Military Review

Legendary and unknown ICS

29
Soon after the end of the Second World War in many countries of the world, they seriously thought about the individual protection for each soldier. Of course, the development existed much earlier, but only by this time did the materials and technologies appear that made it possible to manufacture high-quality, reliable and relatively light body armor.


Legendary and unknown ICS


And if there was a way to protect the soldier, it is quite clear that there was also a need to find ways to overcome the defense and hit the enemy soldier. In the Soviet Union, this issue was taken very seriously. Experts analyzed the situation and found two ways to reliably hit the enemy, protected by body armor.

Firstly, this is the use of a more powerful cartridge, allowing you to pierce a bulletproof vest and hit the enemy. This option was noted almost immediately. The increase in power forced to use more dimensional weapon. And the cost of developing completely new ammunition and subsequent production would be very, very expensive.

Secondly, it was possible to increase the accuracy of the weapon and to increase the distance of defeat. That is, it was necessary to develop a weapon that could be used to strike an adversary in parts of the body that are not protected by armor at long range. And it is precisely on this path of development and decided to go.



First of all, the experts analyzed - what prevents the sniper from firing accurate fire, hitting the enemy in unprotected parts of the body? As it turned out - a great distance and side wind. Of course, any experienced sniper who has a few thousand rounds of ammunition can easily identify both the first and the second, taking corrections by eye, spending a few seconds on it, and hitting an enemy who is a half kilometer away and more. However, what about those snipers who have only a few dozen rounds of ammunition, and there is simply no time for additional training? It was a surprising and seemingly completely impossible decision to implement - to reduce the influence of distance and side wind on the flight of a bullet. That is, the bullet should have hit the enemy at a great distance, but at the same time the shooting should have been carried out with a minimum number of corrections for distance and wind.

Yes, it may seem impossible to someone to create such a weapon. But Soviet experts got down to business. It was decided to first create a new type of ammunition, and then a rifle, which would allow for the best shooting performance.

The transition from words to deeds turned out to be not so simple as it might seem. Not so long ago, a new SVD rifle was adopted, the indicators of which favorably distinguished it from any other analogues created in the USSR and around the world. She had excellent accuracy, and in addition - was developed under the usual cartridge caliber 7,62x54, which is not the first decade of successfully used in our country. That is, the production of this rifle was quite simple and economical. So many of the military sincerely did not understand - why do we need new weapons, if the existing one meets all the requirements.

And still with difficulty, with difficulty, but the development began. The task was very difficult, so the appropriate cartridge was created only in the early eighties. The caliber turned out to be very non-standard - millimeters 6x49. However, he was significantly inferior to the caliber of the SVD in size and weight, and perfectly satisfied all the requirements expressed by the experts - the goal was amazed at a great distance when making minimum corrections during aiming.

Of course, for the new patron it was necessary to develop a new weapon. And to him also made certain demands. The main of them were dimensions. The new rifle should not have a length in excess of 1225 millimeters. This became a mandatory requirement, since the sniper had to travel regularly in the transport compartment of the infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers, and a large-sized rifle could cause serious problems during transportation. But at the same time, the barrel length could not be less than 720 millimeters in order to realize the excellent characteristics of the cartridge.

It was originally planned to modify the Dragunov sniper rifle, but this idea had to be immediately abandoned. Corresponding to the total length (1220 millimeters), it did not fit the length of the trunk (total millimeters 620). And firing a weapon with such a barrel would nullify all the improved performance of the new cartridge, reducing the new characteristics to the characteristics of the SVD. Reducing the length of the receiver also could not solve the problem, solely for technical reasons. Reducing the butt would simply lead to the fact that the sniper could not shoot with sufficient comfort, and hence the accuracy would be significantly reduced.

That is why it was decided to develop a new rifle based on a Kalashnikov assault rifle. Of course, a number of changes were made, after which quite a few of the machine’s mechanism remained - the principle of mounting the position of the receiver was changed, which made it possible to increase the accuracy of shooting. To reduce the barrel length, a special flame arrester has also been designed. The new technology has reduced its length by almost 5 centimeters relative to the flame arrester of the SVD.

Frame butt SVK allowed to reduce the overall weight, and the front part of the butt was a pistol grip, which was another design finding. SVK-S, having a folding stock, was equipped with a removable pistol grip, because of which the weight increased by one hundred grams. A box-shaped two-row magazine for a rifle could hold up to 10 cartridges, which is quite consistent with any sniper rifles. Shooting from a rifle could be carried out with or without a sniper scope. Especially for this, it was equipped with open sighting devices - the front sight and the whole.

ЗAvodskie trials rifle was just great, showing full compliance with the new requirements, thereby gaining access to field trials.

During the shooting, the sniper easily put all ten bullets in a circle with a diameter of five centimeters at a distance of one hundred meters. However, this was not the limit of the rifle! A test was conducted, which compared the combat characteristics of the SVD and SVK. And the new rifle really showed great results!

When firing at a distance of 630 meters, the accuracy of the SVK exceeded the accuracy of the SVD by 1.33 times. Increasing the distance to 770 meters - 1.73 times. Well, when shooting at distances in 930 and 1030 meters - in 3,89 times! That is, the result was just great. When firing from such weapons it became quite possible to hit living targets at a distance of a kilometer, which is usually considered a sign of the highest professionalism even among the best shooters.

Do not forget that the length of the VLV was on the 32 millimeter less than the length of the SVD. And this is despite the fact that the length of the barrel of the first millimeter on 100 is more than the length of the barrel of the second! True, the weight of the new rifle on 400 grams exceeded the weight of the old. However, excellent performance when shooting quite compensated for this shortcoming.

Alas, by the end of the eighties, when the rifle was fully ready for production, our country was in a difficult situation - the collapse of the Soviet Union was not far off, with the result that the rifle was not put into production.

The only thing that can serve as a consolation, albeit rather weak, is that many technical solutions found during the creation of the VCS were used later. For example, both the folding butt and the slotted flame arrester have found use in the creation of the SVD-S. Tiger-9 (hunting carbine) and Bison-2 (submachine gun) were equipped with exactly the same flame arresters, which proved their superiority.

Alas, the work on the cartridge caliber 6х49 was completely stopped. But many experts, both then and now claim that it was this cartridge that could well become the most suitable sniper for platoon assignment. And I must say that the JMC was far from being the only weapon that could have become a wonderful addition to the Russian arsenal, but it was unfairly forgotten. Many rifles, machine guns, pistols and machine guns, created by Russian gunsmiths, had the right to be used in the modern army, but were forgotten for completely unconvincing reasons.
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  1. Lesnik
    Lesnik 23 November 2013 08: 00
    +5
    When shooting at a distance of 630 meters, the accuracy of the SVK was 1.33 times higher than the accuracy of the SVD. With a distance increase of up to 770 meters - 1.73 times. Well, when shooting at distances of 930 and 1030 meters - 3,89 times!

    I don’t understand HOW is this technically possible?
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Timeout
      Timeout 23 November 2013 10: 25
      18
      It's all about the cartridge. More bullet speed and flat trajectory.
      1. vanaheym
        vanaheym 25 November 2013 00: 03
        0
        Quote: Timeout
        It's all about the cartridge. More bullet speed and flat trajectory.

        I think that talking about the 6x49 cartridge it makes sense to look back at .243Win, which is 6x52.
        A good cartridge, but I do not think that it is better than its ancestor - .308Win, especially at long distances.
        In general, 6x49 is a legend cartridge, about which everyone read, but which 99,9999% did not see.
        Personally, I do not believe in its magical properties - its ballistics is clearly at the level of .243
    3. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 23 November 2013 11: 28
      +1
      Those who tried to fire from AK-74 at a distance of 950 meters know where these numbers come from:
      When shooting at a distance of 630 meters, the accuracy of the SVK was 1.33 times higher than the accuracy of the SVD. With a distance increase of up to 770 meters - 1.73 times. Well, when shooting at distances of 930 and 1030 meters - 3,89 times!

      It is clear that it was more accurate than SVD, but the characteristics are clearly overstated.
      1. Mister X
        Mister X 23 November 2013 20: 31
        +4
        Quote: cth; fyn
        It is clear that it was more accurate than SVD, but the characteristics are clearly overstated.

        When shooting at a distance of 100 m lying from the stop using an optical sight
        in three series of 10 shots the accuracy of fire was R100 - 5,5 cm, R50 - 2,3
        (where R100 and R50 are the radii of the circle containing 100 and 50% of the holes, respectively).

        On average across all lines, the superiority of the SVK over the SVD rifle in terms of frequency of defeat was 2,32.

        Data taken from an article by Vladimir Simonenko
        Published on Kalashnikov.ru
        Article Address:
        http://www.kalashnikov.ru/upload/medialibrary/227/04_07.pdf
        1. makarov
          makarov 24 November 2013 13: 43
          0
          SW Mister x.
          On the link indicated by you, the material "sounds" generally different from the one under discussion. stated clearly and conclusively.
          In the above, the author "refilled his water", so it turned out "cranberry"
          1. Mister X
            Mister X 24 November 2013 18: 18
            0
            Why be surprised?
            After all, Vladimir Simonenko is a leading design engineer of Izhmash.
            He is supposed to express his thoughts clearly, clearly and conclusively.
            Where do we go before him ...

            Quote: makarov
            the author "refilled his water", so it turned out "cranberry"

            Apparently a person was trying to do rewriting: not just copy-paste,
            and add a little personality to the material.
            And the rules for publishing articles on this site encourage the uniqueness of the material.
            It turned out a little messy, but I hope that his next publications will favorably differ from this one.
    4. seregatara1969
      seregatara1969 23 November 2013 16: 03
      +1
      everyone knows that a chromed barrel has worse performance than just an iron one.
    5. edge
      edge 24 November 2013 07: 20
      +1
      Quote: Forestman
      When shooting at a distance of 630 meters, the accuracy of the SVK was 1.33 times higher than the accuracy of the SVD. With a distance increase of up to 770 meters - 1.73 times. Well, when shooting at distances of 930 and 1030 meters - 3,89 times! I do not understand HOW is this technically possible?

      due to correction of derivation, increase in barrel length, change in the quality of gunpowder and refinement of the cartridge design
  2. alex-cn
    alex-cn 23 November 2013 08: 17
    +7
    unexpected article for me. I had not heard of the 6x49 cartridge before. I know for sure that there was a development of the SVD under the 6.5x54 cartridge, there is such a target, there even seemed to be tests in the troops with good reviews, but everything died out ..
    the SVDK was also developed for the 9x64 cartridge, but the ballistics of the hunting patron did not fit for sniper shooting, and it remained the "Tiger"
    It is strange that the firing ranges given in the article are very similar to the conversion from yards.
  3. makarov
    makarov 23 November 2013 08: 49
    +8
    "Alas, by the end of the eighties, when the rifle was completely ready for production, our country was in a difficult situation - the collapse of the Soviet Union was not far off, as a result of which the rifle was never put into production ..."

    The author is deeply mistaken in his conclusions. If to be of principle, then initially the terms of the TK were erroneous. What does it mean "to hit places not protected by individual protection." SVD coped well with the task of defeating the enemy and with the means of IZ. The transience of the battle requires hitting the enemy at the moment of the battle itself, and how much he will be there for treatment, either from a penetrating wound, or from a non-penetrating wound, is no longer important. It is important that at least one more fighter is excluded for evacuation from the battlefield. The author "floats" in the description of the concept and conclusions. All material is built on empty phrases not confirmed by these phrases. As a mass weapon, SVD is force.
  4. kartalovkolya
    kartalovkolya 23 November 2013 09: 51
    0
    And for an hour, isn't the 6x49 cartridge the same that was used in his machine gun by the designer Fedorov or the Japanese from "Arisaki" at the beginning of the 20th century?
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 23 November 2013 10: 28
      +1
      No, different ballistics and energy, as well as the basic sizes of the cartridge. According to the characteristics of 6,5, Arisaka is not even nearby, especially in muzzle energy.
    2. Kibb
      Kibb 23 November 2013 18: 04
      +7
      Absolutely not, Arisak’s cartridge is by no means intermediate, although it’s one of those that led to the creation of the classic (7,62X39), on par with Fedorov’s cartridge (although it’s also not intermediate). Despite the fact that I shoot mostly not with Soviet bullets, respect for Russian gunsmiths is the most serious, despite the flaws (for example, TT-I do not like him, unlike SVT (Sveta =),
      AK and SVD for mass weapons are very good, especially SVD, Makar as a weapon self-defense is generally a masterpiece)
      Acquainted closely with "Tavor" during the year. The machine is YES !!! At least the M4 and my beloved Galil and AK are already very outdated, the Prfesor probably knows what Galati is (though it's also old - well, who knows what kind of rifle it is?) But also AK
      Sorry for the language - I did not speak Russian for a year.
      Hello my favorite site !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
      1. ramsi
        ramsi 23 November 2013 18: 50
        +2
        probably, nevertheless, it was easier to switch 7.62X54 to 6X54
        1. Mister X
          Mister X 23 November 2013 20: 40
          0
          Quote: ramsi
          it was easier to cross 7.62X54 to 6X54

          I agree!
          After all, the 7.62x39 cartridge became a donor.
          And it turned out Pretzel: cartridge 6.5 Grendel (6.5x38)
          It is developed on the basis of the sleeve of the Soviet cartridge 7.62x39 mm with a dulge pressed to the required caliber.
          They say that the arrows did not rejoice in this cartridge.
          1. ramsi
            ramsi 23 November 2013 20: 46
            +1
            no, it's a sniper! Only on 6X54; or rather, it could even be simplified - 5.45X54
            1. Mister X
              Mister X 23 November 2013 22: 00
              0
              Quote: ramsi
              could even be simplified - 5.45X54

              I praise for the soldier and design savvy!
              But the weight of the bullet 5.45x54 (3.3 gr.) Will serve us poorly:
              it will be blown away by the wind far from the intended target.

              V.G. Fedorov was already experimenting with 1915, 6 and 6.5 mm bullets in 7.
              He came to the conclusion that the optimal bullet caliber for a rifle intermediate cartridge is 6.5 mm and weight 8.5 gr.
        2. Hudo
          Hudo 23 November 2013 23: 50
          0
          Quote: ramsi
          probably, nevertheless, it was easier to switch 7.62X54 to 6X54


          Probably still decided to leave the edge of the sleeve 7.62X54 in favor of the ring groove. They worked for the future.
          1. ramsi
            ramsi 24 November 2013 06: 03
            0
            it is possible, but since they did not show much interest in the new caliber, then apparently this would be the only compromise ... Although, this rifle, it seems, also has a barrel hung out, which is not quite right for a regular weapon
            1. Hudo
              Hudo 24 November 2013 11: 17
              0
              Quote: ramsi
              perhaps, but since they did not show much interest in the new caliber, apparently this would be the only compromise ..

              Humpbacked damn-roll cotton with his disaster - what compromises are there, fine-tuning existing models under this cartridge and developing new ones. There is no time for sekas - to stay alive!
        3. edge
          edge 24 November 2013 07: 30
          0
          Quote: ramsi
          probably, nevertheless, it was easier to switch 7.62X54 to 6X54

          probably not easier, the edge disturbs for a long time and makes it difficult to design
  5. vkrav
    vkrav 23 November 2013 14: 24
    +6
    Quote: kartalovkolya
    And for an hour, isn't the 6x49 cartridge the same that was used in his machine gun by the designer Fedorov or the Japanese from "Arisaki" at the beginning of the 20th century?

    Initially, Fedorov developed his rifle under a cartridge of his own design of improved ballistics 6.5x50 ... They moved on to the Arisakov cartridge from poverty ... Damn. Yet at the beginning of the century Fedorov conducted fundamental research on the ballistics of cartridges of various calibers and came to the conclusion that it is optimal for automatic weapons is a caliber 6.5. Throughout life, it has been proved and punched. Several times we tried it — yes, it’s really optimal. But the bases were always not enough to switch to this caliber ...
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 24 November 2013 06: 04
      0
      Not certainly in that way. This caliber is optimal for individual weapons (automatic, carbine, rifle), but for a machine gun it is not enough. Neither in energy, nor in the power of a bullet. After the WWII, some countries where 6,5 caliber cartridges were in service were forced to switch to a larger caliber.
    2. edge
      edge 24 November 2013 07: 34
      +1
      Quote: vkrav
      6.5. Throughout his life he has proved and punched this. Several times he tried it - yes, it is really optimal. But the bases were always not enough to switch to this caliber.

      it all comes down to cartridge production and the saturation of technology for this cartridge, so that the sleeve with the edge will be in favor for a long time
  6. Wiruz
    Wiruz 23 November 2013 16: 11
    +2
    As far as I know, the SVK is a Kalashnikov sniper rifle, and it was developed under the 7,62x54 cartridge before the SVD. The author is not mistaken anywhere?
  7. bevatec
    bevatec 23 November 2013 16: 28
    +7
    The "author" stupidly cited excerpts from a more detailed article "Cartridge 6x49 and SVK, SVK-S, TKB-0145K sniper rifles" dated 15.10.2012 from the same site, no mind, no conscience.
    1. makarov
      makarov 23 November 2013 16: 30
      +3
      Yes, and he added his own stupid conclusions, that’s the result, shit.
  8. Pablo_K
    Pablo_K 23 November 2013 17: 31
    0
    Similar experiments with small-caliber cartridges were carried out 100 years ago
    what Fedorov wrote about this in the years 193
    http://ww1.milua.org/biblio/fedorov2.rar
    starting from page 140
  9. Massik
    Massik 23 November 2013 17: 32
    +1
    I didn’t even hear about such a 6x49 cartridge,
    When shooting at a distance of 630 meters, the accuracy of the SVK was 1.33 times higher than the accuracy of the SVD. With a distance increase of up to 770 meters - 1.73 times. Well, when shooting at distances of 930 and 1030 meters - 3,89 times!
    the only more or less objective information in the article, the rest can not be read, the category "design". Well, a little more attempts to "bike" in the introduction. The article cited above by the user is much more pleasant to read.
    The rifle is quite a pity, it’s a pity I didn’t go in the hunting version, although how can you get to our legislation ...
  10. uzer 13
    uzer 13 23 November 2013 19: 02
    0
    It is unlikely that such a cartridge will be produced in Russia solely for economic reasons. Although its ballistic qualities can be good, the varmting competition confirms this. And if there is no cartridge, then there will be no rifle.
  11. Mr. Truth
    Mr. Truth 25 November 2013 07: 08
    0
    The cartridge, in my opinion, has great prospects. This can be replaced and machine-gun rifle and intermediate cartridges.
  12. From
    From 25 November 2013 10: 52
    0
    In South Africa, on the basis of a single SS-77 machine gun, a smaller caliber machine gun was created. This shows the theoretical possibility of creating a .338 Lapua Magnum machine gun (8,6 × 70 mm) based on the KORD machine gun scheme. There is no evidence that anyone is trying to create a .338 Lapua Magnum self-loading sniper (based on large-caliber self-loading), but not automatic sniper rifles of this caliber praise zealously. Despite the fact that larger-caliber (12 mm or more) and heavier self-loading snipers already have to carry on themselves. A trio would be good: a sniper with a rifle with a sliding bolt; a partner that secures it with a self-loading sniper of the same caliber and a single machine gun for the same caliber. The cost of saturating the linear parts with weapons of a new caliber will be too high for the budget. Concern for saving will force to squeeze average indicators from the ammunition available in arsenals.
  13. gross kaput
    gross kaput 27 June 2014 17: 25
    0
    In general, tsifiri are some kind of hefty strange - firstly, absolutely incomprehensible distances (630,770,930,1030), and secondly, it is not entirely clear in this case the substitution of accuracy data for accuracy data, but even if you attach to the digit numbers and recount them relative to the data from NSD on dispersion of gross SVD, then the numbers cause even more questions, so in the numerator, the vertical dispersion in the denominator is horizontal - 630-9,7 / 9,7; 770-9,8 / 8,7; 930-5,9 / 5,4; 1030-7,7 / 6,42.
    All this very strongly suggests that the numbers are simply taken from the ceiling and inscribed simply for advertising purposes, if you do not go into details, then the data is admiring and if you think about it, it is perplexing.