Dear "dad Makarov"
In the autumn of 2011, the Makarov pistol celebrates its anniversary. 60 years in service - a very decent time. Although private weapon fairly “conservative” and well-proven systems can remain in service for a long time, while in other types of weapons and military equipment, more than one generation of samples may be replaced. For a start it is worth remembering how and why PM was once created.
Winner of the Stalin Prize
Competition for the new gun was announced in the USSR in 1945 year. The task formulated by GAU featured cartridges 7,62x25 TT, 7,65x17, promising cartridge 9x18. Experimental design set thoroughly. The competition was attended by both experienced designers “with the name” —F.V. Tokarev, P.V. Voevodin, S.A. Korovin, I.I. Rakov, S.G. Simonov, and the young, while little-known — N F. Makarov and K. A. Baryshev from Tula, G. V. Sevryugin, A. A. Klimov and A. I. Lobanov from Izhevsk.
As early as October 1945, the ground tests of Makarov, Sevryugin, Korovin, Rakov, Simonov, Baryshev, Voevodina pistols began. Makarov introduced the 7,65-mm experienced pistol TKB-412 and 9-mm TKB-429. Pistols have been thoroughly tested at the test site of small and mortar weapons in Shchurov. For comparison, foreign pistols were tested with them: “Walter” PP, “Mauser” HSc, “Browning” 1922, “Sauer” 38H, “Beret” 1934, and also TT.
The success fell to the share of TsKB-14 of the Ministry of Armaments Nikolai Fedorovich Makarov. His main competitor at the final stage of the competition was the Baryshev pistol. Tests of 9-mm samples were carried out in 1948-m. The commission selected a sample of Makarov, which was put into service in 1951, under the designation "Makarov's 9-mm pistol (PM) arr. 1951. GAU assigned him an 56-A-125 index. Together with the gun entered service and cartridge type 9х18, developed by B.V. Semin and N.M. Elizarov at the Scientific Research Institute -44 (future TsNIITOCHMASH).
In 1952, Makarov was awarded the III degree Stalin Prize for developing the pistol. 8 on April of the same year, an order was issued by the Chief of 5, the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Arms, to start production of the PM. The issue was organized in Izhevsk at plant number 622 (later Izhevsk Mechanical Plant).
German equivalent: similarities and differences
It is unnecessary to describe the device of the Makarov pistol: it is well known to many. However, until now there are often voices claiming that "Makarov" is only a "slightly modified copy" of the German "Walter" PP, and the cartridge 9х18 is a variation of the 9-mm cartridge "Ultra" by the German company "Geko".
Indeed, after the end of the Great Patriotic War, a significant part of the production of "Karl Walter" in Zella-Melis went to the Soviet side. Moreover, experts of the People's Commissariat (Ministry) of weapons recommended in the development of a gun to focus on the system "Walter". The small-sized Walter RR was indeed one of the best self-loading pistols of the Old and New Worlds, and its scheme after World War II became almost the most replicable in the world. The “Ultra” cartridge, developed before the war to “reinforce” the same “Walter” PP, was between two common 9-mm pistol cartridges - “Parabellum” and “Browning Short”.
Prototypes chosen very well. However, neither the Makarov pistol, nor the pistol cartridge Semin and Elizarov were direct copies of their German counterparts. The design of the PM has been substantially reworked in detail, which makes it possible to consider it a completely independent model - in any case, a more independent system than most of the imitations of the Walter PP scheme in other countries.
Tactical and technical characteristics of PM and small-sized pistols of comparable power, which appeared later
The wide use of the principle of multi-functionality of parts has allowed to simplify the design and increase the reliability of the mechanisms. In particular, the helical combat spring is replaced by a double plate, which acts with a wide pen on the trigger, a narrow one on the cocking lever and the trigger pull, and the lower bend of the spring serves as a magazine latch. The cocking lever at the end of the trigger rod also serves as an uncoupler, while the shutter stop is a reflector of the extracted sleeve.
Replacing a number of axles with axles on the details simplified disassembly and assembly of the gun compared with the same "Walter" PP. Flap non-automatic fuse in the PM made better than in the "Walter" PP: its action is more reliable, and turning the flag when turning off from top to bottom is more natural for the fingers of the hand holding the weapon.
The design of the PM includes all 29 parts, while the Walter PP had about 50, for example, the Czechoslovak CZ 82 (much more successful, by the way) created already later (already 55).
By way of improvement
Establishment of mass production "Makarov" took time. The PM didn’t immediately turn into a standard for a reliable small-sized pistol and was accepted by both users and production workers. The first were mainly officers of the Soviet army, accustomed to ballistics and dimensions of the TT. Although a more convenient grip PM, the descent with a "warning", smaller ballistic impulse and the ratio of recoil energy to the mass of weapons contributed to an increase in shooting accuracy at short distances.
Production workers initially found PM a model of "non-technological design." The aforementioned multifunctionality of parts made them rather complicated for the available technologies, the form was great, the volume of fitting operations. The Izhevsk designers and technologists, among them G.V. Sevryugin, A. A. Klimov, A. A. Belikov, A. N. Molodchenkov, E. V. Lopatkin, M. B. Dorfman, A. M. Pestov, A. V. Kamerilov.
Of course, Makarov himself participated in the production. Especially since I had to make some amendments to the design. In 1953, the shape of the pistol frame was changed, simplifying the trigger guard. The problem of complete interchangeability of parts was solved only by the end of 50-x. Until the beginning of the 60-ies, when the mass production of PM was adjusted, it remained in service with the TT.
In the 60 – 90-ies, V. S. Chuguevsky, A. G. Pasynkov, V. A. Ivanov, A. E. Subbotin, V. A. Kuchumov, have worked to improve the production of Makarov. PM took a lot of technological innovations. Chrome-plating of the bore was introduced, milling of parts from steel forgings was replaced by casting with subsequent milling (casting was introduced during the making of the sear, fuse, trigger, trigger), the handle milled from PCB was pressed.
At the end of the 80-ies began the manufacture of the frame and shutter of the pistol by the method of high-precision investment casting. The result - the complexity of manufacturing one PM with 90 normal hours during the development of mass production decreased to 5 - 18 times. The utilization rate of the metal (the ratio of the mass of the finished part to the mass of the workpiece) in the production of the pistol from the original 0,12 increased almost threefold, the return of the standard pistols from the preliminary tests decreased from 30 to one percent.
Basis for other samples
Not for nothing, it is clear that the authoritative weapon editions of the world, compiling personal weapon ratings, include the PM among the best small-sized pistols, noting the combination of size and weight with the stopping effect of a bullet at short distances, high reliability and survivability. Although both military and police services still prefer small-sized combat pistols for more powerful cartridges - the same 9x19 “Parabellum” for example.
PM - one of the most massive pistols of the second half of the XX century. The number of "Makarov", released only Izhmehom, estimated at about five million units. And you need to take into account the production abroad.
"Makarov" was in service in a dozen states (here it is inferior to its predecessor TT), among which are the former members of the Warsaw Pact and China. Options PM made in Bulgaria, China, GDR, Yugoslavia. Cartridges 9x18 PM are produced or issued in addition to these countries in Libya, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania.
It must be admitted that reducing the size of the pistol and cartridge cost ballistic qualities. With the change of the scope and conditions of use of weapons, it became obvious. In 80-ies, it was imperative to increase the accuracy and accuracy of firing of a military pistol, punching the action of the bullet while maintaining stopping action and high readiness for the first shot, increase the capacity of the magazine 1.5-2 times. As part of the developmental work on the “Rook” theme, among others, the development of a high-pulse cartridge 9x18 (7H16) and a pistol modernized under it were retained, while maintaining the basic PM scheme. This option was presented (under the code "Grach-3") Izhevsk designers B. M. Pletsky and R. G. Shigapov. Later, this gun, designed to fire with a regular and high-pulse cartridge 9х18, with a two-row magazine for 12 cartridges, was designated PMM (modernized Makarov pistol) and 56-А-125М index.
From 1994, PMM was serially produced by Izhmekh, delivered to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Federal Guard Service, and in small quantities to the army. However, the PMM cartridge was never adopted. In addition to the problems common to the defense industry, the concern was that the high-impulse cartridge with its increased pressure of powder gases would start firing from regular PM, which could lead to accidents and injuries. Together with the patron, PMM’s career gradually faded away. Especially after the adoption of new pistols in 2004 for more powerful cartridges, which were much better suited to the requirements of a modern army pistol.
At the beginning of 2000, Izhmekh presented a variant of the PM system facilitation - young designer D. A. Bogdanov, under the leadership of R. G. Shigapov, created the MP-448 "Skif" and MP-448 "Skiff-mini" pistols for 9х18 and 9Х17 cartridges, which saved basic scheme, but with a completely new plastic frame and some minor changes. Pistols are still experienced.
At the same time, in 90, the changed political and economic situation affected the fate of the PM. The gun served as the basis for commercial, official and civilian designs. So, Izhmekh released export models IZH-70, IZH-70-17 (IZH-70-200), IZH-70 ХЦ (IZH-70-100), auxiliary IZH-71 chambered for 9 x17 “Kurz” several calibers. The IZH-79-2004T traumatic pistol, better known as the Makarych, became more popular and went on sale in 79.
And the bulletproof vest will not save
Together with a pistol six decades of his service, notes and pistol cartridge 9x18 PM. During this time, in addition to the “military” versions with an ordinary shell bullet, many modifications of ammunition were developed, which significantly expanded the capabilities of the complex. Ordinary bullet originally had a lead core (P bullet, 57-H-181 cartridge), but in 1954, a Pst steel bullet with a steel core (57-H-181 cartridge) appeared cheaper in mass production. The cartridge case in 1956 became non-brass bimetallic, the cartridge was sealed with varnish. Steel varnished sleeves were made from 1993. “Stop” ordinary bullets 9x18 PM capable flak jackets hidden and open wearing 1-th class of protection, armored glass class II (IIA).
Developed by V. V. Trunov and P. F. Sazonov, a tracer bullet with a range of tracing up to 150 meters more suited to submachine guns and did not get used with pistols. But its production was restored in 90-e, when interest in machine pistols resumed.
Since the PM entered service not only in the army, but also in the law enforcement agencies, TsNIITOCHMASH developed a cartridge version that meets the specific requirements of their structures.
At the end of the 70-s, by order of the KGB of the USSR, a special cartridge was released for the special units, with a bullet with an armor-piercing core protruding from the shell. The cartridge provides the defeat of manpower in body armor 028-th class of protection with rigid elements such as domestic ZZT-2M. In 71, special 1989x9 cartridges for the MIA appeared.
Despite the emergence of new combat pistol complexes, it is obvious that the PM will remain in service for a long time - the retirement age will certainly increase for him. Moreover, the numerous "Makarovs" have not lost their reliability.
In this regard, developed new versions of the cartridge with a high penetration effect of a bullet for firing from a regular PM. In 1996, NZNVA presented the 7H15 cartridge with an armor-piercing bullet 9 millimeters BJT, but already in 1997 a more successful cartridge with an armor-piercing bullet 9 millimeters PBM developed by the Tula KBP appeared. This ammunition was put into service in the 2005 year and received an index 7H25. Its 3,55 gram bullet (comparable to 6,1 g in Pst bullet) with a protruding armor-piercing core and an initial speed of up to 480 m / s is capable of piercing a steel sheet 10 mm thick (XnUMX bullet 5 mm) or 1,5-mm titanium plate at a distance of 1,4 meters and 30 layers of Kevlar-type fabric, while retaining lethal effects. This allows you to hit a live target in a bullet-proof vest 2-grade protection. At the same time, a cartridge with a low ricochetting bullet with a lead core was created - it received the characteristic designation 9x18 PPO (law-enforcement patron).
By the way, in 1996, for the needs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in TsKIB SOO under the direction of G. A. Korobov, an original OT-15 “Lin” device was developed for a Makarov pistol - for throwing a thin line from a PM, for example, on a roof or through an obstacle.
It is worth considering the considerable number of holsters and sets of equipment for open and hidden wearing PM created over the past decade and a half for use in various structures. And this is also a component of the pistol complex. Service of the hero of the day continues.
Noticed a mistake Highlight text and press. Ctrl + Enter