Unusual tanks of Russia and the USSR. Tank TG 1931 g

In the USSR at the end of the 20 of the last century, tank building was not fully developed. The basis of the armored troops of the Red Army were the machines manufactured under license from the basis of imported samples of light tanks. The leadership of the country, understanding the urgent need to manufacture their own domestic-made machines, in every way contributed to the promotion of various projects of Soviet engineers and designers. Every year, the UMM RKKA’s commission considered dozens of projects and made decisions on allocating huge funds for their development. One of the important areas of domestic tank building was the creation of medium tanks capable of accompanying infantry both in a deep offensive and in breaking through the fortified lines of defense of the enemy. The lack of experience of Soviet engineers to create this type of machines led to the failure of several such projects, and it was decided to invite and connect to the creation of new models of foreign experts. So in the USSR was invited German engineer Edward Grote (Edward Grote). Once in the Soviet Union in March 1930, E. Grote, together with a group of German technicians and engineers, began work in April on his new project for an average maneuverable tank TG or Tank Grote.

Unusual tanks of Russia and the USSR. Tank TG 1931 g



The TG project was developed in a specially created KB ABO-5 plant "Bolshevik". According to E. Grote, according to the technical assignment, this should be a highly maneuverable, well-armed and protected by a 18-30-mm anti-rifled armor tank weighing no more than 20 tons, capable of moving at a speed of at least 35 km per hour. In April, the 1931 of the year, a prototype of the machine was built and in July it was submitted to tests that lasted more than two months. Having shown good results of speed, 34 km per hour, high maneuverability and throughput, the Grote tank, thanks to the reverse mechanism and six-speed gearbox, was able to move back and forth with the same speed. The shielded chassis of the machine consisted of five rubber-coated rollers of large diameter, equipped with an individual coil spring and a brake mechanism. Six supporting rollers, guide and rear (with installed drive wheel gear) on board. Tracked tracks were manufactured by hot stamping and had a high durability resource. In the stern of the armored hull was placed V-shaped 12-cylinder aircraft engine M-6 carburetor type power 305 hp The armored hull of the vehicle was fully welded, size: length 7,5 m, width 3,1 m, height 2,84 m, made of rolled armor plates with inclined mounting, armor was: forehead - 44 mm, board - 24 mm, feed - 20mm.

The armament deployment scheme was three-tiered, the first tier of armament consisted of two 7,62-mm tank guns DT-29, installed in ball bearings and housed in the onboard body armor plates. The second tier included an 76,2-mm joint design P.N. Syachentov and E. Grote and three 7,62-mm machine guns of the Maxim system, also installed in ball bearings and housed in a tall underbog box. The third tier - one 37-mm PS-1 gun mounted in a rotating turret, which had a large angle of vertical guidance, which allowed firing at air targets.

To monitor the progress of the battle, a commander's cupola was installed on the roof of the rotating turret, equipped with a tank periscope.


1931 year. TG on trial

In general, the car had a favorable impression on the members of the commission; however, a number of significant shortcomings were identified, one of which was a small space, the close position of the crew made it impossible to simultaneously fire cannons and machine guns. It was noted poor cooling of the engine, which led to its rapid overheating. The unfortunate location of the gearbox and side clutches made it difficult to access these nodes for repairs in the event of a breakdown. October 4 1931 was ordered to thoroughly examine and study the “Grotto tank” in depth. After examining the car carefully, the commission concluded: "Tank Grote considered an experimental model." However, not only the technical shortcomings of the machine were the reason for the refusal to adopt it and launch into the series. Among other things, the complexity of the design in the production affected, which made the car very expensive, its cost exceeded 1 500 000 rubles. Soon all the work on the TG project was discontinued, engineer E. Grote began to develop new projects for the creation of TG-4 and TG-5 heavy tanks. However, the experience gained by Soviet engineers and designers who worked together with German colleagues, was later successfully applied in the following projects.
Author:
Max Belyaev
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