Military Review

Ka-18 multipurpose helicopter

The Ka-18 (according to the NATO Hog codification, “hog”) is a multi-purpose Soviet helicopter created by the Kamov Design Bureau under the supervision of the chief designer Nikolai Ilyich Kamov. The direct layout of the helicopter was done by M. B. Malinovsky. The helicopter was a further modification of the Ka-15 helicopter, which was distinguished by the presence of an extended and elongated fuselage. The helicopter capacity was: one pilot and passenger 2-3. The car was actively operated by Aeroflot from 1959 to 1974 year as a post-passenger, agricultural, sanitary. At the World Exhibition in Brussels in 1958, this helicopter was awarded a gold medal. In the press, the Ka-18 helicopter was called nothing more than a “flying car”.

The Ka-18 was designed for civilian operators. The list of works performed by this helicopter included the transportation of mail and cargo, passengers and patients. Together with the Ka-15 helicopter it was also used for aerial chemical works. An experimental prototype of the Ka-18 was built in the 1956 year. In 1957, the car successfully passed the state tests. The Ka-18 helicopter was mass-produced and was in operation for more than 15 years. A total of X-NUMX Ka-111 helicopters were assembled at the Ulan-Ude helicopter plant, and the total number of helicopters produced of all modifications was approximately 18 units.

For the first time, the Ka-18 multi-purpose helicopter, which is, in fact, a four-seat version of the Ka-15 helicopter, flew into the sky on October 13 1956. Compared with the base model, the tail boom and fuselage were extended in the new rotorcraft, as well as the number of tail washers was increased and the cabin was expanded. In addition to the pilot, in the cabin of the Ka-18 helicopter were equipped seats for 3-x passengers. It was also possible to transport one sick or wounded person on a stretcher with accompanying medical staff.

The use of the Ka-18 helicopter was envisaged in the following basic versions:
- passenger and cargo version of the helicopter (designed to transport people and goods, as well as mail and baggage inside the fuselage. This version was equipped with a heating system);
- patrol version of the helicopter (designed to patrol territories by law enforcement agencies);
- sanitary version of the helicopter (designed to transport sick and injured people. The structure of such a helicopter included an oxygen plant and a heating system).

In the sanitary version of the Ka-18 helicopter, a set of special (removable) equipment included: an oxygen installation, a stretcher, a trough, a thermos, and tie-down straps. For non-removable sanitary equipment could include a table of a medical worker and a helicopter first aid kit. In this case, the passenger version of the helicopter could easily be converted into a sanitary version by dismantling the front passenger seat and installing removable sanitary equipment instead.

In the USSR, for the Ka-1958 and Ka-1963 helicopters, special fiberglass propeller blades B-18 were made in the USSR (initially, the first models of the Ka-15 used wood blades). According to the developers, for their production had to use a new at the time of the baking system in autoclaves under the influence of the press. This type of production made it possible to get completely identical in size and weight parts, which was a significant step forward in the domestic helicopter industry. New fiberglass blades were strong, resistant to weather fluctuations, and also differed in speed of production. The use of fiberglass blades increased their resource and ensured the helicopter improved aerodynamic qualities of the rotors.

For flights in cold weather, especially in winter, the Ka-18 helicopter provided for a special heating system, the main elements of which were an electric heater, as well as pipelines for supplying heated air to the lower part of the passengers and pilot helicopter seats. Also, Soviet designers managed to significantly expand the geography of operation of the machine due to the introduction of an anti-icing alcohol system into the design of the helicopter. The purpose of the anti-icing system was to provide flight during icing of some elements of the structure. The essence of this system was to implement the principle of washing the cockpit glass, screw blades with a special anti-icing fluid that destroyed the ice and interfered with its further formation.

From the design point of view, the Ka-15 and Ka-18 helicopters were manufactured in a twin-screw coaxial design with a single piston engine and a four-bearing chassis. The truss fuselage had an aluminum alloy shell. In the fuselage of the helicopter there was a double crew cabin with adjacent pilot seats (on the left side) and an operator (on the right side), the cabin was distinguished by the presence of two sliding doors and a large glazing area. At the same time, the dimensions of the cabin were increased, which made it possible to place two more chairs intended for passengers or a patient on a stretcher. In front of the cabin there was a fairing to accommodate the necessary equipment.

The tail of the helicopter of a semi-monocoque design was made of aluminum alloy. A rectangular stabilizer with trapezoidal keel washers and rudders is attached to the beam from above. The Ka-18 chassis was four-axle, non-retractable. In this case, the front supports were equipped with self-orienting wheels, and there was a safety support on the tail boom. On the ship versions of the Ka-18, it was possible to use a float-type chassis.

The power plant of the helicopter consisted of an AI-14B engine, on top of which was a reduction gearbox and a distribution gearbox with a drive column of coaxial rotors, and the 2 fuel tank at the bottom. At the end of 1960, Ka-18 multi-purpose helicopters began to be equipped with forced engines, which received an AI-14WF index, and developed an 200 kW power. The control system of the helicopter was usual with cable wiring, the track control is provided by the deviation of the rudders and the differential pitch of rotors.

At the beginning of the 1970-s, the Ka-18 helicopters began to be actively replaced with a more advanced Ka-26 model, despite this many machines remained in operation until the middle of the 1970-s, and some longer. To this day, at least two copies of this helicopter have been preserved. One of the Ka-18 helicopters with the tail number USSR-68627 is on display at the aviation museum in Monino. The second helicopter with a tail number USSR-64659 is a training tool at the Irkutsk National Research Technical University (IRNITU).

Flight performance Ka-18:
Overall dimensions: length - 10 m, height - 3,4 m, diameter of the main screw - 10 m.
The maximum take-off weight of the helicopter is 1502 kg.
The power plant - 1 PD AI-14VF, power 200 kW.
The maximum flight speed is 160 km / h.
Cruising flight speed - 130 km / h.
Practical range - 450 km.
Practical ceiling - 3500 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Passenger payload - 2-3.

Information sources:

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. svp67
    svp67 19 August 2015 06: 01
    This is how the Kamovites went to the KA-29, Ka-50 and Ka-52
  2. qwert
    qwert 19 August 2015 07: 07
    Last time, Ka-15 and Ka-18 were criticized in such a way .... that it became a pity for Kamov.
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 19 August 2015 07: 54
      Nikolai Yakubovich wrote very well and interestingly about the creation and development of the Ka-15 helicopter, which was originally designed as an anti-submarine, in his book "Military Helicopters of the USSR and Russia". M. "Yauza", "EKSMO". 2013. The reasons for the rather frequent accidents and disasters that occurred with the Ka-15 helicopters and, accordingly, with its further development - a purely civilian version of the Ka-18, which proved to be quite good in the Civil Air Fleet, despite a number of tragic cases with with this helicopter. Without these helicopters, no matter how you treat them, there would be no Ka-27/32, Ka-50/52.
      I have the honor.
      1. gjv
        gjv 19 August 2015 11: 20
        Quote: Aleksandr72
        Ka-18, which is well established in the Civil Air Fleet

        1809-16 USSR-64659 Ka-18 The operator was the Ukrainian territorial directorate of the Civil Air Fleet (from September 15, 1964, the Ukrainian Civil Aviation Administration). Received August 15, 1961. Registered as USSR-64659. March 22, 1965 transferred to the Irkutsk Polytechnic Institute (now ISTU), as a textbook, where it is currently located.
        1. Bayonet
          Bayonet 19 August 2015 17: 16
          Quote: gjv
          transferred to the Irkutsk Polytechnic Institute (now ISTU) as a teaching aid,

          The look of this "tutorial" is, frankly, depressing crying
          1. 52
            52 19 August 2015 17: 56
            Duc study guide. The teacher breaks, the cadets do! Remember tanks and armored personnel carriers in training! (A mean tear has fallen) crying
            1. Bayonet
              Bayonet 20 August 2015 06: 20
              Quote: 52gim
              Remember tanks and armored personnel carriers in training!

              This is not training, but a higher educational institution! In addition, one of the two remaining technical rarities! “Having - we do not value, but having lost - weep”
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. gjv
      gjv 19 August 2015 11: 28
      Quote: qwert
      Ka-18 was criticized so .... that even for Kamov it became a shame

      Ka-18 USSR-06137 owned by Kamov Design Bureau (OKB-4) during demonstration advertising flights on Shabolovka.
  3. Bayonet
    Bayonet 19 August 2015 09: 58
    An excellent book about the outstanding aircraft designer, Hero of Socialist Labor, State Prize laureate Nikolai Ilyich Kamov. I recommend to read!
  4. 52
    52 19 August 2015 17: 52
    In general, not the worst car. Created from what was, what is already there. A good step towards excellent helicopters.
  5. proletarian
    proletarian 19 August 2015 22: 15
    This is our story and you need to know it !!!