Military Review

The most secret flight TB-7

50
The most secret flight TB-7


In April 1942, a heavy four-engine TB-7 bomber flew up from the Ramenskoye aerodrome near Moscow and headed west - across the front line, to England. One of the most experienced crews drove the terrible car, which had recently flown to bomb Berlin, Danzig and Koenigsberg. aviation long-range action (ADD) under the command of Major Sergey Asyamov.

Before the flight, the commander of the crew and co-pilot Major E. Pusep had been told by the ADD command that the government had purchased a bomber batch in England. For them in the near future will be sent crews on the same route, if it turns out to be safe.

But, as often happens in war, then pilot Asyamov could not know the whole truth about the true purpose of the flight, as he could not know that he had only three days to live and that he would forever lie in a foreign land.

At that time, only three people knew the true purpose of the flight: Supreme Commander I. Stalin, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs V. Molotov, and ADD Commander Lieutenant General A. Golovanov. It was he who was commissioned to develop the safest and shortest route. And in order to classify the real purpose of the flight - to check the safety of the route of our delegation to England and the United States to sign joint documents on the war against fascist Germany and its allies, and the opening of the second front - it was decided to take advantage of the offer of the British to sell us four-engined bombers.

For the first trial flight to England, a mixed crew was made up consisting of 12 people and consisted of former polar aviation pilots and personnel military pilots. In determining the commander of the crew, the choice fell on Sergey Asyamov, on whose account there were already several dozen combat missions. The second pilot, the commander of another crew of the TB-7, Endel Pusep, by April 1942, made 30 night combat missions for bombing important military targets in the rear of Nazi Germany. The navigator, Major Alexander Shtepenko, by that time carried out 28 sorties, the second navigator, Major Sergei Romanov, made more than 20 night sorties for the bombardment of the enemy's deep rear.

The plane on which it was decided to fly was a heavy bomber of the TB-7 design by Petlyakov. The design of this machine was started back in the 1934 year, and a prototype appeared already in the 1936. After the completion of flight tests, the serial production of this aircraft began in the 1939 year. The TB-7 marked the revolutionary transition from low-speed to high-speed aviation. Good aerodynamics, powerful AM-35A engines (1360 hp each), extensive use of high-strength alloys, retractable landing gear, remote control of a number of important engine units - these are the characteristic features of this bomber.



The car had excellent armament, consisting of twin ShKAS machine guns in the nose of the fuselage, two heavy UTB machine guns placed behind the nacelle in rifle installations, and two ShVAK-20 cannons in the stern and fuselage parts behind the last wing spar.

Normal bomb load was 2000 kg, and in the overload version 4000 kg. By the way, on one of the modifications of this aircraft earlier than in the USA and England, a five-ton bomb was raised into the air. The speed of the serial TB-7 at an altitude reached 442 km / h, the flight range - 3600 km, the ceiling - 9300 m.

The TB-7 aircraft was created and began life in the difficult conditions of incomplete clarity for the country's leadership the very question of the extent to which this essentially strategic bomber, which required so much deficient duralumin, was necessary for us. Therefore, its serial production was suspended several times, but then after some time it was resumed again. As a result, by the beginning of World War II there were only a few dozen of these machines, of which 13 were destroyed by the Germans on the ground on the first day of the war.

On April 26, Asyamov and Pusep reported to the division commander, Colonel V. Lebedev, about their readiness for flight. On April 28, four passengers arrived at the airfield, among which was the stenographer from the National Commissariat of Foreign Affairs V. Pavlov.

The plane took off safely and over time crossed the front line. The flight over the Baltic Sea took place almost blindly at an altitude of about 7500. A strong wind broke the navigators' calculations, and the plane arrived at the coast of Scotland two hours earlier than expected.



29 April at 4 in the morning Asyamov landed a four-engine car at Teeling airfield. After a short rest, the crew, together with Pavlov and his attendants, flew an English Flamingo aircraft to London. The flight lasted almost three hours, after which the plane landed at Hendon Airport, in the north-western suburbs of the English capital.

The next day, the British expressed their desire to show the employees of the Soviet military mission and the pilots an aviation exhibition in East Fortune. For this purpose, the same aircraft was prepared that could take only ten people on board. I had to cast lots among the pilots. The choice fell on Sergey. Colonel N. Pugachev, deputy head of the Soviet military mission in Great Britain, and Major B. Shvetsov, military assistant attache for aviation, Secretary of the Mission, military engineer 2 of rank P. Varanov, flew with him.

On the way back, two hundred miles from London. "Flamingo" suddenly ignited in the air and fell to the ground. Under its rubble, the remains of members of our delegation were found with difficulty. So tragically cut short the life of Major S. Asyamov. The crew experienced the ridiculous death of the commander. However, it was necessary to return home.

The next day, the TB-7 bomber took off and headed east to land in an airfield in a few hours. When returning to Moscow, the crew commander was Pusep, and Romanov, who had piloting skills, flew in place of the co-pilot.

Stalin, convinced of the safety of the flight on this route, on May 5 ordered Golovanov to prepare the plane for the next flight. This time, Molotov and the group of specialists accompanying him were to fly to London and Washington.

The crew was replenished by an experienced combat pilot, captain Vasily Obukhov, who was supposed to fly as a co-pilot. A great deal of work on preparing the aircraft for flight of particular importance was done by the engineering and technical staff led by the chief engineer of the ADD, Lieutenant-General Aviation I. Markov. For a whole day, members of the commission examined and checked the aircraft, its engines, equipment; on May 10, the plane was taken over by the commission and placed under protection.

Time passed, but the British did not give “good” to the reception of the aircraft due to bad weather conditions. Finally, consent was obtained, and in the evening, on May 19, a group of nine passengers arrived at the airfield, including Molotov. On board the aircraft, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich immediately informed the crew that he was at their complete disposal and ceased to be the “second man in the country” because the main pilots in the sky.



Placing an additional number of passengers on a bomber was not so easy. The usual amenities for a passenger plane were not mentioned here. But it was to fly at high altitude, in conditions of oxygen starvation and low temperature. Before departure, the passengers were dressed in fur flight overalls, helmets and high fur boots, each was given two parachutes and an oxygen device, and instructed how to use it all. It is strictly forbidden to doze or sleep in flight, so that when you put on an oxygen mask on your face, do not accidentally bend the oxygen supplying rubber tube. In any case, the commander instructed the radio operator D. Kozhin to check the status of passengers every 15 minutes.

According to the weather service, to the north-west of Moscow just at that time passed a thunderstorm front. But they decided not to transfer the flight, and in 18 h 40 min TB-7 took off.

The flight was normal, only at dawn someone noticed an oil stain on the wing behind the extreme right engine. Fortunately, the temperature and oil pressure in this engine remained normal.

It's time to decline. Edinburgh sailed down below. 2600 km left behind. As it turned out, the capital of Scotland was protected from air raids by hundreds of balloons, which were lowered to the ground as our bomber approached. Guests from Russia were waiting here. Having flown low over Edinburgh, the TB-7 soon ended up at the familiar Deeling airfield from the previous flight, where honor guard from Scottish shooters in traditional checkered skirts was lined up in honor of the Soviet government delegation. After the welcoming ceremony, our delegation headed for the aircraft to the city of Dundee, and from there a special train went to London.



As is known, negotiations with the British were extremely difficult. Churchill flatly refused to sign a document on the adoption of our post-war borders with Poland and Romania and on the recognition of our territory of the Baltic States. Only after our delegation, with Stalin's permission, removed the territorial issue, did Molotov and Eden sign the 26 of May for a Soviet-English alliance treaty for a period of 20 years. However, Churchill refused to sign a document on the opening of a second front in 1942.

The time has come to fly our delegation to Washington to meet with Roosevelt. For the flight TB-7 across the North Atlantic, the crew overtook a bomber from the Teeling airfield to the Prestwick airfield on the west coast of Scotland. During this war, Allied airplanes were launched from this airfield, heading across the ocean to the USA.



The further flight of TB-7 in the United States, according to the previously developed route, was to go through Iceland and Fr. Newfoundland, where previously none of the crew members was. Aircraft TB-7 landed safely at the airport in Reykjavik. Next in line was Newfoundland. The British insistently recommended the crew to land at the Gander airfield, but one American colonel, who was at that time in Reykjavik and flying from the USA to Europe, told Pusap: “I know who is flying with you. It is not necessary to fly to Newfoundland, where you are advised Britons - there is always fog and you can break. And in Gus-Bey a good microclimate, there you will definitely sit down well. ” And he showed on the map the location of the American secret base Gus Bey.

Pusep recalled: “We were flying on the highway, which was approved by the command, but we were flying carefully and I was convinced that the American pilot was right. Having turned away from the plane of fog, I sat in a sunny Goose Bay, it was a complete surprise for the allies. "

The Americans warmly greeted our crew. Next flight to Washington passed through Canada. Flying near Montreal, the crew learned that they would now be escorted to Washington by a “flying fortress”. Indeed, the pilots soon noticed a silver B-17, which, however, disappeared as soon as the weather changed for the worse. Our bomber had to go down to the small height to flying below the clouds, follow the landmarks.

As soon as TB-7 landed at the airfield in Washington, the government delegation of the USSR and the crew of the aircraft were invited to the White House to meet with the president.



Talking about the negotiations, Molotov recalled. "Stalin gave me directions that they 30-40 German divisions themselves drew off. And I demanded it. When I flew to America, I told Roosevelt this, and in my heart I was surprised at his answer: “A legitimate, correct demand ...” He accepted my Communique without any amendments that the second front would open in 1942 year. Roosevelt signed all the papers for me, and with these documents I decided to fly to Churchill again. ”

Churchill was surprised to learn that Roosevelt had signed the Communique on the opening of the second front. Now he had no choice but to follow this document after the President of the United States. However, Churchill did not change himself here either and presented our delegation with a “Memorandum”, the content of which indicated that the British side did not consider itself bound by the obligations set forth in the Communiqué.



The Allies took all measures to keep our delegation in the UK and the USA a secret, but the Americans could not help but notice the unusual red star bomber. When the crew members arrived at the airfield, they were warmly welcomed, presented with gifts, exchanged souvenirs with them. These meetings were discreet Pusep compared with the Babylonian pandemonium.



It was not without excitement that our pilots recalled the day when their plane left America. As soon as the bomber taxied out onto the runway, the Americans started shouting, throwing up hats, chauffeurs — honking, people followed the plane, the cars rushed off ...

But the day came when TB-7 was supposed to leave England and fly to Moscow. The British offered the crew not to return by the same route, but through Africa and Iran. Molotov turned to Pusep. to get his opinion. Pusep told him that this time of year above the deserts of North Africa, high fever, and the engines simply will not stand.

Molotov decided to send the text of the communique for publication in Moscow. Now, even if the German fighters were able to bring down a plane with a delegation, the mission of our diplomats still would have been executed. The whole world has already learned about the Molotov negotiations in London and Washington.

I must say that the fascist leadership was literally furious over the flight of the Soviet Commissar, which occurred under their nose. And the desire to shoot down or seize a Soviet plane on the way back was great. But luck accompanied our “diplomatic bomber”. On the morning of June 13, the TB-7 bomber landed at the Central Aerodrome in Moscow. Among those who met was the commander of the ADD Golovanov.

The People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs shook hands with the crew members, went up to Pusep and thanked him "for a pleasant journey." So ended this historical Flight in the hot sky of World War II.



A week later, on June 20, 1942, by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to Major S. Asyamov (posthumously), Major E. Pusep, S. Romanov, and A. Shtepenko by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Other crew members who took part in this flight are co-pilot V. Obukhov, flight engineers S. Dmitriev and N. Zolotarev, radio operators D. Kozhin, B. Nizovtsev, P. Belousov. S. Mukhanov. I. Goncharov. P. Salnikov, V. Smirnov - were awarded high state awards. Major V. Obukhov, who by October 1943, had 156 sorties, 13 March 1944, was also awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.

Sources:
Golovanov A. Long-range bomber. M .: Tsentrpoligraf, 2008. C. 123-128.
Maslowski L. Flight Commissar for Foreign Affairs VM Molotov in the US in June 1942 years // Newspaper "Tomorrow". 18 March 2015.
Chuev F. One hundred and forty conversations with Molotov. M .: Terra, 1991. C. 124-126.
Shevchenko V. Through the UK to Washington // Aviation and Cosmonautics. 1992. No.2. C. 26-27.
Velichko V. Flights V.M. Molotov to the UK and the USA. 1942 year // Almanac "Lubyanka". 14 October 2011.
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  1. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 22 July 2015 06: 39
    +13
    Polite bomber
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. gjv
      gjv 22 July 2015 12: 38
      +2
      Quote: cth; fyn
      Polite bomber

      But "watered" ... Probably watered politely. bully
      1. crazyrom
        crazyrom 22 July 2015 21: 45
        +4
        Englishmen, bastards, at first they just killed our delegation, then they advised us to fly into the fog.

        Whoever liked this text, read Golovanov's book "Distant Bomber", very interesting, I highly recommend it.
  2. Rus_87
    Rus_87 22 July 2015 07: 32
    +25
    It is necessary for Putin (or Lavrov) to renew this wonderful tradition, to fly to our sworn allies in bombers. I represent their faces, when somewhere in Heathrow our Tu-160 sits down with a government delegation))) That's when it will be possible to discuss all kinds of "sanctions"))
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 22 July 2015 08: 28
      +8
      Yeah. And it will fly up in supersonic overtaking the escort.
      1. inkass_98
        inkass_98 22 July 2015 08: 59
        +4
        Quote: abrakadabre
        our Tu-160 will sit down with a government delegation

        Will the delegation be in the bomb bay, or what? Places there for 4's crew members and u.
        1. Rus_87
          Rus_87 22 July 2015 09: 09
          +5
          I meant personally Putin or Lavrov. Especially with V.V. experience flying on a similar technique already exists)) soldier

          The service suite can fly to IL-96, it’s not important here hi
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. gjv
          gjv 22 July 2015 12: 25
          -1
          Quote: inkass_98
          Places there for 4 crew members and a mustache.

          A group of terrorists hijacks a Tu-154 aircraft and hijacks it to Afghanistan, at a recently seized airfield, in order to then "release" the hostages and actually load a squad of its fighters into it, after which the aircraft "for technical reasons" will land in Dushanbe, where a conference of representatives of the United States and Russia on the fight against terrorism, and a company of militants will be able to clearly demonstrate its inefficiency. However, one of the passengers accidentally turned out to be Crunch, and then the rest of the group, ahead of the captured aircraft on the Tu-160, cleans the landing airfield and eliminates the terrorists in the plane, then covering the take-off passenger plane from the attack of the same company of militants.
          Sometimes you may need not an "ultra-long", but an "ultra-fast" flight to an emergency "conference on wrestling ...". Special Forces in Russian
          1. Old_kapitan
            Old_kapitan 23 July 2015 09: 24
            +1
            Just "Spetsnaz", series "Runway". And "Spetsnaz in Russian" is nonsense that Spetsnaz does not even hold a candle to.
    2. Lt. Air Force stock
      Lt. Air Force stock 22 July 2015 19: 31
      0
      Quote: Rus_87
      It is necessary for Putin (or Lavrov) to renew this wonderful tradition, to fly to our sworn allies in bombers. I represent their faces, when somewhere in Heathrow our Tu-160 sits down with a government delegation))) That's when it will be possible to discuss all kinds of "sanctions"))

      It was necessary to Tu-144 not to write off everything, but to leave a few sides for the president, prime minister and foreign minister, and for the minister of defense.
  3. Banson
    Banson 22 July 2015 08: 18
    +8
    This heavy (strategic) bomber TB-7 (PE-8) was the world's best heavy bomber of WW2. Only the Americans were able to surpass him at the end of the war with their B-29. It is a pity that very few such aircraft were built. But it was they who bombed Berlin with 5-ton bombs at the end of June 1941. This was the first "warm greetings" to the fascists from the communist brothers. The fascists "liked" it.
    1. Taoist
      Taoist 22 July 2015 10: 03
      +6
      Well, in fairness, for the sake of Pe 8 it is necessary to compare with B 17. They are very close in terms of performance characteristics and in terms of development dates. Unfortunately, our car was driven by engines and outdated construction technology. Therefore, in the end, it was decided to copy B 29.
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 22 July 2015 11: 02
      +4
      This aircraft was never the best heavy bomber of the past war. Extremely difficult to fly, it was a single-handed and had no power boosts. Unreliable engines, weak and poorly placed defensive weapons, lack of autopilot, anti-icing system, radar made combat use difficult. Due to the exceptional complexity and complexity of the assembly, the aircraft was released in quantities not exceeding 90 aircraft. They flew mainly at night. They couldn’t bomb due to clouds, they were forced to drop, fall into the zone of anti-aircraft fire and counter the night fighters. Departure results were low and losses were large. If we talk about long-range pilots, the greater severity of the fight was carried out by the crews of DB-3 (Il-4) and B-25.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 22 July 2015 11: 49
        +1
        Quote: rubin6286
        If we talk about long-range pilots, the greater severity of the fight was carried out by the crews of DB-3 (Il-4) and B-25.

        And PS-84 / Li-2 / S-47. The main workhorse of our YES, however. smile
      2. Taoist
        Taoist 22 July 2015 15: 06
        +3
        Quote: rubin6286
        weak and poorly placed defensive weapons

        The fact that the plane did not have many devices that increase the comfort of the crew, I agree ... well, so it was designed when such "exercises" had not yet been used ... and then it was not up to that ... But about the "unsuccessful defensive weapons" - here you "by the cash register" - the scheme with "under-landing" arrows was much more effective than the "hatch" machine guns on other heavy bombers, and the two electrified cannon turrets (aft and upper) had much higher fire power than the Browning ... about rifle caliber "Lancaster" I really do not say anything.

        The car was at the time of development more than at the level. Another question is that for us in that war ADD, in principle, did not matter much - There was no task "to bomb into the Stone Age" ... Therefore, production was practically not carried out - Lend Lease was enough.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 22 July 2015 15: 42
          +2
          Quote: Taoist
          But as for the "unsuccessful defensive armament" - here you are "past the cash register" - the scheme with "under-landing" arrows was much more effective than the "hatch" machine guns on other heavy bombers and two electrified cannon towers (aft and top) had much greater fire power than the same Browning...

          Shvak towers? Not sure.
          The 20 mm ShVAK machine gun was the weakest of the machine guns / cannons in the 20 mm caliber and had the worst ballistics. The reason is known: during the development of the ShVAK-20, it was made of the ShVAK-12,7 - the main thing was to keep the production running as hard as possible, because the USSR had a big gag then putting in a series of automatic small-caliber guns and KK machine guns (just remember the torment DK or failure with a 37-mm automatic Shpitalnaya). As a result, not a cannon was made under the ammunition, but ammunition under the cannon. Well, we got a short light projectile with the smallest explosive content, which quickly lost speed after exiting the barrel (therefore, ShVAK, for all its mass release, was used only in air defense).
          Plus delay:
          In some cases, to eliminate delays, partial or even complete disassembly of the machine was required.

          So a pair of "Brownings" was at least equivalent to 1 ShVAK.
          1. Taoist
            Taoist 22 July 2015 16: 59
            +1
            Well, ShVAK were not used at all in air defense ... but they were quite used as a tank gun ... (T-60), so there was more than anything with the speed of a shell. Bikaliber systems, in general, are also not news. Yes, the projectile is, of course, rather weak, but by any means it is more powerful and long-range large-caliber bullet. So in terms of effective fire range, no matter how you say cannon turrets, they had an advantage - and even defeating an OFZ projectile with a low-power projectile is not a bullet hole ...
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 22 July 2015 18: 02
              +2
              Quote: Taoist
              Well, ShVAK was not used at all in air defense ...

              Limited use - at the same BEPO.
              However, back in 1936 a conclusion was issued:
              Given that the existing MG-3 fuse acts on the skin of the aircraft at final speeds of at least 300-350 m / s, and also that successful hit by aircraft can be expected at flight times not exceeding 2-2,5 seconds, it should be considered that the maximum distance of actual anti-aircraft fire for 20 mm ShVAK is 1000 m, and for 12,7 mm ShVAK it is about 1500 meters.
              For anti-aircraft defense, this distance is unsatisfactory.

              Quote: Taoist
              but as a tank gun we’ve completely used ourselves ... (T-60) so that with the speed of the shell there was more than

              From the beginning, yes. But the trouble is:
              Due to the fact that the ShVAK automation was originally designed for a 12,7 mm caliber, it was necessary to use an extremely light weight shell (20 grams against the normal weight for this caliber of 91-125 grams) and a short length for using a 150 mm cartridge. As a result, the projectile received reduced ballistic qualities, leading to a rapid loss of initial velocity.
              This circumstance leads to a significant decrease in the armor penetration of a 20 mm ShVAK machine gun and to a reduction in anti-aircraft fire distances compared to a 12,7 mm machine gun

              As a result, at a distance of 400 m, the velocity of the projectile fell to 580 m / s. At 600 m - 483 m / s.
              For comparison: ShVAK 12,7 had a bullet speed of 652 and 612 m / s at the same ranges, respectively.
              But the slower the speed, the more you need to take the lead. Slightly mistaken in the distance to the target - and the first shells went into milk. And then you have to grope the approaching fighter.
              Quote: Taoist
              So the range of effective fire no matter how you say cannon turrets had an advantage

              Our specialists believed the opposite - the effective range of the ShVAK-20 was 1,5 times lower than that of the ShVAK-12,7.
        2. rubin6286
          rubin6286 22 July 2015 17: 50
          +3
          Dear Taoist!

          Have you ever seen this chassis installation?
          The fact is that they were only on the first few machines. Then they were abandoned because:
          - from the roar of the arrows of the shooters, it was simply deaf, there was no connection;
          - the heat in the cockpit in flight became unbearable;
          - the exhaust gases got into the cockpit and the shooter just burned out, just like in a hut they burn out from a stove with a closed blower. In a word, only we could come up with this. Initially, the car was a 5-engine, the fifth engine installed in the fuselage was intended to pump air to the other four when flying at altitudes of more than 6 thousand meters. This had to be paid for with less bomb load and more fuel. The tank for the fifth engine was in the fuselage. I could tell you a lot more interesting things about TB-7, but you will understand everything yourself. I do not know about the bombing of Berlin with 5-ton bombs, but in Hungary in one day of fighting the Germans shot down more than 40 of our long-range bombers. incl. and TB-7. After that, the DA regiments were assigned to be reorganized and combat missions were less and less frequent. As a child, in a military town, our neighbor was the commander of a transport regiment, who flew in the TB-7 during the war. Sometimes I came to visit his children. Uncle Lesha took out photographs, talked about the war. Once I sculpted this plane for him from plasticine from a photograph. He looked and then began to cry. He said: "Sonny! We flew to Budapest. 12 crews. I was the last to take off. A Fokker jumped out of the clouds and beat off my right wing in a long burst. We barely had time to jump out before the plane exploded. This German saved my life, no one came back ... ".
          Compared to the B-17, our Pe-8 flying coffin, but, alas, there were no other heavy vehicles.
          1. Taoist
            Taoist 22 July 2015 21: 13
            +2
            I personally have not seen this landing gear - just like you ... but my father saw it ... So I don't know how "Uncle Lyosha" but my father found them ... and the technical literature contradicts you .. (By the way, Uncle Lyosha hung noodles for you - Pe 8x was extremely small and all the losses were listed by the piece - I can send a scan - 12 cars were not shot down over Budapest - we did not lose so much in a year ... and only 45 cars were lost in 2m and then in flight accidents and not in combat missions)) The composition of the armament changed, but no one refused from the landing shooters themselves, and they were on all machines from the first to the last series. As for what "could only come up with us" - tell you what foreign cars were "ATSN"? This was a fairly common solution until turbochargers were brought in ...
            Yes, in terms of the comfort of the crew, the car was "not up to par" - but this is generally our domestic disease.
            Well, about the comparison with the B17 - I already wrote that the B17 was built in a huge series and at the same time was constantly being modernized ... In terms of defensive weapons, let's compare the 8th with the 17th of the same time of release ... So the "fortress" had only 5 machine guns of which 3 were "rifle caliber" ...
            The 8th was not a coffin - none of the "coffins" of the "ON" car does it .. (Do you know that after Molotov's flight two sides were converted into a passenger one for special delegations)?
            1. rubin6286
              rubin6286 22 July 2015 21: 58
              0
              Dear Taoist!
              I shared what I know about this plane myself. Don't judge strictly, because how many people, so many opinions. I don't think that a front-line pilot could deceive a child. War is a terrible thing, so many years have passed, and the remains of the fallen are still being found, incl. and pilots. There was an article in the magazine about air battles in Hungary for a long time. I don't remember exactly, "Tekhnika-youth", "Modeler-constructor" or "Wings." It was called "Whom the Hornets" stung. It spoke about the losses of our aviation for only one day. I do not claim that 11 cars from Uncle Lesha's squadron reached the target, but according to him, they did not return back. The bomber, if desired, can be converted into a passenger plane. But Stalin flew to Tehran on a Douglas (or Lee -2) The Americans had the opportunity to modernize the B-17. They had everything for this: raw materials, materials, factories, qualified personnel, no bombs fell on them.
              1. Taoist
                Taoist 22 July 2015 23: 32
                +1
                Well, he could not deliberately deceive (but simply lie for tragedy) or you don’t remember exactly that he flew in the Pe 8 ... we did not have losses of Pe 8 in such quantities - the biggest losses were in the 41st year ... 6 cars were burned June 22 at the airfield and 6 did not return from the first raid on Berlin (and that half because of the "friendly fire")
                In general, only 8 machine + 91 experienced ones were released Pe 2x ... and not because the plane was so bad but simply did not have work for him. and resources were needed for something else. Stalin could not stand flying at all, and the rare case when he still changed his rule, it is natural that he chose a plane more comfortable than a converted bomber ... all the more so since he flew out of the combat zone and under such an escort that in general he could any plane to fly.
            2. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 23 July 2015 10: 07
              0
              Quote: Taoist
              and at 45m only 2 cars were lost, and then in flight accidents and not in sorties

              So in 1945, the Pe-8 sorties simply did not have.
              By the end of the war, since November 1944, only the 25th Guards Regiment flew the Pe-8 - exclusively training flights, to maintain the flight personnel's qualifications, which allowed them to perform combat missions as part of the ADD. Almost all Pe-8s in 890 DBAP were pinned to the ground due to various faults. As it is not surprising, but the most serviceable in the 890 regiment was ... TB-7 No. 385 "Doubler". released by the Tupolevites back in 1938).

              Plus, in 1944, a problem with the side members was discovered:
              ... when examining the Pe-8 on the ground, they found out: there was a break in the lower belt of the front spar. Returning a few years ago, it should be noted that even in the first combat sorties of the TB-7 1-3 series the same thing happened Deciding that the whole thing was the insufficient strength of the spar belt, they limited themselves to reinforcing the structure and reducing the bomb load to 3,2 tons - for bombers that have not been finalized. The cases of rupture of the side members at the time of the anti-aircraft maneuver stopped, the disease seemed to be cured, and they forgot about it ...
              The version of the chief designer of Nezval about exceeding the calculated stresses in flight after consulting with TsAGI specialists was rejected: the stresses were lower than the calculated ones. The answer was found when pipe billets received there as material for the manufacture of Pe-22 spars were examined at plant No. 8. A large number of tiny hair cracks were revealed in the tubes ...
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 22 July 2015 11: 41
      +10
      Quote: Banson
      This heavy (strategic) bomber TB-7 (PE-8) was the best 2MV heavy bomber in the world.

      Not strategic. Just heavy. And not the best - just remember the first raid on Berlin and the epic with motors. I'm not talking about superchargers and leapfrog with engines.
      Quote: Banson
      It is a pity that very few such aircraft were built.

      Choose: 1 TB-7 or fighter regiment. smile
      Quote: Banson
      But they were the ones who bombed Berlin with 5-ton bombs at the end of June 1941.

      Ummm ... comrade, this is Military Review, not an AI forum. feel

      The first time Berlin was bombed on August 8, 1941 - naval DB-3 from 1 mtap with about. Ezel.
      TB-7 took off for the bombing of Berlin only on August 10, 1941. At the same time, out of 12 specially selected TB-7s, only 10 were allowed to take off, and only 7 took off. 8 the car crashed on take-off - the engines failed:
      On TB-7, Major Egorov immediately after taking off the ground, two right-hand M-40F diesel engines failed, and the plane crashed. After that, Zhigarev P.F. stopped the departure of the remaining aircraft. As a result, 7 TB-7 and 3 Ep-2 went to Berlin.

      The problems with the engines did not end there:
      On the plane of Lieutenant V. D. Vidnoye over German territory, the left external engine caught fire. The crew managed to eliminate the fire, but the aircraft continued to fly with loss of altitude. Not reaching 370 km to Berlin, the crew dropped bombs and lay back on course. After the failure of another M-40F, the aircraft made an emergency landing at the airfield in Obukhov.
      On TB-7, captain A.N. Tyagunin already on the way back failed one of the engines. In addition, over the Baltic coast the plane was fired by its anti-aircraft gunners. When landing, the car crashed.
      On TB-7 of Major M. Ugryumov, M.M. several times, at high altitudes, engines failed. The crew was bombed in Berlin, consumed all the fuel and made an emergency landing in Torzhok.

      I didn’t forget about Panfilov’s car - but there the failure of the engines can be associated with damage from the fire of ZA.

      And yes - I will not talk about the radius of TB-7 with a load of 5 t, but how could TB-7 bomb Berlin in 1941 with bombs that were created only in 1943? Moreover, the maximum bomb load of the TB-7 itself to 5 t was also brought to 1943. laughing
      1. Banson
        Banson 22 July 2015 14: 21
        -2
        Quote: Alexey RA
        Not strategic. Just heavy.

        It is almost the same thing.
        Quote: Alexey RA
        And not the best - just remember the first raid on Berlin and the epic with motors. I'm not talking about superchargers and leapfrog with engines.

        Best in concept and performance characteristics. Let's keep silent about reliability.
        Quote: Alexey RA
        And yes - I will not talk about the radius of TB-7 with a load of 5 t, but how could TB-7 bomb Berlin in 1941 with bombs that were created only in 1943? Moreover, the maximum bomb load of the TB-7 itself to 5 t was also brought to 1943.

        But ours bombed Berlin with 5-ton bombs. So in 44. But FAB-5000 for TB-7 was made earlier TALLOY to LANCASTER.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 22 July 2015 15: 21
          +1
          Quote: Banson
          It is almost the same thing.

          Not. For the strategist, the TB-7 lacks range and bomb load. smile
          Quote: Banson
          Best in concept and performance characteristics.

          That is, according to the numbers in the papers. Tady yes - the best. And as it came to business - then instead of a supercharger you need to drag a fifth motor, then diesel engines burn.

          In fact, by the time mass production began, the TB-7 was not the best, not inferior in performance characteristics heavy bombers of the USA and VBR. Further, the lag only grew. In short, another "Ilya Muromets".
          Quote: Banson
          But ours bombed Berlin with 5-ton bombs. So in the 44th. But

          Where is the droushka?
          FAB-5000NG were used on the Kursk, as well as in Helsinki and Königsberg. I didn’t see any references to Berlin.
          By the way, on the first use of the FAB-5000NG:
          29.04.43/8/30, the Pe-42029 (with engines M-746B No. 8) 45 APD piloted by the ship's commander A.L. Peregudov, navigator N.G. Tomkevich, headed for Koenigsberg. In this departure, the Pe-15 crew increased due to the armament of the regiment and division (5000 ad dd) and amounted to XNUMX people. The first dump of the FAB-XNUMX on Koenigsberg was to be carried out.

          In flight on an airplane, the turbocharger of the left block of the 2nd diesel engine collapsed. Nevertheless, the crew dropped a bomb on a given target. At an altitude of 5800 m, the ship was lit by an explosion, there was a slight push.

          Quote: Banson
          But the FAB-5000 for TB-7 was made earlier TALLBOY to LANCASTER.

          Kamrad, do you understand the difference between an ordinary FAB and a special bomb for underground explosions-camouflage? Tallboy is not FAB. And not even BRAB / BETAB. This is a piece by Wallace and Vickers, which we had no analogues.

          The analogue of our FAB-5000 was the "big blockbuster" - a 12000-pound bomb. developed in 1943. Moreover, they made it in a way that had already been tested earlier on an 8000-lb bomb: they assembled 3 (this time) sections of the standard "blockbuster" Mark I arr. 1941 of the year.
          1. Taoist
            Taoist 22 July 2015 17: 03
            +1
            Quote: Alexey RA
            TB-7 lacks range and bomb load for strategist


            the real "strategist" we had was the Yer-2 (although it would seem a twin-engine) - everything is in order with the range and load ... Only there were no targets ... and the Ery and the 8e remained practically "piece" goods. .. It should have been done ... all the more so both Myasishchev (DVB-102) and Polikarpov (NB-T) were almost ready ...
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 22 July 2015 18: 38
              +1
              Quote: Taoist
              the real "strategist" we had was Yer-2 (although it would seem a twin-engine) - everything is in order with the range and load ...

              Duc ... for those who remember about Manchester, there is nothing surprising in a twin-engine strategist. smile
              Quote: Taoist
              We should have done ... all the more so, both Myasishchev (DVB-102) and Polikarpov (NB-T) were almost ready ...

              Duc ... there was nothing. We have winged metal not even enough for fighters.
              1. Taoist
                Taoist 22 July 2015 21: 18
                0
                Quote: Alexey RA
                Duc ... there was nothing. We even lacked winged metal.

                This is the second question, as practice shows, if there was such a need, it would have been found ... More than 1000 TB3 were produced in due time ... Again, immediately after the war, when the "nuclear rooster pecked", they built several hundred copies of the 29th? Another question is that the doctrine was different - "strategists" were simply not needed. Yes, by and large, the Americans did not really need them ... The efficiency of these armadas ended up being dubious .. The bombs were dumped by megatons and the Reich industry did not suffer ... It does not take much to turn areal targets into rubble of mind ...
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 23 July 2015 10: 24
                  0
                  Quote: Taoist
                  This is the second question, as practice shows, if there was such a need it would be found ... More than 1000 TB3 were produced at the same time ...

                  Before the war. When all the aluminum plants stood in their place and on their territory.
                  Quote: Taoist
                  Again, right after the war, when the "nuclear cock pecked" were built several hundred copies of the 29th?

                  And this is after the war, when industry more or less recovered. EMNIP, the aluminum crisis in the war was overcome only in 1944. And then with the help of self-known.
                  Quote: Taoist
                  The efficiency of these armadas eventually turned out to be dubious .. Megatons fell out of the bombs and the industry of the Reich didn’t suffer ... It’s not necessary to turn area targets into rubble of the mind ...

                  Well, the LHC had successful raids and operations. One plant "Alquette" is worth something: for six months they put out of action the main manufacturer of chassis for "shtugs" Plus they did a good job on the Reich oil industry.
                  Although accuracy is yes ... EMNIP, in a review of the results of the LHC in Europe it was written that during the study of damage to the refinery it was established: within factory fence usually 2-5% of dropped bombs.
                  1. Taoist
                    Taoist 23 July 2015 11: 19
                    0
                    But estimate how many attack aircraft and front-line bombers could be produced instead of counting 50 thousand "Fortresses and Liberators" - and how much more effective their work would be ... (again, this is from the category of "if yes cabism" - because it was good for the Eastern Front and not applicable in the West.)
                    1. Alexey RA
                      Alexey RA 23 July 2015 16: 55
                      0
                      Quote: Taoist
                      But estimate how many attack aircraft and front-line bombers could be produced instead of counting 50 thousand "Fortresses and Liberators"

                      100 thousand winged jackals! (tm) smile
                      Quote: Taoist
                      and how much more effective would their work be ...

                      It would be necessary to open a Second Front in Europe at 1942 - otherwise the British airfields would be crowded, and the goals within the radius, on the contrary, would end. Poor Northern France ... smile
          2. Banson
            Banson 23 July 2015 10: 18
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA
            Not. For the strategist, the TB-7 lacks range and bomb load.

            The range to the concept of "strategic" is not iron-bound. And the bomb load ... 5000 tons - not enough for you? TB-7 could carry a nuclear bomb. The same LANCASTER for Tollboy was made easier and stripped to the point. And then - with a friend raised. And ours is fine.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 23 July 2015 10: 49
              0
              Quote: Banson
              TB-7 could carry a nuclear bomb.

              Could not.

              RDS-1, aka "product 501", had a diameter of 1500 mm. One and a half times more than FAB-5000NG. But even the FAB-5000NG could hardly get into the bomb bay and did not allow the bomb bay doors to close.

              And then another "no" comes out. Which name is thermal stabilization. The first atomic bombs were delicate and capricious and required a device for heating the bomb bay, thermal insulation and thermal stabilization. And even on a bomb with a diameter of 1 m, our compartment is open to all winds.
              In addition, thermal stabilization is weight. Additional weight to 4600 kg RDS-1.
  4. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 22 July 2015 08: 42
    +6
    Brave people !! What a current politician will fly in a bomber, across the front line, like Molotov!
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 22 July 2015 10: 46
      +1
      The situation was difficult. Urgent help needed
      allies. And I had to take a chance.
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 22 July 2015 11: 04
      +1
      Could Molotov refuse to fly and not fulfill Stalin’s order?
      1. Caduc
        Caduc 22 July 2015 13: 13
        +2
        I think I could. But they and their children were people of duty to the Motherland.
        1. rubin6286
          rubin6286 22 July 2015 17: 59
          +2
          It seems to me that it is time to move away from illusions. If Molotov refused, he would rot in the camp with his wife. Stalin did not stand on ceremony and Molotov knew this. As for the Molotov children, we do not know anything about them. Khrushchev, Mikoyan, Frunze, the children fought and some of them died for their homeland.
  5. avt
    avt 22 July 2015 08: 53
    +6
    Endel Puseps left a good memoir - "On Long-Distance Air Roads", I recommend looking and reading.
    1. rubin6286
      rubin6286 22 July 2015 11: 08
      0
      Endel Pusep was a physically strong man and an experienced pilot. Exceptional endurance, composure, endurance and ability allowed a long flight to the United States. No one else flew this route during the entire war.
  6. V.ic
    V.ic 22 July 2015 09: 03
    +3
    When landing in the States, the Pe-8 took off his shoes. The Americans urgently made a new tire. The same Endel Puusepp took out J.B. Tito from the environment. Our air group was then based in Bari.
    More than 8 pieces (7 or 80) were manufactured Pe-81 (TB-82). The elements of the fuselage skin were "knocked out" as in the old days in carriage workshops. More advanced technology so-called. A.N. Tupolev used the "plasma-template method" to recreate the "replica" B-29 (Tu-4).
    1. avt
      avt 22 July 2015 09: 51
      +1
      Quote: V.ic
      ... More advanced technology so-called. "Plasma-template method" was applied by A.N. Tupolev when recreating a "replica" of B-29 (Tu-4).

      In fact, even before the war, Myasischev introduced S-47 / Lee -2 in production.
    2. rubin6286
      rubin6286 22 July 2015 11: 05
      +1
      Tito was taken out of the encirclement to Li-2 (Si-47), and not to Pe-8.
  7. parusnik
    parusnik 22 July 2015 09: 21
    +1
    the fascist leadership was literally furious with the flight of the Soviet People's Commissar, which happened under their nose. ...Of course..! And what a propaganda effect .. And most importantly, what kind of people were ..
    Great car and a hard fate .. like a man ..
  8. Azzi
    Azzi 22 July 2015 09: 23
    +1
    Golovanov’s memoir is even more interesting; I highly recommend reading it.
  9. Taoist
    Taoist 22 July 2015 10: 00
    +7
    It was necessary to use the memoirs of Pusep himself "Troubled Sky" - I have been reading it as a child ... By the way, there is the reason for the crash of Asyamov's plane and many other interesting details.
  10. Caduc
    Caduc 22 July 2015 13: 10
    -2
    Good article and good was the plane.
    As far as I know, Pe 8 was bombarded by Koenigsberg with 5 ton bombs on Kursk in 1943.
    There were Pe 8 and with diesel engines.
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan 23 July 2015 09: 59
      0
      Pe 8 bombed 5 with Konigsberg ton bombs on the Kursk Bulge in 1943.
      Königsberg on the Kursk Bulge ??? belay
  11. samurai way
    samurai way 22 July 2015 14: 26
    0
    As always a good article. Thank you.
    1. WUA 518
      WUA 518 22 July 2015 16: 43
      +4
      Pilot for Molotov. One chance out of a thousand
  12. HAM
    HAM 22 July 2015 20: 19
    0
    Endel Karlovich Pusep described all these events in great detail in his autobiographical book "The Sky on Fire", I advise you to read it. The Siberian Estonian knew his business, the pilot is a cool polar pilot.
  13. LMaksim
    LMaksim 22 July 2015 20: 35
    0
    The English cunning beetles turns out to be.
    1. Noncombatant
      Noncombatant 23 July 2015 03: 45
      +1
      You bastards. They spoiled the whole Russian life.
  14. Signore Tomato
    Signore Tomato 23 July 2015 07: 55
    0
    More articles about the heroic past!
  15. Taoist
    Taoist 24 July 2015 11: 52
    0
    Quote: Alexey RA
    It would be necessary to open a Second Front in Europe at 1942 - otherwise the British airfields would be crowded, and the goals within the radius, on the contrary, would end. Poor Northern France ...


    Yes ... I am now re-reading Churchill's correspondence with Stalin ... Our "bulldog" would not have survived the Second Front in 42 ... I would have choked with bile ... ;-)