Military Review

Unmanned drones

21

Increasing the intensity of the flight of the UAV, the United States faced a shortage of operators



In the next few years, the US Department of Defense intends to significantly increase the number of daily sorties of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) over conflict zones around the world. In this case, for the first time, the Pentagon intends to connect other types of armed forces to the accomplishment of these tasks, in addition to the Air Force.

Ministry of Defense plans mean high-level recognition of the fact that the park is unmanned aviation the air force can no longer satisfy the wide demand of the armed forces for combat air patrols performed by drones, mainly due to a serious shortage of UAV operators.

Many eyes of "Big Brother"

“The demand exceeds the supply in this kind of activity,” declared the official representative of the US Department of Defense, Navy Captain Jeff Davis. “We see a stable signal of demand from all military leaders who are in charge of our geographical command.” According to him, by the year 2019, the intensity of UAV flights will increase by about 50 percent: from the current 60 – 65 to 90 per day. At the same time, the air force unmanned fleet will continue to provide the current level of daily departures for combat patrols in 60. The ground forces are responsible for carrying out 10 – 20 daily sorties, while the US Special Operations Command is responsible for the remaining 10. Additionally, 10 daily departures will provide operators for the contract. The UAVs they control will not carry airborne weapons.

Unmanned dronesThe Pentagon plans to increase the intensity of the use of the growing MQ-1C Gray Eagle fleet of the US Army, which is a modernized version of the Predator air force. Meanwhile, such an important task is put before the NE at the moment when the budget sequestration forces a reduction in the army.

The Navy does not have a substantial fleet of large reconnaissance UAVs. MQ-4C Designed for fleet under the program for monitoring marine areas, it will enter service no earlier than 2017.

In connection with the completion of the US mission in Afghanistan, the Ministry of Defense last year tried to reduce the intensity of daily patrols, which averaged 55 sorties carried out with the help of air force operators. But after the Islamic State militants conquered a significant part of Iraq, the need for drones increased dramatically and the United States began daily to perform the tasks of observing, intelligence and collecting information about Iraq and Syria.

The agreed plans will require more specialists. Consideration should be given to ensuring an appropriate budget, personnel, training and equipment for the armed forces, Davis noted. In particular, a large daily flight intensity implies an increase in the amount of intelligence collected, and this means an increase in the number of experts involved in its analysis.

Meanwhile, the US Air Force is now solving the difficult task of preserving the operators of its unmanned aircraft fleet. The main reasons for layoffs are long working hours due to global demand, attractive alternatives in the private sector and long-standing complaints that the Air Force treats operators as secondary personnel in comparison with pilots of manned aircraft that dominate the leadership of this type of aircraft. As one of the measures designed to preserve personnel, it is proposed to save a bonus in the amount of 135 thousand dollars for redeemed operators MQ-1 “Predator” and MQ-9 “Reaper”.

According to estimates by the Air Force, they need an annual replenishment of the order of 300 drone operators to effectively accomplish the task. However, the existing training opportunities allow only about 180 troops to be trained.

According to a recent report by the US General Audit Office in March this year, the Air Force had an 83 percent of the required number of UAV operators. The report also noted that only 35 percent of UAV operators required to complete all missions were prepared. US drones are used in the fight against militants in Syria and Iraq, in the conflict in Afghanistan, against extremist groups such as Al-Shabab in Somalia, to gather intelligence in the Pacific region.

Management Objects


Unmanned Aviation System (BAS) MQ-1 / RQ-1 "Predator", which is in service with the US Air Force, developed by General Atomiks Aeroonautical Systems (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems). Each such system includes four medium-height UAVs of the MALE type (medium-altitude, long-endurance) “Predator”, a ground control system and the main satellite communication system PPSL (Predator Primary Satellite Link). To deploy the system, it is loaded into a container, which is delivered to the place of deployment on a transport aircraft of the C-130 Hercules dimensions. In the 2009 year, the cost of one Predate BAS was 20 million dollars. The device is controlled by a crew comprising a highly qualified pilot and an operator of payload systems. A team of specialists ensures readiness for departure at the right moment.

Although initially the Predate BAS was developed for reconnaissance missions, it is also capable of performing impact tasks. Therefore, at first, the device was designated RQ-1, where R (reconnaissance) means reconnaissance, and Q - remote-controlled. In the following designation MQ-1, the letter M (multirole) means multi-purpose. It appeared in 2002 after equipping the Predator with AGM-114 Hellfire guided missiles. "Predator" was the first in the world of UAVs used for percussion operations.

BAS MQ-9A "Reaper" is a deeply modernized version of the "Predator" and was originally called "Predator-B". Riper made its first flight in 2001. This BAS is larger in size and equipped with a more powerful engine. It can be used to solve a wide range of tasks and is better suited for performing shock missions. Satellite navigation system provides "Riper" the possibility of round-the-clock operation at long range. It was designed specifically for arming and has seven suspension assemblies, including one under the fuselage, which is not used, and three under each wing console.

High-tech equipment "Riper" includes, among other things, Rayteon's AN / DAS-1 targeting system and the AN / APY-8 Lynx II synthetic aperture radar capable of operating in the mapping mode in the nose fairing. Disassembled "Riper" in a container transported by aircraft type C-130 "Hercules".

Further development of the “Predator” led to the creation of the Gray Needle MQ-1C UAV, which previously had the MQ-12 “Warrior”, “Alpha Warrior” and “Sky Warrior” (Sky Warrior) designation. He made his first flight in October 2004. The UAV is equipped with a diesel engine with a pusher propeller. The maximum flight duration is 36 hours. It can be equipped with intelligence systems or weapons. In July, 2013 th rose to the sky an improved version with improved features IGE (Improved Gray Eagle). This year, the USA will buy Gray Needles 29 and bring the number of systems in service to 152 units by 2022.

Bet on "kids"

Meanwhile, the weekly Flyte reported that the US Air Force is likely to increase investment in small UAVs after the release of a long-awaited document on the new strategic vision at the end of the year. After its publication, the Air Force will release its “Small UAS Flight Plan”. According to calculations, light vehicles will perform many tasks currently assigned to large-sized unmanned systems, requiring much more funds. Such tasks include observation, electronic warfare, communications, and the delivery of tactical attacks in well-protected areas.

The Small UAS Flight Plan (MBAS) will be the first official announcement on the integration of such unmanned platforms into a wider Air Force action strategy. It encourages the leadership of the air force to invest in the development of the innovative, integrated capabilities of the IBAS to meet operational needs historically performed by large platforms. Over the course of several decades, the Air Force is expected to double the number of small-sized UAS in service, including the recently introduced Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman Sand Sand and Fury.

Now the lion's share of investment goes to large-scale platforms such as Riper and RQ-4 Global Hawk, but as noted in the Air Force, budget and labor cuts have led to a change in strategic thinking.

The development of the MBAS Flight Plan, which also covers the micro and nanoplatforms of the 1 group, was announced in September of the 2014 group at the annual conference of the Air Force Association in Washington. It is proposed as an analogue of the UAS Vector published last year, which explores the potential use of small and large unmanned vehicles up to the 2038 year.

Some of the applications for the IBAS that the Air Force considered in the past include cyber attacks, indoor reconnaissance, radio relay communications, electronic reconnaissance, and lethal and non-lethal attacks. This technique has been proposed for autonomous or semi-autonomous flights of large concentrations of vehicles and reducing the burden on the operator in order to act as locking ammunition or sensory systems of land or air basing.

MBAS may be limited in terms of power and payload, but Air Force officials believe that these systems are better suited to perform tasks such as full-frame video exploration than, in particular, Ripera and Predators. Experts believe that the air force shift towards the IBAS can be suspiciously perceived by the ground forces and the ILC, which are the largest supporters of small tactical UAVs and are competing for the same limited resources.

UAV on takeoff


Meanwhile, the analytical company Til Group (Teal Group) predicts that global production of UAVs will triple over the next ten years. According to her, the annual production of UAVs will grow from the current 1,4 billion to 14 billions of dollars, and the total production volume in the course of the decade will be 93 billion. Military UAVs will have 72 percent of all costs, consumer platforms - 23 percent, and civil aviation vehicles - 5 percent. However, the use of UAVs in civil aviation will grow at the fastest rate as the opening of airspace for their flights around the world. The United States will remain the leader in the development and use of UAS.

According to analysts of Til Group, the UAV market looks steadily developing and is stimulated by the emergence of new technologies, such as next-generation unmanned combat systems, as well as new sectors in the market, such as civil aviation UAVs and drones for mass consumption.
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http://vpk-news.ru/articles/26711
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  1. Dilshat
    Dilshat 30 August 2015 01: 02 New
    +5
    If we don’t lag behind on the 5th generation pack then on drones it’s not so simple. The era of UAVs is approaching as in the time of tanks and assault rifles.
    1. Inok10
      Inok10 30 August 2015 01: 28 New
      +5
      Quote: Dilshat
      If we don’t lag behind on the 5th generation pack then on drones it’s not so simple. The era of UAVs is approaching as in the time of tanks and assault rifles.

      .. a very controversial statement .. the ideology, strategy and tactics of the use of UAVs in our country and in the West are diametrically opposed .. as a hint .. from the history of YAK 141 ..
      The flight-navigation complex provides manual, director and automatic control of the aircraft from take-off to landing at any time of the day in various weather conditions at all geographical latitudes.
      .. eloquently ?! .. this is the 80s of the last century .. hi
      1. region58
        region58 30 August 2015 01: 59 New
        +7
        To put it in simple words, they are riveting drones at an accelerated pace, so that they do not have time to train operators. They will have to catch up for a long time ...

        Quote: Inok10
        the ideology, strategy and tactics of using UAVs are diametrically opposite in our country and in the West

        What is our strategy and tactics, let me ask you a little curiosity? And how many shock drones have we built? Just not counting the Chinese quadrocopters with a video camera which, when the weather is clear, is calm.
        Of course, we’ll figure out how to answer ... there is no choice ... but for now, it remains only to envy ...
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 30 August 2015 07: 38 New
          +2
          In my yard in the next yard, a six-motor UAV was made by an engineer just for the sake of interest. Rises on 360 m, load 2 kg. Time - 20 mn. 2 grenades can be hung and bombed ...
        2. Inok10
          Inok10 30 August 2015 11: 32 New
          +10
          Quote: region58
          What is our strategy and tactics, let me ask you a little curiosity? And how many shock drones have we built? Just not counting the Chinese quadrocopters with a video camera which, when the weather is clear, is calm.
          Of course, we’ll figure out how to answer ... there is no choice ... but for now, it remains only to envy ...

          .. and what do you envy? .. here is a standard task: .. at a distance of 90 km. the army’s CP is located from the line of reference of the DB, the task is to destroy the UAV means.
          1. Specify the type of UAV
          2. Used ammunition
          3. Methods and means of overcoming military air defense
          ..and see if there is anything to envy or is it a means to drive the Taliban and the bearded .. hi
          .. meeting of the UAV and MiG on 08.08.08 .. laughing
          1. region58
            region58 30 August 2015 14: 23 New
            +1
            Quote: Inok10
            here is the standard task: .. at a distance of 90 km. the army’s CP is located from the line of reference of the DB, the task is to destroy the UAV means.

            For manned aircraft, the task is also not an easy one. So is she not needed either? I do not think that the tasks of drones completely coincide with the tasks of manned aircraft.
            1. Inok10
              Inok10 30 August 2015 18: 33 New
              +5
              Quote: region58
              For manned aircraft, the task is also not an easy one. So is she not needed either? I do not think that the tasks of drones completely coincide with the tasks of manned aircraft.

              .. aren't you above (the screen is attached) theatrically wringing your hands in despair about the lack of drone UAVs in Russia .. it was worth bringing a simple BZ with real database maintenance and that’s all .. "drain", don’t be upset not the first and not the last .. not in vain above it was written by me UAV ideology, strategy and tactics are different with Western countries .. my problem is solved at least in two ways using UAVs, but not in the shock version, but in the reconnaissance and as a means of target designation ... the same Orlan 10, weighing 10 kg. and dimensions with a fat goose .. yes, yes .. with the same pedal-catapult-ratchet starting method: laughing .. perfectly give target designation in 15-20 minutes. ..
              Option 1: .. Means of destruction, pilot aircraft with the use of air-to-ground weapons without entering beyond the OBD line ..
              Option 2: .. Volley battery MLRS "Smerch" (range 120 km.) For guaranteed destruction of the area target ..
              Option 3: .. application of OTRK "Point U" or "Iskander" ..
              ..in all cases, guaranteed destruction of the KP .. hi .. I have the honor! ..
              1. Inok10
                Inok10 30 August 2015 18: 34 New
                +3
                .. screen, Regards .. hi
              2. region58
                region58 31 August 2015 05: 43 New
                +1
                Quote: Inok10
                in all cases, guaranteed destruction of KP

                Ek, how you bombed theaters all. The beauty!!! An urgent need to be entered into textbooks on tactics and strategy. Three cheers forgot to write at the end.
                There is another option 4: throw a bonbu core without even aiming - it is guaranteed to destroy something.
                Now imagine that you are sitting in that very headquarters. Will you take camouflage / defense measures (including air defense) / electronic warfare and other mutoteni without which you will not live long in a war? And if the headquarters is not for 90km but for 900 then what? Eh ... the winners ...
              3. Aqela
                Aqela 1 September 2015 21: 21 New
                0
                You strongly offended me! crying
                I just wanted to bring such objections, but nothing happened ... crying sad request
                Quote: Inok10
                Quote: region58
                For manned aircraft, the task is also not an easy one. So is she not needed either? I do not think that the tasks of drones completely coincide with the tasks of manned aircraft.

                .. aren't you above (the screen is attached) theatrically wringing your hands in despair about the lack of drone UAVs in Russia .. it was worth bringing a simple BZ with real database maintenance and that’s all .. "drain", don’t be upset not the first and not the last .. not in vain above it was written by me UAV ideology, strategy and tactics are different with Western countries .. my problem is solved at least in two ways using UAVs, but not in the shock version, but in the reconnaissance and as a means of target designation ... the same Orlan 10, weighing 10 kg. and dimensions with a fat goose .. yes, yes .. with the same pedal-catapult-ratchet starting method: laughing .. perfectly give target designation in 15-20 minutes. ..
                Option 1: .. Means of destruction, pilot aircraft with the use of air-to-ground weapons without entering beyond the OBD line ..

                crying crying crying
          2. Aqela
            Aqela 1 September 2015 21: 17 New
            0
            Good movie! yes good drinks
            I think that there is another side to the issue: for each type of UAV its own method of exposure is suitable. Say, no one is surprised that they do not go to hunt wild boar with duck shot? From this it is obvious that modern air defense capable of intercepting cruise missiles is suitable for shock devices, the same Tunguska may well fry some tail.
            Another thing is any intelligence small fry. However, a banal anti-aircraft machine gun or, as an option, a buckshot charge, a shrapnel projectile on a “smart cloud” (I don’t think that a “smart cloud” will have armored pants and they can deploy 100 mm caliber electronic artillery) can be useful here. with remote detonation from a mechanical fuse - anti-aircraft guns of the Second World War with a caliber of 37-128 mm, as an example!).
            For medium vehicles, with medium ranges of combat interaction, as an option, EW methods can be useful, ranging from intercepting a controlled signal to exposure to a laser or a directed beam of electromagnetic radiation that burns computer brains ... am
            It is quite possible for yourself to squeeze a machine gun from a light-engine aircraft or "caress" all the sickly power of an attack helicopter. fellow
            The question here is only in detecting and aiming at the target. I think that this is all - solvable, although not simple. what
      2. afdjhbn67
        afdjhbn67 30 August 2015 05: 52 New
        +1
        It may be more accurate to say that - the ideology and tactics of our application are absent, somewhere in the region of the 80s of the last century
        1. Aqela
          Aqela 1 September 2015 21: 27 New
          0
          Such a comparison is also not an option. To this day, there are many developments of the 80s that have no analogues in NATO countries. In addition, the same states quite successfully put on the latest technology Browning machine gun Browning M2HB caliber 12,7 mm. And - do not cough. An ancient piece of iron works.
          A 12.7mm (0.5in) machine gun was developed in the United States by John M. Browning at the end of World War I. This machine gun was generally a slightly enlarged copy of the M1917 machine gun of the same Browning design, and had water cooling of the barrel. In 1923, he entered the armament of the US Army and Navy under the designation "M1921", mainly as an anti-aircraft weapon. In 1932, the machine gun underwent the first modernization, which consisted in the development of a universal design of mechanisms and a receiver that allowed the use of a machine gun both in aviation and in ground installations, with water or air cooling and the ability to change the direction of tape feed. This variant received the designation M2, and began to enter service with the U.S. Army and Navy both in the air-cooled version (as infantry support weapons) and in the water version (as anti-aircraft weapons). To ensure the necessary intensity of fire in the air-cooled version, a heavier barrel was developed, and the machine gun received its current designation Browning M2HB (Heavy Barrel). In addition to the United States, in the pre-war period, Browning's heavy machine guns were also licensed in Belgium by FN. During the Second World War, almost 2 million M2 machine guns of 12.7 mm caliber were produced in the United States, of which about 400 were in the M000HB infantry version, which was used both by infantry machines and various armored vehicles.

          http://world.guns.ru/machine/usa/browning-m2hb-r.html
          Something like this! hi
  2. afdjhbn67
    afdjhbn67 30 August 2015 05: 49 New
    +3
    Oh, we would have their problems .. Hurray or something to shout ...
  3. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 30 August 2015 10: 12 New
    0
    Now a lot of effort and money is being spent on the development of Russian UAVs. Catch up. And we will train operators how much is needed. Without cheers, calmly and measuredly, without tantrums and throwing hats.
  4. Leader
    Leader 30 August 2015 11: 06 New
    +1
    Quote: Mountain Shooter
    Catch up.

    Nobody will wait for us. So, do not catch up ...
    Yes, and why catch up? Who will work?
    At us Protons PTU-shniki are assembled and sensors are placed upside down, and current managers can only saw them.
    1. Aleksey_K
      Aleksey_K 30 August 2015 15: 46 New
      +5
      Quote: Leader
      We have Protons PTU-shniki collect and put sensors upside down

      In modern Russia there are no vocational schools. The vocational school education system has long been destroyed. And the sensors are upside down by pests sold to Americans. For each action in the assembly of military products, a technological process is written and there is design documentation. This means that it is harmful because of the lack of proper control. From my life. Once, one rocket (ballistic) did not take off and fell. Found a reason. In the unit where I worked, one "friend" violated the manufacturing process. Controllers - missed. And this comrade, immediately quit after creating this defect - long before the rocket test. That’s the enemy, because For decades, people here have not quit because of a very high salary (the average is 2 times higher than the average in the USSR).
  5. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 30 August 2015 12: 43 New
    +2
    The IDF has the same problem. UAVs so much that
    There are not enough operators.
    1. IAlex
      IAlex 30 August 2015 13: 23 New
      -1
      Strange, the drones developed by the Jews were not as cunning as the Jews themselves and they also need operators ???
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 30 August 2015 14: 21 New
        +6
        Quote: IAlex
        Strange, the drones developed by the Jews were not as cunning as the Jews themselves and they also need operators ???

        With all due respect, but I don’t share your sarcasm ... negative Of course, the Israelis (Jews for those who are so familiar) can be treated differently. But it was precisely on Israeli UAVs for a long time that developers in other countries were guided. In 2001-2011, Israel controlled 40% of the global UAV market. It may be recalled that in 2009, a contract was signed for the supply of Israeli UAVs Searcher MkII (pictured) to the Russian Armed Forces.

        Since 2012, the Ural Civil Aviation Plant (UZGA) has launched the production of a licensed copy of “Searcher 2” - “Outpost”.
        1. cosmos111
          cosmos111 30 August 2015 15: 21 New
          +3
          in 1996 year FSUE LII IM. M.M. Gromov OKB Pegasus, OKB, the development of a lightweight Teal air-cushion amphibious aircraft began ...
          not a UAV, but a manned aircraft ...

          Rostec presents at MAKS-2015 the latest, most unique, unmatched, reconnaissance-strike unmanned vehicle Teal
          1. Aleksey_K
            Aleksey_K 30 August 2015 15: 54 New
            +2
            Quote: cosmos111
            Rostec presents at MAKS-2015 the latest, most unique, unmatched, reconnaissance-strike unmanned vehicle Teal

            I’ll add from myself that this Teal UAV can also be piloted by a person sitting in the cockpit, which is a huge advantage, because and Teal and the operator can fly together to the point of combat use, i.e. No additional vehicles required for the operator.
          2. Bayonet
            Bayonet 30 August 2015 16: 02 New
            +1
            Quote: cosmos111
            Teal shock drone

            Teal hovercraft.
      2. afdjhbn67
        afdjhbn67 30 August 2015 16: 28 New
        +1
        In vain you are a fellow UAV with artificial intelligence made in Israel would help you get a loan and a mortgage .. for example laughing
  6. Lt. Air Force stock
    Lt. Air Force stock 30 August 2015 20: 56 New
    0
    Drones are needed primarily for detecting enemy positions, in the current situation there is no problem remotely hitting the enemy, there are Iskander, X-101, Caliber, MLRS with a range of 70+ kilometers. The main thing is to determine where to shoot.
  7. Bayonet
    Bayonet 30 August 2015 21: 57 New
    +2
    The United Instrument-Making Corporation, a member of Rostec, presented at the International Aviation and Space Salon MAKS-2015 a full-size prototype of the Teal UAV. The optionally manned aircraft can be controlled in two modes: by a pilot and remotely by an operator from a ground control station. The wing span of the aircraft is 10 meters, the maximum take-off weight is 750 kg. "Teal" is able to take on board up to 300 kg of payload, climb to a height of up to six thousand meters and cover a distance of up to 2500 kilometers. The main feature of “Teal” is the landing gear’s unusual design for the aircraft and the power plant, which is able at the start to raise the air cushion above the ground, and then switch to another mode and provide climb. The aircraft does not need a runway, it can fly into the air in almost any area, overcoming swamps, pits, humps, sands, etc. The air cushion is made of a two-dimensional tensile composite material of our own design, which withstands numerous punctures, cuts and crossholes, while maintaining its quality. During the flight, due to the original design solution, the membrane fits tightly on the bottom of the fuselage, providing high aerodynamic quality of the device.
    “The prototype can be controlled not only in unmanned, but also in manned mode,” said Alexander Yakunin. - The presence of the pilot at the test stage allows insuring the aircraft, in which new technologies for the construction and control of UAVs of this type are tested for the first time. Currently, as part of the flight test program, all UAV systems are being checked. ” As conceived by the creators, “Teal” will be able to take on board various target loads. Among the military tasks that he will be able to solve are long-range or short-range reconnaissance, electronic warfare, electronic reconnaissance, saturation of anti-aircraft defense zones with false targets, target designation of laser-guided weapons systems, and destruction of ground targets.
    Detection of the Teal UAV by radar systems is difficult, as the hull is made of lightweight composite materials. Silent flight is provided by quiet piston engines with variable pitch propellers. Flight control and data transmission are carried out through bi-directional information exchange with a ground control station via a secure radio channel.
    Unfortunately, nothing is said about the engines, but most likely imported - we are tight with this.