: voyaka uh
      And which fighters of the 2nd World War had tank design and armor?

      Yes, many except Zero and Yak-3 ...
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 7 October 2015 12: 33 New
        0
        "Yes, many except Zero and Yak-3" ////

        Take the classic Bf 109:
        He was armored: seat back, headrest.
        There was still a vertical steel partition behind the pilot's seat,
        protecting the gas tank (which is under the chair) from hitting from behind.
        Am I missing something?
        The P-40, like the rest of the European fighters,
        only the pilot's seat was reserved.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 7 October 2015 13: 40 New
          -5
          Yes, the fact that German pilots had the opportunity to invest in their aircraft from personal (prize) funds. Usually this was used to force the engine to increase the wing area and armor. Therefore, not even in aces, the cabin was usually all-armored.
          1. Rus86
            Rus86 7 October 2015 15: 13 New
            0
            it sounds fantastic. it’s one thing to squander Walter under 12,7, it’s another thing to order a personal reservation, additional, destructive) in a TV article
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 7 October 2015 22: 53 New
              0
              The company works for money. Some prize money command paid pilots.
              It’s better to pay part of it to the firm (and then it’s relatively safe to get even more) than to be handsome young ...
          2. Alf
            Alf 7 October 2015 23: 32 New
            +1
            Quote: Scraptor
            This usually went to increase the wing area

            Do you understand what you said? How is it possible to increase the wing area on a single instance, coming down from the assembly line among many? Try to come to the car factory and say, I want to get such and such a model from you, but on it extend the hood or trunk. I wonder where you will be shown the direction of movement?
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 8 October 2015 02: 45 New
              -1
              Quote: Alf
              I wonder where you will be shown the direction of movement?

              To the cashier ... wassat Have you ever seen a bus-length wedding limousine, or can a president drive an unarmored car without a cigarette lighter?

              Roll back fresh from the conveyor or already ready to the side in the box and are engaged in "pumping cars." Modification to order, including wing! Moreover, there are many of them typical. Usually, everything depends on materials, and especially on the engine, into which not all oil can be filled even from Rockefeller bought through Spain ...
              1. Alf
                Alf 8 October 2015 21: 09 New
                0
                Quote: Scraptor
                To the cashier ... Have you ever seen a wedding limousine the length of a bus, or maybe the president drives an unarmored car without a cigarette lighter?

                Roll back fresh from the conveyor or already ready to the side in the box and are engaged in "pumping cars." Modification to order, including wing! Moreover, there are many of them typical. Usually, everything depends on materials, and especially on the engine, into which not all oil can be filled even from Rockefeller bought through Spain ...

                Give at least one example of such a modification of the German fighter.
                1. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 8 October 2015 22: 21 New
                  -1
                  Read the memoirs of German aces yourself, as well as the recollections of those who from the planes, after being shot down, disgraced (the original infantry soldiers to the Air Force generals).

                  Any technical questions essentially?

                  You can find the Americans, but less since the motivation there was different - to shoot as quickly as possible the contracted number of Germans and leave the war home.
          3. Cap.Morgan
            Cap.Morgan 8 October 2015 02: 12 New
            0
            Incredibly, war is not a game where you can buy options, by the way the wing area is such an indicator .... the more modern the plane, the smaller the area.
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 8 October 2015 02: 41 New
              -1
              To whom the game and the mercenaries and manufacturers glory and grandmother. Germany did not live under communism, although in the USSR tanks and planes were presented to troops by ordinary collective farmers.

              The aircraft, for example, is heavier from armor and weapons, the more it should be to save LTX and the motor is much more powerful. All this costs extra money, the only question is who pays their company for its piece work (deviations from serial samples). The government paid much less often, even in isolated cases ... Memoirs that the Messers and Fokers of the shot-down "painted" aces were equipped "differently" - completely. And they usually had an all-armored cabin.
      2. Alf
        Alf 7 October 2015 23: 26 New
        +1
        Quote: Scraptor
        Yes, many except Zero and Yak-3 ...

        Design features of the Yak-3 • The frame of the fuselage of the Yak-3 - truss structure, welded from steel pipes .... • On the Yak-3 cockpit, instead of a faceted visor with front bulletproof glass, a new one-piece visor with an improved shape was installed. The movable part of the lantern was equipped with special emergency reset mechanisms .;
        • The pilot’s seat had a steel armored back and a bulletproof headrest;
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 8 October 2015 04: 17 New
          0
          Design features in that it was obtained with the same engine from the Yak-1 as a super-lightweight (therefore, the roof area was even reduced), in wartime it was from a Christmas tree and falling apart about 1-2 bullets of 7,92 mm potassium
  7. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 7 October 2015 10: 31 New
    0
    Chet is modest in armament with only 4 machine guns, the donkey had guns. The table would still add zero as one of the opponents.
    1. Alf
      Alf 7 October 2015 23: 35 New
      +1
      Quote: cth; fyn
      Chet is modest in armament with only 4 machine guns, the donkey had guns. The table would still add zero as one of the opponents.

      Cannon I-16 were only 2 series-17th and 24th of 10 serial series.
  8. lilian
    lilian 7 October 2015 10: 53 New
    +1
    The jet F-86 Saber in the Korean War also had no guns. This means that the American designers and military, weighing the pros and cons, consciously came to the conclusion that their use was inappropriate.

    Guns of that time are also not ideal weapons. Among the shortcomings are a large mass, low rate of fire, high recoil, small ammunition.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 7 October 2015 11: 01 New
      -5
      The same is true now for 30mm, so no Western contractor will sit in the MiG-29, preferring the F-15.
    2. Alf
      Alf 7 October 2015 23: 38 New
      0
      Quote: lilian
      The jet F-86 Saber in the Korean War also had no guns. This means that the American designers and military, weighing the pros and cons, consciously came to the conclusion that their use was inappropriate.

      F-86H - ​​fighter-bomber, the last production version of Saber for the US Air Force. 473 aircraft built (1954-1956). On these aircraft, instead of six machine guns, four 20 mm guns were installed.
      Pay attention to the start date of mass production is the 54th year. This modification was armed with guns precisely according to the results of the Korean War.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 8 October 2015 04: 08 New
        0
        Please note that this is not an air superiority fighter or an escort fighter, but an air defense interceptor or fighter-bomber.
        During the war in Korea, they were tested by several pieces and pilots did not like the density of his fire on the small maneuverable MiG.
        Machine-gun Sabers built around 9000.
  9. qwert
    qwert 7 October 2015 11: 19 New
    +4
    Quote: lilian
    Guns of that time are also not ideal weapons. Among the shortcomings are a large mass, low rate of fire, high recoil, small ammunition.

    However, the Germans were not fools. I consider them more programmatic than even the British and they put guns.
    But the main. Guns allow you to increase the distance and cause more damage if hit.
    Therefore, our MiG-15 in Korea successfully felled the B-29, without entering the zone of effective destruction of their defensive weapons. In the event of an attack on the F-86 of the Soviet B-4, the situation would radically change.
    Felling light, maneuverable and having no Zerro armored is better with heavy machine guns, but for the Ju-88 you need guns
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 7 October 2015 11: 29 New
      -4
      However, the Germans repelled bombers (like the British at the beginning of the war).
      F-86 in Korea was not engaged in Tu-4 and MiG-15. Cannon Sabers against Carcasses were in the air defense of Japan and the United States. And they lacked four 20mm and not 37 guns. This MiG cannon is generally larger in tanks. laughing
      "Mustang" is an escort fighter, its task is to escort the bombers and not intercept them.
      12,7 is enough even for the armored back.
    2. Andrey77
      Andrey77 7 October 2015 11: 46 New
      0
      The Germans didn’t set anything. And they had plenty of stupid projects. The experimenters are bad ...
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 7 October 2015 11: 55 New
        -4
        This is “for sure” - the first slats appeared on Messerschmitt-109 (at all, the Americans only had a saber and they didn’t appear at all at subsonic moments).
        Another automatic pitch propeller and injection piston engines with analog computer control (on all aircraft).
        Nitration boosting systems (massively), jet technology is different, and not always experimental besides ... Short take-off systems. Therefore, they broke them first on the eastern front 1 to 3-4, and then on the western 1 to 10.
        1. Alf
          Alf 7 October 2015 23: 48 New
          0
          Quote: Scraptor
          More ACP pitch propellers and injection piston engines

          The British used fuel injection into the cylinders on Spitfire-5.
          1. Scraptor
            Scraptor 8 October 2015 00: 17 New
            0
            Did he have computer / automatic control?
    3. Alf
      Alf 7 October 2015 23: 46 New
      0
      Quote: qwert
      Therefore, our MiG-15s in Korea successfully felled B-29s without entering the zone of effective destruction of their defensive weapons.

      And Messers with 20 mm cannons successfully felled the British Blenheim, Wheatley, Lancaster and Halifax with the Stirlings, also not approaching the distance of effective fire 7,7 mm Browning.
  10. tomket
    tomket 7 October 2015 12: 54 New
    +3
    It should be noted why the P-40 turned out to be so. Firstly, in the wing of the P-40 there are four spars, while the usual practice was the presence of one spar in the fighter. This design gave great strength to the aircraft (the "secret" of Khlobystov’s successful double ram), while the wing was noticeably heavier than that of classmates. The business card, the “beard” of the radiator and the retractable landing gear, are all the same consequence of the four wing spar. Because there was no place for radiators and the normal location of the chassis in the wing. As a result, lower speed due to mediocre aerodynamics. A lower fuselage was introduced at the Kittyhawks. As a result, machine guns migrated to the wing, since they no longer found a place in the fuselage. The reservation was already established on British order aircraft. The huge "circulation" was due to the following reasons. The Curtiss company was the largest aircraft manufacturing company at the start of the war. Because she could ensure the rapid entry into the air force of a large number of aircraft. For example, the previous winner of the tender, Seversky-Ripablik, at first physically failed to provide the necessary number of aircraft. The same aircraft as the P-39 and P-38, like the Mustang, required a long refinement. And they became really combat-ready only in the 42 year. The P-40 turned out to be that very “spoon” which, as you know, is the way to dinner.
  11. rubin6286
    rubin6286 7 October 2015 12: 54 New
    +1
    The basis for the creation of the R-40 fighter was the well-mastered production of the R-36 Hawk-75 aircraft, its equipment, components and assemblies. This greatly facilitated the introduction of the series and promised a high rate of production of new fighters, especially since in 1938 the production of fighter aircraft in the United States was noticeably inferior to the leading European powers. Initially, the new aircraft was supposed to inherit the simplicity, reliability and accessibility of young pilots from the P-36.
    As of 1938, the R-40 aircraft was a single-seat all-metal fighter - a monoplane with a closed cockpit and retractable landing gear with a tail wheel. The aircraft had a monocoque type fuselage and a free-standing low-lying wing, with an aluminum alloy skin. The steering wheel and ailerons were fitted with a canvas. The wing is multi-spar, one-piece. In the central part of the wing were gas tanks. Another tank was in the fuselage behind the cockpit. Gas pumps and highways were concentrated in a long narrow ventral fairing. Gas tanks of the car were not protected, the pilot also did not have any armor protection. When cleaning the landing gear, the front struts rotated 90 "and fit (flat wheels) into niches carved in the wing. The support nodes of the racks were covered with small fairings, while the wheels did not close in the retracted position. The tail wheel retracted back into the fuselage in a niche with wings. the chassis was carried out by a hydraulic system, it also powered the shields .. The mass-produced vehicles were armed with two Colt-Browning M2 synchronous large-caliber machine guns.
    The “American” was heavier than the German Me-109E, inferior to it in engine power, thrust-to-weight ratio and, as a result, in speed, rate of climb, turnaround time. The Messer was better and more efficiently armed. The English Hurricane, of the same period, was somewhat inferior to the American car in engine power, speed and rate of climb. The main Soviet fighter of that period, the I-16 type 18, was inferior to the American aircraft in most TTXs, was difficult to pilot, had an outdated design and poor modernization potential.
    In 1940, the car was modernized and received the P-40B index, and in the British Air Force - “Tomahawk” Mk.IIa.
    The aircraft received a modernized engine with increased power, enhanced armament (an additional 4-6 machine guns in the wing root), a radio station, an oxygen system, a sight, an altered pilot's seat with armor plate under the cockpit and an armored back, bulletproof glass in a visor. The maximum speed reached 587 km / h at an altitude of 3900 meters. The next modification of the Tomahawk R-40C Mk.IIv modification added protected tanks and an outboard fuel tank, automobile-type rear-view mirrors, a sliding window in the cab, and other minor improvements. The aircraft "got heavier", but now it had a significant radius of action, could carry bombs on the external sling and be used as an attack aircraft. In the prewar period, it was a solid modern car.
  12. Yak-3P
    Yak-3P 7 October 2015 16: 32 New
    0
    there are a lot of opinions ... but the R-40 was a dream plane for boys - 90% up to 23 years old --- who flew on the I-16-15 “gull” before and who flew the “donkey” all the same anyway on a broomstick ... left 2 points --- T.E. two machine guns..there are krupnyak .. shooting from 40-100 m from the wings dismantled even yu88 but with he111 sales on the “bench” required the consumption of almost the entire ammunition .. of 400 shells - 390 for the 1st bomb (memoirs 5 GvIAPa)
    1. Insurgent LC
      Insurgent LC 7 October 2015 17: 38 New
      +1
      everybody forgets a very important detail on the r-40 was a good radio station with protection against interference, therefore the connection was what was needed and in the defense of Moscow it played an important role for the experienced team as the communication link plays the main role in defense and attack
  13. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx 7 October 2015 17: 56 New
    0
    [quote = Aspeed] Yeah, it was hard. For Americans over Europe, even the English ace, Johnson, wrote that in order to determine the losses of the Luftwaffe, the reports of the Americans had to be divided by 3.
    Not just Americans. This was the average practice of all participants in air battles in WWII.

    The most effective tactics against the “Zero” was a dive and a quick exit from the battle.
    Drop dead tactics of struggle. And then who killed the “Zero”? Maestro with a yellowfish?
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 7 October 2015 18: 29 New
      +1
      Quote: Fil743
      The most effective tactics against the “Zero” was a dive and a quick exit from the battle.
      Drop dead tactics of struggle. And then who killed the “Zero”? Maestro with a yellowfish?

      This is just a crooked description. And tactics at that time are the only possible. For taking into account the maneuverability of the main fighters of the army and navy of Japan, to get into dogfight with them for American heavy vehicles was suicide.
      So pure boom-zoom: attack from a dive and leaving back to a height.

      The second possible tactics of work "heavy speed versus light maneuverable“the Navy developed by June 1942: working with a pair or two pairs of fighters at intersecting courses in order to be able to“ take off “Zero” from each other. The five inventors of this tactic (John Tech from VF-3 from Yorktown), covering at Midway, she managed to pull back two dozen “zeros” and forge them for a while, losing one of her cars to 3 downed Japanese.
  14. Pasha buttercups
    Pasha buttercups 29 December 2019 17: 27 New
    0
    the author does not get smart.; "Tomahawk" is read tamahawk and not tamohok