Military Review

"Weaving", which became the "Foot"

63


V.M., Head of the Design Department and First Deputy Director of the Plant for Experimental Designs of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (ZOK TsAGI) Petlyakov could not complain about the fate until the second half of the year 1937. He was one of the closest associates of A.N. Tupolev. Having developed the wing of the famous TB-3 and who led the development of the newest long-range high-altitude bomber TB-7, Petlyakov enjoyed friendly support from the leadership of TsAGI and the People's Commissariat. In the middle of 1937, he participated in the work of the Soviet delegation in the United States and France, which ended with the purchase of licenses for several foreign aircraft, including the famous DS-3. However, by the winter of 1937, the situation changed dramatically.

At the end of the year, the AN design bureau, the largest in our country, actually ceased to exist. Tupolev. Shortly before, from his design bureau to other, separate, part of the designers were engaged at that time, refining and improving such combat vehicles as SB (design bureau AA Arkhangelsky) and ANT-51 or BB-1 (design bureau P.O. Dry). Soon many of the remaining design bureau, including A.N. Tupolev, arrested along with his closest assistants - V.M. Petlyakov and V.M. Myasishchev suffered from "Yezhovshchina" workers and other design and research organizations. After some time, although many of the arrested designers and scientists were not released, they nevertheless organized special design bureaus from the NKVD.

In the autumn of 1938, the NKVD system formed CCT-29 under one roof, or, as it was also called, OTB (Special Technical Bureau). Its organizational structure includes three design bureaus: KB-100 under the direction of V.M. Petlyakov, KB-102, headed by V.M. Myasishchev, and KB-103, led by A.N. Tupolev. Somewhat later, KB-110, headed by DL, was added to them. Tomashevich. Formally, the leadership of all carried out by the NKVD.

All of these design teams were developing new models of combat aircraft, which subsequently received the designation of designation numbers. The first to receive the assignment was the creation of a new aircraft and, basically, completed personnel replenishment - KB-100. Its core, along with V.M. Petlyakov was made up of people who had already worked in aviation many years and had extensive experience: A M. Isakson (deputy Petlyakova), V.M. Myasishchev (first the head of the wing brigade at Petlyakov, then headed KB-102), E.P. Shekunov, K.G. Nurov, I.K. Protsenko, S.M. Leshchenko, P.L. Otgen, Yu.T. Shatalov, N.I. Pogossky (later returning to Tupolev), K.V. Rogov, S.M. Meyerson, N.I. Polonsky.

They laid the main responsibility for the implementation of a new, one of the priority tasks - the development of a high-altitude fighter-interceptor. This aircraft was supposed to destroy enemy air vehicles for any purpose at altitudes 10-12 km. Quite a lot of others, in particular, A.I. Mikoyan and M.I. Gurevich (fighter I-200, the design of which began even NN Polikarpov), P.O. Sukhoi (I-330 or Su-1) and A.S. Yakovlev (I-28). Yes, and prototypes of the later known Yak-1 and LaGG-3, called the I-26 and I-301, respectively, according to the initial plans were worked out in high-altitude versions.

The interest of the military to such machines was determined by the experience of the air battles in the sky of Spain and China. The leadership of the Air Force, after examining the fighting and making calculations taking into account the prospects for the development of aircraft, concluded that a possible increase in the speeds and heights of the action of bombers seeking to attack rear facilities would make it extremely difficult to intercept them. Soviet fighters did not have time to intercept enemy aircraft, even if they had timely information from the air surveillance service.

On this occasion, the brigade commander P.P. Ionov, in his well-known book Fighter Aviation, wrote: “The greater the flight altitude of enemy aircraft, the further from the front line it can be intercepted by fighters. We know that the heights of possible flights of bomber aircraft are increasing from year to year. We also know that the increase in the speed of transmission of information about the flight of enemy aircraft and the speed of departure of our fighters is lagging as compared to the increase in the speed of flight of bombers, and as a result, the width of the tactical suddenness band. The flight heights of modern combat aircraft reach 9000-11000 m for single-engine and twin-engine machines and up to 8000 m for multi-engine ones. The combat height of military aircraft can soon be increased and will reach the stratosphere (more than 11000 m). It should also be noted that the higher the flight of enemy bombers, the greater their distance from the front is their interception by the fighters of defense with the ever deeper airfield basing of the fighters themselves. ”

Creating a high-altitude fighter aircraft was an extremely difficult technical challenge in 1939. One of the main problems in it was the problem of ensuring the required power of the power plant at high design heights. The most effective (though not the only) tool was a turbocharger (TC), driven by the energy of the exhaust gases of the engine itself.

In 1939, the first operational TCs were already created in our country, so the designers of high-altitude aircraft had a certain arsenal of tools at their disposal. The prototype Petlyakov “100” aircraft, designed in the 1939 year, became the first domestic high-altitude combat vehicle. At that time, when it was developed, it was believed that a high-altitude fighter, which is designed to intercept and destroy the enemy's bomber, and, first of all, at a great distance from the objects of their attack, it is advisable to do multi-seat. After all, the pilot of a single-seater during an air battle with bombers at high altitudes is difficult to simultaneously control the machine, fire, monitor the air situation and maintain radio communication. It was also required not only high speed, but also an increased radius of action. Tactical and technical requirements provided for 100 at an altitude of 10000 meters to have a maximum speed of 630 km / h, a practical ceiling of 12500 m and a range of flight of 1400 km with normal take-off weight, and up to 2500 km in the overload variant.

Tactical and technical requirements for range and combat load set the number of engines, weight and size of the machine (wing area 41 sq. M, take-off weight 7200 kg, reloading 8000 kg). The required height was achieved by the presence of a pair of turbochargers TK-2 installed on each engine M-105.

The designers paid close attention to achieving a high aerodynamic and weight perfection of the machine. The wing of the fighter was recruited from the speed profiles of TsAGI type “B” (at the root) and “B”. These profiles at small angles of attack had a large critical number M compared with others. Already in those years one had to reckon with this, especially when developing high-altitude machines, since the speed of sound, say, by 11 km, is 13% less than that of the ground.

"Weaving", which became the "Foot"


For 100, such profile properties were important not so much for horizontal flight, as for diving at maximum altitudes, when the aircraft could reach significant speeds. In addition, these profiles had a small aerodynamic moment, which gave a significant reduction in torque on the planes of the wing. The weight of the structure decreased, high speeds were achieved - horizontal and diving with excellent stability on these flight modes.

But the selected profiles had a significant drawback - small bearing capacity. This worsened the maneuverability and also the landing characteristics of the aircraft. True, for 100, these qualities were not considered paramount.

Much attention has been paid to other elements of the 100 layout. Water radiators to reduce resistance "drowned" in the wing, and the oil radiators were placed in streamlined tunnels under the engine nacelles. No structural elements disturbed the smoothness of the forms. In short, the layout designers implemented at a very high level of aerodynamics. Later this was especially noted by military experts.

Petlyakovskaya "weaving" was the first domestic combat aircraft, equipped with pressurized cabins, which were part of the power structure of the fuselage. At altitudes up to 10 km, they maintained a pressure equal to that of 3,7 km. This significantly increased the performance of the crew when performing long flights at high altitudes.

The cabs had a fairly good view. In the front there was a pilot, in the rear - a navigator-scorer with a gunner-radio operator. In the nose of the aircraft was a gun-gun battery. It consisted of a pair of ShKAS machine guns and two ShVAK rapid-fire cannons.

The fighter provided for a remote-controlled installation with a ShKAS machine gun to protect the rear hemisphere. In the area of ​​the center-section in the fuselage, a bomb bay was arranged to accommodate two cassettes capable of holding 48 artillery shells of mm 76 caliber or up to 96 aerial bombs of 2,5 caliber kg. This armament was supposed to be used on enemy aircraft (including diving), for example, on the structure of bombers for their defeat and disruption of battle formation. This combat technique was considered in those times a promising means of dealing with enemy aircraft. In Italy, even conducted tests on the use of fighter artillery shells, grenades, fragmentation bombs on the structure of "bombers".

Many innovations have been used by designers in the control systems of various systems and aggregates of the “weave”. For the first time in the Soviet practice of aircraft building, electromechanisms were widely used to drive units. The main thing here was that the electrical wiring to the mechanisms instead of a large number of rods allowed to ensure the tightness of the cabs with the help of special leads. The control of radiator dampers, discharge speeds, switching of TBCs, shields and trimmers was carried out by electromechanisms.



The design of the all-metal twin-engine fighter "100" was a great step forward. At the stage of the mockup commission, military representatives noted that a thorough study of the fundamental tasks of the tactical and technical requirements for it had been carried out. But over time, their attitude towards the destination of the aircraft began to change gradually. Now the customer has shown more and more interest in the possibility of using the "weave" as a diving bomber. The machine, with an 9200 take-off weight, could carry up to a ton of bombs on an external sling and destroy ground targets with a high accuracy with a dive. Initially, the new assignment was considered by the military as an additional, and then as equal with the previously conceived.

As a result, the appointment of a twin-engine aircraft "100", despite the objections of the designers, was determined both as a high-altitude fighter and a diving bomber. In short, the "weaving" became multipurpose. What caused this? Of course, at that time final ideas about the character of the approaching war and the role of high-altitude fighters and dive-bombers in it were not yet formed. After all, Germany - a potential adversary - did not possess large compounds of such machines. They were not in the seizure of Poland, France, during the "Battle of England" in 1940.

In addition, the Soviet delegation got acquainted with military aircraft and German industry in 1939. She noted that the development of high-altitude engines with TK is the Germans only in the experimental stages. Consequently, there was no special need for a special high-altitude fighter. That is why such machines as the I-26 and I-301 were not created either. But there was an acute need for a new type of combat vehicle - a high-speed dive bomber. The same experience of the war argued that dive bomb attacks greatly simplify the defeat of small targets.

The design of the aircraft "100" went at a rapid pace. In May 1939, its layout was approved by a commission of military specialists headed by A.I. Filin, and at the end of 1939, the first prototype was taken to the airfield.



Flight tests "weave" in the role of a fighter began 22 December 1939 year. Factory tests completed 10 on April 1940. The 23 flight was performed on them. There were troubles. Once, landing skis were not released, and the plane had to be put on the belly, then repaired.

During the tests, the aircraft was refined and refined. In particular, to improve stability, the area of ​​each keel (without elevators) was increased from 0,77 square. m to 1,0 square. m, after refining the surface, the speed increased by 14 km / h.

Immediately after the factory tests, the state began (from April 11 to May 10 of the year 1940). Unfortunately, due to the unreliable operation of the engines at altitudes above 5 km, it was not possible to remove full flight characteristics in flights up to the ceiling (at altitudes of the order of 7-8 km single flights were performed), the engines in them did not work at maximum mode. Turbochargers proved to be quite reliable at all heights and did not cause any complaints.

As for hermetic cabs, testers noted: even without complete sealing, they maintain the temperature inside about + 8 ° С at an altitude of 8 km, where the ambient air temperature is -37 ° С, protects well from the noise of motors and screws, and this facilitates long-term stay at high altitudes.

With complete sealing in the cabins it was even hot (the temperature reached + 30 ° С) and some of the glazing of the lamp was misting. Curious impression test pilot PM. Stefanovsky, recorded in the report on state tests: "Due to the presence of sealants, the flight mode is not felt and with reduced attention it is possible to lose speed." Further in the conclusions it was noted that this reason, along with others, "complicates the piloting of the aircraft and makes it available to the pilot above the average qualification".

Now, when the thermocabines have become firmly established in aviation and have long been put even on training jet planes, such a cautious approach to their use may seem like a reinsurance. But it should be remembered that in those years, mostly, the crews flew in open cockpits.

Although the aircraft "100" showed the speed (where it was possible to determine) on 10-12 km / h below the calculated one, it completely satisfied the military with this quality. In general, despite the need to carry out a large number of improvements (mainly in terms of improving cooling systems, chassis damping, some piloting and performance characteristics), the Institute gave high marks to the car. For example, in the decision of the Technical Council of the Main Aviation Supply Administration (GUAS), chaired by A.I. Owl 25 May 1940.



In the spring of 1940, the 100, an understudy of the 1000 aircraft, which was slightly different from the first car, came to the test. It provided, in addition to the external suspension 600 kg of bombs, also the internal - on XNUMX kg.

In the second flight on the backup - an accident due to a fire on board. Tests did not take place.

By the decision of the said technical council, the design bureau Petlyakov proposed to alter the "weave" into a variant of the mass diving bomber with a maximum speed of 540 km / h at 5000 meters most demanded for the Air Force. On the option of mixed use is no longer talked, although at first it was planned to make a military series in 1940 copies. In June, the 15 of the Year issued a decree of the Defense Committee on the introduction of the aircraft into the series at two plants No. XXUMX and No. XXUMX (Moscow) in a variant of a diving bomber and an escort fighter. Thus, the fighter qualities of "1940" still tried to use.

So ended история 100 high-altitude aircraft. It cannot be said that the decision on its alteration in a modification of a diving bomber was greeted with enthusiasm in the Petlyakov Design Bureau. After all, the fact of launching the car into the series (if it had taken place) meant for many designers the end of their conclusion, which could now last. They could not fail to see that in such a short time allotted for the alteration of the machine, it would be very difficult to eliminate a number of aircraft deficiencies that were not so important for the fighter, but would noticeably worsen the combat and piloting qualities of the bomber. So it turned out later.

In December, the 1940 of the year came to the test a bomber version of the machine. It was he who received the name Pe-2. At the beginning of 1941, state tests passed the head serial. Mass production was also established in two factories.

Pe-2 had a number of differences from the prototype «100», dictated by other purposes. There were no hermocabines on it, the navigator was placed in the same cabin with the pilot. This provided a good overview (the requirement for the navigator of the bombers of those years is one of the most important). Strengthened defensive weapons. Under the wing mounted brake grilles. Turbochargers removed.



The serial production of Pe-2 bomber was rapidly gaining momentum, but by the beginning of the war, these aircraft had released a little. In the first half of the year 1941 - 458 machines. In their combat parts received much less. However, the Pe-2 marked a qualitatively new stage in the development of the Soviet bomber aircraft. He replaced the Security Council, which surprised at one time with great speed. I must say that the Security Council of the last modification was adapted for dive bombing. The main difference between these aircraft was that the Pe-2 created at a higher level of aerodynamics had a much higher speed. This fully reflected the general trend in the development of combat aviation on the eve of the Second World War. Pe-2 (without external bomb suspension) was not much different in speed from the main German fighter Me-109E at that time and significantly surpassed the main German dive bomber Ju-88-1, as well as D-215 and many front-line bombers from other countries.

This property allowed to use it, if necessary, as a fighter to fight bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. In addition, in the 1941, a double fighter version was created, which was designated Pe-3, and was also mass-produced.

However, in cases where the Pe-2 was used for dive-bombing or for massive bomb strikes, an external bomb suspension was used. This greatly reduced the speed of the bomber. To perform these combat missions, Pe-2 formations needed fighter cover.

Comparing the Pe-2 with the most common German dive bomber Ju-88-1, we can conclude that the former had a significantly higher speed, even with an external bomb suspension. On defensive armament, the Pe-2 of the first series and Ju-88А turned out to be close, but they strengthened the pawn with the 13 rifle armament: instead of the fixed ShKAS, a Berezin heavy machine gun (12,7 mm) was installed in the nose. The same machine gun instead ShKAS armed shooter. However, in terms of parameters such as the maximum bomb load and flight range, the Pe-2 was inferior to the Ju-88-1.



The difficult situation in the domestic aircraft in the pre-war period required the full speed up of work on new machines. Under these conditions, it was sometimes necessary to put up with one or other shortcomings of the new technology, if only it were more likely to adjust its mass production. So it was with Pe-2 because of the extremely limited time allotted for its creation and development in the series. The largest flaws were the selection of wing profiles that was unsuccessful for a bomber due to its low bearing properties. This greatly complicated the piloting and landing. To alter the wing under a different profile, more suitable for a bomber, there was no time. This negative quality automatically led to a takeoff weight limitation (8500-8700 kg instead of the planned 9200 kg).

The second major drawback of the aircraft was too much roll reaction when a slip occurred. It was not always possible to fend off the emerging aileron roll. It happened that with a sharp deceleration of one of the motors or its sudden failure, the car reacted so violently with a roll that sometimes it even turned out to be on its back before the pilot managed to take emergency measures. Such properties, especially dangerous on takeoff, sometimes led to disasters. During the operation of the Pe-2 drill pilots had to teach special piloting techniques.

The experience of the war proved that, despite all the flaws, the Pe-2 was very highly effective weapons. In addition, until its middle, it was our only serial type of the new front-line dive bomber.

Dive bombing as one of the most effective methods of destroying small targets was used then by many belligerent countries. In the USSR, for example, in 1943, this type of bombing was 39%, in 1945, 49%. Here the Pe-2 was very good. High dive stability in combination with high flight speed, excellent maneuverability for the bomber, visibility from the cockpit and navigator allowed the crews to deliver unexpected sniper strikes. The history of war knows many such examples. Hero of the Soviet Union N.D. Kolesnikov talked about his front-line friend: “He was meant for“ fine ”work and did a great job with it ...”



Sources:
Kotelnikov V. Heavy Petlyakov fighters - "100" / Pe-3 / Pe-3 bis // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 1998. No.05-06. C. 1-8.
Kotelnikov V. Evolution of Pe-2 // AC. 1990. No.1. C.12-17.
Kosminkov K. From “weave” to “pawn” // Wings of the Motherland. 1994. No.3. C. 2-5.
Ivanov S. Pe-2 // War in the air. No.113. C.2-6.
Shavrov V. The history of aircraft designs in the USSR 1938-1950. M .: Mashinostroenie, 1988. C. 163-165.
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  1. Denis
    Denis 31 July 2015 06: 04
    +4
    double fighter variant, which received the designation Pe-3
    1. svp67
      svp67 31 July 2015 13: 50
      +2
      Quote: Denis
      double fighter option

      Here is the best fighter "pawn" Pe3bis
  2. svp67
    svp67 31 July 2015 06: 08
    +8
    All these design teams led the development of new models of combat aircraft, which subsequently received the designation of designation numbers
    Perhaps, but there is such a version:
    As the work on the projects was approaching a new stage and a machine park was required to continue them, from the end of 1938 the teams began to move to Moscow in turn to the building of the Design Department of the Experimental Aircraft Sector (COSOS - TsAGI). The first team moved V.M. Petlyakova, specially for which in the building of the COSOS the Special Operations Department (STO) was formed. As a result, the project of the dive player Petlyakov began to be called “STO”, and then “100”. V.M. Myasishchev with his brigade moved second from Bolshev, and his project received the code "102". Then came the turn of the Tupolev brigade. In the Special Operations Department, which by that time had changed its name to TsKB-29 NKVD, his project of the ANT-58 bomber began to be called "103". The last to arrive at the COSOS team was D.L. Tomashevich, but for some unknown reason their plane received the conditional code not “104”, but “110”. Apparently, in the bowels of the Beria department, departments already existed somewhere with these numbers, or they were reserved for other design bureaus.

    And of course, the Pe-2 played a huge role in the defense of our Motherland, but I would not call this aircraft "outstanding". It must be admitted that the bomber turned out to be very "mediocre" and as a fighter, in the Pe3 modification, it turned out to be the same, not up to par ... But the main thing is that it was and that it gave our grandfathers the opportunity to defend the Motherland from the enemy and liberate Europe.
    The front name of this machine is "pawn", its best characteristic, there are many of them on the "chessboard" of the war, but they do not go far, are limited in maneuver, but if someone fell under their "distribution", they will be given out in full ...
    1. inkass_98
      inkass_98 31 July 2015 08: 37
      +4
      Quote: svp67
      but I would not call this plane "outstanding".

      The statement is controversial, for its time the aircraft was very good, like the original version of the TB-7. Petlyakov was looking forward, his planes had pressurized cabs and turbocompressors, which were abandoned in mass production.
      In the end, the Tu-2 appeared later, and until that time, the Pe-2 played its role, and played well. That's just how to properly use its capabilities learned a bit late, by the 43-th year, when at last the bulk of the pilots moved from a gentle bombing to a dive.
      1. Denis
        Denis 31 July 2015 08: 47
        +1
        Quote: inkass_98
        Tu-2 appeared later, and until that time, Pe-2 played its role

        It would be unrealistic to reconstruct production during the war, production would immediately fall. Time wasn’t right
      2. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 31 July 2015 12: 53
        +5
        Quote: inkass_98
        In the end, the Tu-2 appeared later, and until that time, the Pe-2 played a role, and played well.

        Dear colleagues, it is not entirely correct to compare the Tu-2 with the Pe-2. These are slightly different planes. In addition, for some reason everyone is trying to compare the Tu-2 of the 1946 model, and not the 1944 or 1942 sample. But they have a significant difference in performance characteristics. In addition, until June 1945, only 800 Tu-2 vehicles were produced. Less than 600 got to the front (besides the combat readiness of these mashikhs left much to be desired). Dive Tu-2 was not taught. Yes, both the Pe-2 of 1941 and the Pe-2 of 1944 are machines that differ significantly in performance characteristics.
        One more fact to consider. Pe-2 was created under the capabilities of technology (actually at the limit) of our aircraft industry. Compared to SB-2, Ar-2 and, even, Yak-2 (4) - this car was a cut above.
      3. svp67
        svp67 31 July 2015 13: 31
        +2
        Quote: inkass_98
        The statement is controversial, for its time the plane was very good,

        "Good" but not "great." Especially as a bomber, since its combat load was small, not to mention the remaining one from the fighter, inherited from the wing shape, because of which the takeoff and run length was high, as well as the landing speed, as well as the tendency to "nip" when braking, which sharply increased the requirements for the qualifications of the pilot, the “youngsters” on the “pawn” were very, very uncomfortable, as well as the quality and length of the runway ...
    2. evil partisan
      evil partisan 31 July 2015 11: 00
      +8
      Quote: svp67
      but I would not call this plane "outstanding". I must admit that the bomber turned out to be very "mediocre"

      T. Punev:
      "I fell in love with this car right away! A plane of rare beauty! And a beautiful plane flies beautifully ...
      ... The Pe-2 simply "asked for" an engine under 1700 hp, of the M-107 type. With him, the "pawn" would have become an exceptional plane, and with the "hundred and fifth" it would be "just" cool. "
      1. svp67
        svp67 31 July 2015 13: 53
        +4
        Quote: Angry Guerrilla
        T. Punev:
        "I fell in love with this car right away! A plane of rare beauty! And a beautiful plane flies beautifully ...

        But there are other opinions ...
        In the report of the commander of the 95th SBAP, Colonel S. Pestov, it was noted that if the armor was not installed, then "the regiment would not be enough for two attacks." The same point of view was defended by the squadron commander Captain A. Zhatkov, who sent a letter directly to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks Malenkov.

        "As the commander of an aviation squadron, I want to devote you to the issues of poor quality of aircraft entering service with the Air Force," the letter began. Further, Zhatkov listed most of the Pe-3's shortcomings, which were previously noted in the test report of the Air Force Research Institute. According to the pilot, in addition to armor, the fighter had to urgently install a ShVAK cannon and replace the top mount of the navigator with a ShKAS with a turret with a BT heavy machine gun. Zhatkov ended his "cry from the heart" with the words: "Our pilots are ready to fight in any machine, including this one, but people and machines are too dear to us now, and there is no point in sacrificing for little enemy blood." Zhatkov still had fresh memories of his meeting with the Messers, who had trapped his pawn and lined it with bursts. Seeing the hopelessness of the situation, the pilot prepared to jump and threw off the lantern cover - it was she who saved him, hitting exactly the propeller of a German fighter. The rest, jumping to the sides, unclenched the "pincers", allowing the Pe-3 to escape.
        1. Alf
          Alf 31 July 2015 18: 28
          +1
          Quote: svp67
          But there are other opinions ...
          In the report of the commander of the 95th SBAP, Colonel S. Pestov, it was noted that if the armor was not installed, then "the regiment would not be enough for two attacks." The same point of view was defended by the squadron commander Captain A. Zhatkov, who sent a letter directly to the Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks Malenkov.

          "As the commander of an aviation squadron, I want to devote you to the issues of poor quality of aircraft entering service with the Air Force," the letter began. Further, Zhatkov listed most of the Pe-3's shortcomings, which were previously noted in the test report of the Air Force Research Institute. According to the pilot, in addition to armor, the fighter had to urgently install a ShVAK cannon and replace the top mount of the navigator with a ShKAS with a turret with a BT heavy machine gun. Zhatkov ended his "cry from the heart" with the words: "Our pilots are ready to fight in any machine, including this one, but people and machines are too dear to us now, and there is no point in sacrificing for little enemy blood." Zhatkov still had fresh memories of his meeting with the Messers, who had trapped his pawn and lined it with bursts. Seeing the hopelessness of the situation, the pilot prepared to jump and threw off the lantern cover - it was she who saved him, hitting exactly the propeller of a German fighter. The rest, jumping to the sides, unclenched the "pincers", allowing the Pe-3 to escape.

          And how did the PE-3 (fighter) get into the bomber regiment?
          Have you tried to cover the bombers with fighters? Already what they were bristled with B-17 and B-24 trunks, but they also required a fighter cover.
          German ME-110 when meeting with Spitfire and Hurricanes, as a rule, was destroyed. But for some reason, the German pilots did not demand from Messerschmitt
          urgently install a gun and replace the top installation of the navigator with a turret with a heavy machine gun.
    3. Alex
      Alex 1 August 2015 08: 13
      +1
      Quote: svp67
      The last to arrive at the COSOS team was D.L. Tomashevich, but for some unknown reason their plane received the conditional code not “104”, but “110”. Apparently, in the bowels of the Beria department, departments already existed somewhere with these numbers, or they were reserved for other design bureaus.


      104 - Isakson fighter ("Heavy fighters of the Second World War. Part 1 Soviet aircraft" ONTI TsAGI Aviation collection number 18 series: History of aviation technology)
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 31 July 2015 07: 58
    +3
    Hero of the Soviet Union N.D. Kolesnikov spoke of his front-line friend: “It was intended for“ fine ”work and coped with it perfectly ...”... A very accurate and capacious characteristic ... Pe-2
  4. unknown
    unknown 31 July 2015 08: 56
    +2
    Bad car
    During WWII, there were actually two concepts of front-line bomber: German - maximum bomb load and, gradually, from modification to modification, increase in speed; American - a small bomb load, not a record speed, but strong defensive weapons. The Pe-2 did not correspond to any of the concepts: a small bomb load of -600 kg was normal, weak defensive weapons, insufficient speed - Myasishchev had to seriously modernize the aircraft in order to increase the speed to 534 km / h. In addition, the Pe-2 was rarely used as a dive bomber.
    The Yu-88 is deservedly considered the best front-line bomber of the WWII: the bomb load is up to 3000 kg, the speed of the later modifications of the Yu-188 was close to 600 km / h, and even exceeded this figure for the Yu-88S.
    But we had decent answers.
    Tu-2, tormented to please the IL-2, is also a very controversial and controversial aircraft. And even earlier - Ar-2, which had speed characteristics and weapons at the level of Pe-2, but could raise up to 1500 kg of bombs, and was also diving. And had great modernization potential.
    1. Argon
      Argon 31 July 2015 11: 25
      +1
      It would be more correct to say unhappy - it would be naive to believe that it is possible to get a successful tractor by reworking the machine of Formula 1. The death of Petlyakov played an undoubtedly fatal role, in fact, until it was discontinued, the machine was an "orphan" without "its" general, who had authority to radical changes in design. The machine was technologically extremely complex (not permissible, for wartime), considering the production volumes, one should pay attention to the number of machines not produced, but taken by the Air Force (this gives a clear explanation of the total shortage of bombers at the front and the real reasons for the appearance of Pe -3), some machines, waiting for the correction of defects, receipt of missing components, were at the sites of factories for up to 9 months. Especially it should be noted the electrical equipment of the Pe-2, the "progressive" electrification of most drives, which made entire divisions of "pawns" "weather dependent", and the phrase "insulation resistance" was synonymous with hard labor for I am a technical staff (which is not surprising, given the then level of the chemical industry, and the shortage of wartime).
    2. Per se.
      Per se. 31 July 2015 12: 20
      -1
      Quote: ignoto
      Tu-2, tormented to please IL-2
      Rather, the Su-2 attack aircraft was "tortured" to please the Il-6. A good dive bomber could have turned out on the Su-2 theme, but no one planned to make it otherwise than a light bomber. According to Pe-2, there is a different interpretation of its origin. It is no secret that the new aircraft before the war were created in a hurry, and not without the influence of weapons purchased in Germany. So, in March 1940, among other samples of German aviation technology in the USSR, where, in addition to Bf 109, 5 Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighters were delivered. All of them passed comprehensive tests at the Air Force Research Institute. Many sources reflect that in the first months of the war, our pilots often mistook the Yak-1 for Bf 109, and the "pawn" for Bf 110, there was a similarity. You can treat Mr. Mukhin and his manner of speaking badly, but it's worth getting to know his version.
      For example, the aircraft designer Petlyakov, who was sitting in a special prison at that time, most likely for theft, was first given the task of designing a high-rise single-seat fighter at the beginning of the 1939 year. But in the fall, the USSR bought a license from the Germans for the Me-110, and since the tests of the Petlyakov fighter were tragic, they were stopped, they ordered Petlyakov to take German drawings, copy them according to Soviet standards and transfer them to production. Therefore, Design Bureau Petlyakova made them in an incredibly short timeframe - a month and a half, and by that time the Me-110 themselves arrived, which served as the standard for the Soviet Pe-2 bomber, until the factories actually made Pe-2 as a standard.
      It is difficult to explain in any other way the incredible transformations of a single-seat fighter Petlyakov into his own triple bomber.
      You will say that the Me-110 was also a fighter, and so it’s also impossible to take drawings to the factory without tests to test it as a bomber. Yes, in all Soviet literature the Me-110 appears only as a long-range fighter, and the Germans had it like that, since they had enough dive bombers (besides the Yu-87, the massive Yu-88 and Xsh-123 dived as well). But in the album "German Airplanes", released in 1941 in order to "provide our valiant Stalinist falcons and heroic air defense fighters of the Red Army with the recognition and destruction of fascist vultures" on the sheets "Messerschmitt Me-110 Fighter" there is a note: "The plane can be used as a high-speed bomber, attack aircraft and long-range reconnaissance in the presence of a crew of 3 people. "
      That is, the Germans created the Me-110 not only as a fighter, but also as a bomber, they just did not need this option. But he turned out to be very useful to us.
      1. REZMovec
        REZMovec 31 July 2015 13: 26
        +2
        Per se.
        Why would you bring nonsense here?
        "We have bought a license for the production of Me-110" - Is this nonsense enough for you? WHO SELLED THIS LICENSE TO THE USSR?
        About Henschelle-123, so it is generally ... I just can’t find the words. This biplane already in the Polish company was almost never used.
        And about the "note" - just fun, an illiterate hack can be seen three miles away.
        P.S. If you are personally a fan of this mukhina, then do not poke this nonsense to everyone, masturbate alone)))
        1. svp67
          svp67 31 July 2015 13: 39
          +1
          Quote: REZMovec
          About Henschelle-123, so it is generally ... I just can’t find the words. This biplane already in the Polish company was almost never used.

          Yes, it is strange. But our pilots, the same Pokryshkin, in the first year of the war shot him down how?
          1. REZMovec
            REZMovec 1 August 2015 00: 56
            +1
            Don’t give a link?
            About Pokryshkin?
          2. Alex
            Alex 1 August 2015 09: 52
            0
            Henschel 126
        2. Orang
          Orang 31 July 2015 13: 53
          +1
          You would follow the words, not in the pub
          Quote: REZMovec
          masturbate alone)))
        3. Orang
          Orang 31 July 2015 13: 53
          +1
          You would follow the words, not in the pub
          Quote: REZMovec
          masturbate alone)))
          1. REZMovec
            REZMovec 1 August 2015 00: 58
            +1
            About how!
            Do you often go to the pub?
            I don’t, so I don’t know how they explain in the pub)
        4. Per se.
          Per se. 31 July 2015 22: 06
          0
          Quote: REZMovec
          Why is Mukhin's nonsense to carry here?
          I'm not a fan of Mukhin, and this is unambiguous. The fact that the Pe-2 was directly copied from the Bf 110, of course, is stupid, but to deny that some solutions similar in design could have been borrowed from a German aircraft, I do not see anything shameful for our country and Petlyakov in particular, borrowing and even copying the world practice. Shameful to write such crap, - "P.S. If you are personally a fan of this mukhina, then do not poke this nonsense to everyone, masturbate alone)))". In this, Mukhin's work looks more decent and more mature, even he cannot write vulgarity. If you judge others by yourself, your problems, but personally I have no interest in communicating with the ignorant Haml.
          1. REZMovec
            REZMovec 1 August 2015 01: 03
            -1
            In order not to receive such comments, do not bother to bring the "pearls" of the flies to public comment.
            What is vulgarity, sorry? The word "masturbation" is literary and scientific, like "masturbation".
            P.S. You do not like? Don't make others "suffer" from your quotes.
      2. svp67
        svp67 31 July 2015 13: 38
        +4
        Quote: Per se.
        According to Pe-2, there is another interpretation of its origin.

        This version is RUNNING. You just need to "dig a little" in the device of one and the other aircraft, in order to understand that in order to remake the BF110 into a Pe2, and even into a "hundred", it is necessary to create a new aircraft ...
        1. Per se.
          Per se. 2 August 2015 03: 57
          0
          Quote: svp67
          This version is FULL nonsense.
          But this version is present, and not only in Mukhin, I brought it in the comments as an option, nothing more. You could calmly discuss everything by adding the topic to the article. The "pawn" was really confused in the first months of the war with the Bf 110, this is a well-known fact. What Mukhin wrote could be refuted in the discussion. It was possible along the way and remember about copies, for example, Tu-4 (B-29), R-1 (V-2), or something else in technology, there are many examples. Again, I don't see anything bad or flawed in this. If the USSR bought samples of military equipment from the Germans before the war, then primarily for study and analysis. It was possible to talk about this too. Alas.
    3. svp67
      svp67 31 July 2015 13: 35
      0
      Quote: ignoto
      And even earlier - Ar-2, which had speed characteristics and weapons at the level of Pe-2, but could raise up to 1500 kg of bombs, and was also diving.

      And in fact, being a modernization, long studied by pilots and technical personnel, the Security Service, which made it much easier to establish its production on an ever-increasing scale and quickly retrain pilots ...
      1. REZMovec
        REZMovec 1 August 2015 01: 15
        +5
        Did you fly on Ar-2?
        My grandfather flew on the Volkhov Front until 1943 on it. He responded well, but maneuverability and defensive weapons were not enough. Plus, the build quality was unimportant - there was no question about five hundred km / h - there was a 460 limit. In mid-1943, after the loss of almost all the vehicles, the regiment retrained for the Pe-2. Grandfather said that he was born into the world - excellent maneuverability, quite powerful defensive weapons, plus the pilot and navigator were nearby and could help each other. At the expense of the bomb load, the Ar-2 used mostly 6 kg of bombs in the bomb bay, or 100 kg of bombs on the outside, but this is much less common. 3 matches were generally only dropped onto bridges, which was extremely rare ...
    4. Alex
      Alex 1 August 2015 10: 43
      +2
      Quote: ignoto
      Tu-2, tormented to please IL-2

      I think that many will misunderstand your phrase. Therefore, clarification is required. At 103, aka ANT-58/59, aka the forerunner of Tu-2, the engines were AM-37. To ensure the mass production of IL-2, all AM engines except AM-38 were discontinued, which led to the discontinuation of the MiG-3 from the AM-35 and to the replacement of engines in the future Tu-2 with the M-82 with a decrease in flight data (maximum speed fell from 630 to 528 km / h) and a delay in release (state tests ended in August 1942). In the spring of 1942, mass production began under the name 103BC, but after release in the amount of one regiment they stopped and the plant switched to Yaki. Production of the Tu-2S with the ASH-82FN resumed in the autumn of 1943 and only about 800 units were produced before the end of the war.
    5. 79057330785
      79057330785 7 August 2015 17: 31
      0
      The Americans had a fairly strong bomber Invader, used since 1944 2700 kg bombs on the internal suspension and 900 kg on the external
      1. REZMovec
        REZMovec 8 August 2015 10: 27
        0
        Yes, only Invader was not diving.
        In 1944, America wanted to buy Pe-2, even sent its pilots for training. But the "pawn" had a high landing speed, the Americans broke several planes on landing, and one crew was killed. And mattress toppers refused to purchase.
        1. 79057330785
          79057330785 8 August 2015 10: 39
          0
          I agree, but ease of piloting and convenience for the crew is not the last thing. Plus, Invader had a large Browning battery in its nose. He went through many colonial wars of the 50-60s and served until 1972. I think it was necessary to bring VIT-2 to mind and put into series.
          1. REZMovec
            REZMovec 8 August 2015 11: 05
            0
            I think you understand the difference between colonial wars and a full-fledged war, with a well-armed enemy with powerful fighter aircraft, not "Papuans" with rifles. Against them, "dive bombers" are not needed. The Invedeer was just such an aircraft.
            With regards to the convenience and simplicity of piloting, yes, yes, this is typical for Amers, however, like the Germans and the British.
        2. 79057330785
          79057330785 8 August 2015 10: 39
          0
          I agree, but ease of piloting and convenience for the crew is not the last thing. Plus, Invader had a large Browning battery in its nose. He went through many colonial wars of the 50-60s and served until 1972. I think it was necessary to bring VIT-2 to mind and put into series.
    6. 79057330785
      79057330785 7 August 2015 17: 31
      0
      The Americans had a fairly strong bomber Invader, used since 1944 2700 kg bombs on the internal suspension and 900 kg on the external
  5. mc1aren
    mc1aren 31 July 2015 10: 33
    +2
    The book "Wing Profile" was published about Petlyakov at one time ... It was interesting to read ...
  6. qwert
    qwert 31 July 2015 11: 35
    +7
    Quote: inkass_98
    but I would not call this plane "outstanding".
    From an interview with pilot Timofey Panteleevich Punev

    A.S. Timofey Panteleevich, now many historians are working on the now quite popular thesis that the Pe-2 was a rather mediocre dive bomber? In your opinion, is this correct?
    T.P. Yes?! Which one is better?
    A.S. Well ... Tu-2.
    T.P. And who saw him and when he appeared at the front? I, for example, for all the time at the front, Tu-2 never saw. And what they do not like Pe-2?
    A.S. Pe-2 is difficult to manage. ...
    T.P. Nonsense! Fly need to be able to. I told you…
    A.S. ... When diving you cannot use the internal suspension. ...
    T.P. So what? Large caliber still does not fit into the bomb bay. At the diving diver the main suspension is external. Well this is a dive biker.
    A.S. ... The bomb load is small. ...
    T.P. And how many bombs do you need to get into? One is enough. Here I am in a dive to her and get one.
    Even with only two 250 kg, you can destroy the bridge or the ship "on the move" to drown, and if you hit the train, you don’t need to say anything.
    Therefore, the Pe-2, carrying one ton of bombs, is more effective than a two-ton bomber carrying a horizon bombing. And a ton of bombs is not a small load at all.

    A.S. ... It was necessary to level up highly, due to the large “subsidence”, high means the bombs were inaccurate.
    T.P. Nonsense! In the 10-dimeter circle the bombs were stacked, is that a little accuracy ?! Drawdown is due to the fact that the Pe-2 is a speedy car. It was possible, of course, to increase the wing span, and then it would jump out immediately, but then it would lose speed and how to fight?
  7. qwert
    qwert 31 July 2015 11: 36
    +5
    A.S. It is also quite popular to claim that heavy single-engine fighters, such as the FW-190 or Р-46 "Thunderbolt", as dive bombers were more effective than the twin-engine dive bombers, and in battle with enemy fighters they could stand up for themselves, not required an escort. For stormtroopers could "work". In general, they were universal.
    T.P. Right. They used the universal, and we are what gives a greater effect in the bombing.
    A.S. Do you think the Pe-2 was more efficient as a bomber?
    T.P. Well, of course! At Pe-2 there is a double aiming. The first aiming leads the navigator. Directs the car to the calculated angle of demolition on the combat course, sets BUR - the combat turn angle of the sight. If this angle is not taken into account and not set, then when aiming the pilot (already in a dive) the bomber will demolish and you will not hit the target. In addition, the navigator controls the altitude and gives a reset signal, since the pilot looks at the sight and cannot follow the altimeter.
    Here the navigator "measures the wind." There is such a device - a wind-breaker, with its help they determine the angle of demolition, i.e. determine the direction, the wind speed and at what angle the aircraft must be turned on the combat course so that it will not be demolished (the pilot does something similar when landing where he also turns the plane towards the wind). Given a certain angle of drift, before diving, the pilot deploys the collimator of his sight. Therefore, when the pilot on a dive carries out a second aiming through his scope, he will not be mistaken because of the demolition, since by aiming the navigator and turning the optical axis of the pilot's sight, the demolition of the vehicle is already compensated.
    You can hang as many bombs as you like on a fighter (this is not a tricky business), but you cannot achieve the accuracy of a dump on a dive, because a fighter pilot cannot determine the angle of demolition on a combat course.
    The one who does not know these subtleties, thinks that in order to be hit by a dive bomb, the pilot only needs to catch the target, and then go on. It will not go anywhere! Even if you catch it, without taking into account the angle of demolition and the exact height of the dumping, you will not get anywhere. Even if you manage to withstand the height of the discharge (for example, you install the automatic reset), then you will not get away from the error of determining the angle of demolition. And the error in determining the drift angle in 1 (one) degree, already gives the deviation of the hit from the aiming point in 40-50 meters, and you will be mistaken at a much larger angle.
    You can, of course, try to compensate for errors in demolition, low dump height and low speed, as in the German Ju-87. I do not argue, "laptezhnik" "dive-bomber" is great, but this is yesterday. Slug and lightly armed. Here we have anti-aircraft guns in abundance, and that’s it, Junkers ended. I flew for a long time to fly, but as a dive-bomber came to an end, I stopped falling, since I had to increase the drop height. And we have more fighters, generally ceased to appear in the sky, such old stuff to our fighter is one tooth.
    They are now, in his memoirs, all the sniper, and he would try to tell me how he got into the turret of the tanker, then I would just ask him one question: “And how do you take into account the demolition?” it's all over.
  8. qwert
    qwert 31 July 2015 11: 36
    +5
    T.P. continues: As for the FW-190, the same story is there, you also won’t take into account the demolition, and the Fokker is twice as fast as the Junkers. I saw these "fokkers" - bombs would drop anywhere and for the Motherland! Into the clouds from our fighters.
    You must understand, Pe-2 was rightfully the main front-line bomber of our Air Force. By law, and not because there was nothing else.
    During the war, both the Germans and the allies had bombers faster than the Pe 2. There were those who carried a large bomb load. Were with a strong airborne weapons. Finally, they were more comfortable for the crew. (The same "Boston" is an aircraft for the crew, a very comfortable car, we had a lot of guys flying it, told it.) They were.
    But, no air force had a bomber like the Pe-2 that combined all the parameters so successfully: high speed, good bomb load, excellent maneuverability, simplicity and ease of control, strong defensive weapons and, most importantly, the ability to throw dive bombs. In any case, I have not heard about foreign analogs equal in performance and performance characteristics of the Pe-2.
    And the one who says that the Pe-2 was a bad dive bomber, neither bombed it himself, nor did he know a damn thing about bombing. Perhaps he can also deceive the “reading” public, but a professional will immediately put it in its place.
    1. Argon
      Argon 31 July 2015 11: 48
      +1
      But people say - "Brevity is the mother of talent" -! ​​??
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 31 July 2015 13: 28
        +3
        Quote: Argon
        But people say - "Brevity is the mother of talent" -! ​​??

        Dear colleagues, I think it will be useful for many to refer to the publication of "Military Review" dated 18.02.1914/2/39842 "Conversations with Timofey Panteleevich Punev." No Air Force had a bomber like the Pe-XNUMX. " Link - http://topwar.ru/XNUMX-besedy-s-timofeem-panteleevichem-punevym.html
        Or - http://www.airforce.ru/history/ww2/punev/part1.htm
  9. qwert
    qwert 31 July 2015 11: 56
    +7
    I would gladly diminish, but the hand did not rise. Still, the front-line pilot is more authoritative than any of today's specialists. I thought it would be interesting to someone
    1. Argon
      Argon 31 July 2015 18: 20
      -4
      Dear, gwert, I do not want to offend you, but the opinion of one person is just a "subjective assessment". But I want to say something else, here on VO it is quite "fashionable" to quote similar excerpts from interviews with veterans. Similar publications of "memoirs" began to multiply after 2000 (tax incentives for publishing and bookselling). In them, the authors give their own opinion as a veteran's story. This, in principle, is quite clearly read, in the text of such "conversations". Such "masterpieces" include "Tank driver on a foreign car" , absolutely all the "creativity" of a certain Drabkin. I personally do not know who T.P. Punev is, but let's say that in 44 he was 21, then in 2000 he was 77. He is more than venerable age, and such evidence should be treated with more caution, the documents are still more reliable.
      1. Alf
        Alf 31 July 2015 18: 49
        +4
        Quote: Argon
        .Age is more than respectable, and one should treat such evidence with more caution, documents are still more reliable.

        Who writes the documents?
        For some reason, we take the tales of Hartman and Rudel on faith right away, although there are frank Nanai songs, and to the memoirs of our veterans
        must be treated with more caution
        for some reason.
        1. Argon
          Argon 31 July 2015 22: 35
          +5
          Memories of Hartman, like most German, as well as ALL JAPANESE pilots do not exist. This is the literary and artistic work of American journalists of the late 50s. With all the ensuing propaganda features of the height of the Cold War. Moreover, even official German documents should be approached very neatly (for example, they did not have "Battles over the Kuban", only in Anapa in a week 65 cars "crashed" during landing. laughing ) You read my comment more carefully, I am not against listening to veterans, only now the time does not turn, they are already gone, the last ones to listen to could be "said" at the end of the 90s. And the fact that the given gwert is not a "speech" of a veteran - the mentality is not the same.
      2. Andrey NM
        Andrey NM 2 August 2015 10: 22
        +1
        I do not know how you feel about the stories of veterans, but I believed my grandfather. Moreover, everything that he told about the I-16, I-153, Il-2, Il-10, MiG-15 and MiG-17 (which he flew on) coincided with the interviews taken from veterans by "a certain" You say Drabkin. But these interviews are posted not only in the form of printed publications, but also in the form of audio conversations. It is precisely the documents that need to be treated more carefully. And what is meant by documents. If the reports of TsAMO are dry, this is one thing, but if we take the books of German generals and Western "historians", this is quite another. I do not remember who said about them that they won battles so magnificently, but lost wars so mediocre. And something always disturbed them.
  10. AAV
    AAV 31 July 2015 12: 15
    +1
    Thank you for the article. I would like to add the following to it.
    V. Boyko's book "Wings of the Northern Fleet" mentions the use of the Pe-3 as a long-range fighter for air cover of allied convoys during the Great Patriotic War. An additional tank was installed on the plane to increase the range in the cockpit of the radio operator.
    Interestingly, maybe someone knows where else the Pe-3 was used during the Second World War.
    1. REZMovec
      REZMovec 31 July 2015 13: 29
      +2
      In aviation, air defense were Pe-3.
      I don’t remember the name of the book, I read it in childhood, but it was the memoirs of the pilot of the Pe-3.
  11. Orang
    Orang 31 July 2015 14: 02
    +1
    As a Pe-2 dive player it was not very difficult to get out of the dive, the height of the bomb drop was high, and therefore they bombed mainly from horizontal flight, and did not really learn how. But at the beginning of the war, when the Germans dominated the air, the flight speed was a huge plus. From the second half of the war, magnificent Yu-87 dive bombers became easy prey for fighters, ours already held the upper hand in the sky.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 31 July 2015 16: 36
      +4
      Quote: Orang
      As a Pe-2 dive player it was not very difficult to get out of the dive, the height of the bomb drop was high, and therefore they bombed mainly from horizontal flight, and did not really learn how.

      Dear colleague Andrei, you probably don’t know that, until the fall of 1942, the Pe-2 was manufactured without a number of instruments and equipment (due to the evacuation of plants to the Urals and Siberia, production was established only by the fall of 1942), and specifically: without brake grids and automatic output. But without these devices, the Pe-2 turned into a regular bomber. He could not bomb with a steep dive.
  12. rubin6286
    rubin6286 31 July 2015 17: 49
    +4
    The article is interesting and informative. The process of creating a Pe-2 aircraft is described in sufficient detail. Unfortunately, life sometimes makes adjustments and the designer's idea is not always fully realized. The "pawn" was multi-purpose, and such machines are not equally good at performing various tasks.

    In 1940, the Pe-2 in comparison with the SB was a new word in aircraft. It was difficult to manufacture and with the outbreak of war and mobilization, its manufacture fell on the shoulders of women and adolescents who worked in workshops for 16 hours or more. The manufacturing quality of the machines was extremely low. From the front numerous complaints came to the People’s Commissariat and even to the Central Committee. In the winter of 1942 V.M. Petlyakov was called to Moscow to give explanations. He flew there not on a personal Douglas, but on the just released Pe-2. It is still unknown what caused the crash - difficult weather conditions or a malfunction on board.

    After the death of Petlyakov, the production of Pe-2 was headed by Myasischev, then P.O. Sukhoi. Many design flaws were eliminated. The Pawn went through the entire war, showing itself to be the best as a reconnaissance aircraft.
    You can compare the Pe-2 as much as you want with both domestic and foreign models. This one is better, and this one is worse, but they are fighting in the war with what is available, and not in the project. To my question, war veterans answered that they were going into battle on what was then. One of them said: “In 1942 I flew a Cobra, was wounded and shot down. After recovery, he fell under Rostov in a regiment that flew I-15. Then there were Yak-1, Yak-7 and again in the fall of 1944 received the “Cobra”.

    My father told me how after the war he flew as a Pe-2 passenger to the Far East. “I sat at the shooter. From the roar of the engines, it’s almost deaf, cold weather blows from all the cracks, but the Pawn flies quickly ... .. "
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 31 July 2015 21: 32
      +2
      Quote: rubin6286
      After the death of Petlyakov, the production of Pe-2 was headed by Myasischev, then P.O. Sukhoi

      Dear Victor Vilenovich, after the tragic death of Petlyakov, the post of chief designer was proposed to take Sukhoi P.O., but Pavel Osipovich refused. Then Myasischev Vladimir Mikhailovich was appointed to this post. He headed the design bureau until the end of 1945, when it was disbanded due to the discontinuation of the Pe-2 and the "inefficient work of the design team" (to put it simply, the officials settled accounts with the obstinate Chief).
      1. Argon
        Argon 31 July 2015 23: 04
        0
        You are wrong. Myasishchev was appointed chief designer of the factory design bureau, not the design bureau and had no opportunity to make changes to the theoretical aspects of the machine design (it was agreed to change the angle of the stabilizer for almost a year, but the wing was not allowed to be altered) .Only optimization of production TECHNOLOGIES. all the MAIN (not only Sukhoi) from this place. In fact, then "with a downgrade", yes to someone else's car, and to answer to grandfather Joseph would have to be like for his own.
        1. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam 1 August 2015 07: 48
          0
          Quote: Argon
          You are wrong. Myasischev was appointed chief designer of the factory design bureau, not OKB, and was not able to make changes to the theoretical aspects of the machine design (it was agreed to change the stabilizer installation angle for almost a year, and they were not allowed to redo the wing) .Only optimization of TECHNOLOGIES of production.

          Dear Sergey Vladimirovich, not only Myasishchev was in this position, but all the Chief Designers. From the end of 1942, it was forbidden to make changes to production cars without the permission of the People's Commissar by the Decree of the State Defense Committee. This even applied to the "all-powerful" Deputy People's Commissar A.S. Yakovlev.
          But the factory bureau back in 1941 already headed either deputies Chief designers, or bosses factory KB.
      2. Alex
        Alex 1 August 2015 10: 11
        +1
        From January to February 1942 - chief designer. Isakson A.M. (by the way, he flew to Moscow on one of the Pe-2s; on the first, Petlyakov flew and died). From February 1942 to June 1943 - Putilov A.I., from June 1943 - Myasischev V.M., who managed to bring the flight data (primarily speed) of the serial pawn to the characteristics of the prototype.
  13. fa2998
    fa2998 31 July 2015 18: 08
    +1
    Quote: ignoto
    In addition, the Pe-2 was rarely used as a dive bomber.

    In principle, the Pe-2 is not a bad plane. Yes, converted from a fighter, a small load, but time required to create a bomber as quickly as possible. But the only thing I note is that the Pe-2 is not a PUNCHING BOMBER. At the beginning of the war, they were not even taught to dive. Only in 1943. . ONE air division began to develop. I would classify it as a front-line bombers, its "colleagues" Non-111 and Ju-88 (although in the article-Yu-88 it is ranked as a dive-bombers, but the Ju-87 "piece" was the main dive bomber) .Everyone watched the front-line shooting. They endlessly show how the Ju-87 plummeted on the target, and never saw the Pe-2 dive. Well, 30-45 degrees, that's all. This is a legacy from the "hundred." to fight it (they put grids), and the whole structure is worked out from a dive. hi
  14. Alex
    Alex 1 August 2015 07: 29
    0
    Quote: svp67
    for unknown reasons, the conditional code was not "104", but "110". Apparently, in the bowels of the Beria department, departments already existed somewhere with these numbers, or they were reserved for other design bureaus.


    104 - heavy fighter, chief designer A.M. Izakson (source: "Heavy fighters of the Second World War. Part 1 Aircraft of the USSR" series: History of aviation technology ONTI TsAGI 1996)
  15. Caduc
    Caduc 1 August 2015 15: 34
    0
    Good article. Thanks.
    But I think Ap 2 is better as a bomber than Pe 2.
    1. Alf
      Alf 1 August 2015 18: 50
      0
      Quote: Kaduk
      But I think Ap 2 is better as a bomber than Pe 2.

      And what is better? Let’s make numbers, numbers ...
  16. deadstar
    deadstar 1 August 2015 19: 26
    0
    Sharashka was called a special technical department, abbreviated as "STO". Hence the marking of the projects "STO", "STO-1", etc. KB-100, 101,102 did not exist. Read Shavrov V.B. "History of aircraft designs in the USSR" volume 2, page 149.
    Regards, old grandfather.
  17. unknown
    unknown 2 August 2015 09: 39
    0
    Ar-2 had a bomb load of up to 1500 kg, and Pe-2 -600 kg was normal. The speed of serial Pe-2s to Myasishchev’s modernization is about 480 km / h, the same for Ar-2-. The build quality of domestic equipment until 1942-43 was low, for obvious reasons, and this applied to all samples. Small arms-identical. Both dive. Ar-2-deep modernization of the Security Council, the aircraft has long been in service and mastered by the flight crew. Further development of the AR-2 should be the SBB, which in terms of speed and bomb load exceeded the Pe-2.
    Previously, I had to read articles in the Wings of the Motherland magazine (unfortunately, I don’t remember the year and the issue), which analyzed the use of domestic and German bombers.
    The authors make an unambiguous conclusion in favor of Ar-2 in comparison with Pe-2.
    1. REZMovec
      REZMovec 2 August 2015 10: 42
      +1
      The authors of these articles are generally aware that there is practically nothing to compare? The Red Army Air Force practically did not use dive bombing until 1943, although later they were not very keen on this. The only air division that "dived" was Polbinskaya. In other air regiments, only a few pilots could work in a dive. Even before the war, dive bomber pilots were not trained in schools. Those. All nonsense about the advantage of the Ar-2 over the Pe-2 is the conclusions of the sofa specialists. I repeat, my grandfather fought in both vehicles and gave the advantage to the "pawn" as a combat unit. Do not forget that the "petlyakov" had destructive roots and could stand up for himself in a maneuverable battle, while the "Arkhangelsk" was an "iron". And with a full bomb load of 1500 kg, they flew extremely rarely, because all three bombs were suspended on an external sling and the aircraft's speed became no more than that of the Ju-87. In reality, the same 6 100-kg bombs were suspended in the bomb bay as on the Pe-2.
    2. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 2 August 2015 14: 55
      +1
      Quote: Kaduk
      But I think Ap 2 is better as a bomber than Pe 2.

      Dear colleague Vladimir, you have the right to consider anything. We have no punishment for thoughts (only for deeds).

      Quote: ignoto
      Ar-2 had a bomb load of up to 1500 kg, and Pe-2 -600 kg was normal.

      Dear colleague, will you provide data on the combat radius of the Ar-2 with a bomb load of 1500 kg (which he took by reducing the fuel supply by three times)?
      Dear colleagues, you should not consider military specialists who, after conducting state tests and comparing all the data, decided to release Pe-2 instead of Ar-2 and Yak-2/4, complete idiots. Yes, and, in the war there was a tough natural selection of weapons. If the Pe-2 was produced before the end of 1945, then the machine met the requirements of the military.