Military Review

Unusual tanks of Russia and the USSR. "Rover" Porokhovshchikova

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Unusual tanks of Russia and the USSR. "Rover" PorokhovshchikovaSeptember 15, 1916 is considered the first day of use. tanks in battle. And many would be interested to know what they were, these first tanks. Like who, they were created. Today I will tell you about the first in stories tank design tank, or rather its prototype, sample and its creator Alexander Alexandrovich Porokhovshchikov (1893 - 1942).


A. A. Porokhovschikov from childhood showed an interest in inventing, few people know that in addition to the well-known “Rover”, he was involved in inventing airplanes, one of his monoplan models shown in 1909 was praised by N. Ye. Zhukovsky, he was also invented and The Bi-Kok two-body reconnaissance aircraft was built and tested in 1914, a training, two-seater P-1917, was created in 4, in the period from 1920 to 1923, P-4 bis, P-4 2 bis, P-5 and P-5 bis. They were launched into a series; many Soviet pilots, aces heroes of the Patriotic War, did not train these aircraft.

In August, X. NUMX, A. Porokhovshchikov appeals to the Special Committee at the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander with the draft of his new invention, and in January provides detailed drawings of the machine. January 1914 gets permission to build a prototype. He is given the necessary funds, equipment, 15 soldiers, artisans and more 25-ti skilled workers and on February 20 he will begin to produce a prototype. A military engineer, Colonel Poklevsky-Kozello was appointed to monitor the progress of the work.

As conceived by the inventor, the design of the Rover was very unusual. The hull was streamlined and designed to be sealed, with an air intake niche in front and multi-layered armor consisting of two steel sheets, one of which was cemented and a pad of pressed sea grass between them, the armor was also an invention by A. Porokhovshchikova ahead of its time . It should be noted that tanks with spaced booking appeared only in the second half of the last century. When fired from a distance of 50 meters, it withstood a bullet fired from both a rifle and a machine gun. The welded frame was supported by a single track mover, the caterpillar of which was stretched over four drums, the rear drum was the leading one and was driven by a strong engine through a propeller shaft and gearbox. Combat weight was four tons. To prevent the tracks from moving, grooves were cut on the drums, but with the possibility of longitudinal slipping, the problem was not completely solved. The rotation of the machine was carried out with the help of two swivel wheels placed on the sides of the machine. On hard ground, the car moved on the rear drum and side wheels, and on loose soil had to lie on a wide track. When driving on loose soil, the swivel wheels should, according to the inventor, play the role of the rudders of the type of aircraft wing, but in practice they only interfered with the movement, here the laws of motion in the air, which A. Porokhovshchikov knew perfectly well, did not fit, the turning attempt led to imminent breakdown. May 10 "Rover" out of the workshop gates to test on the movement on solid ground. During which he showed good speed for that time, with the tracked 18 km per hour. The transition to the wheeled movement was not made. At that time, a rotating turret and armament were not installed on the “Rover”, according to the plan, the armament of the vehicle was to consist of one 25 mm Maxim machine gun. The official demonstration was scheduled for July 7,62 and took place in the regimental yard, where the car had already shown a higher speed, but unfortunately this was the only advantage. The machine did not meet the expectations of A. A. Porokhovshchikov and was sent for revision during which it was not possible to correct all the identified deficiencies. Last 20 tests were performed on December 26 of the year.



There were still many shortcomings and omissions in the presented sample. The most significant drawback was the turning mechanism, its poor functionality, the driver had to turn the car manually using a pole. The design of the undercarriage was found to be unsatisfactory, and it was not possible to make it airtight due to the characteristics of the undercarriage. The placement of the crew inside the car was extremely inconvenient, due to the very small internal space. It was decided to refuse further work on this machine, the War Department obliged A. A. Porokhovshchikov to return the money allocated for the construction, and send the sample to the GVTU. This is the story of the creation of the world's first tank, albeit not successful and not accepted for service. However, he laid the foundation for Russian and Soviet tank building in the same way that the bot of Peter the Great laid the foundation for the mighty Russian the fleet. Following it there will be many projects, successful and not successful, and each of them will have its own story.

By the way:
Since 1917, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Porokhovshchikov is a major aircraft designer, headed by the design bureau. In 1941, he was repressed and shot, fully rehabilitated after 15 years.
Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Porokhovshchikov is the grandfather of the famous Russian actor Aleksandr Shalvovich Porokhovshchikov.
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  1. sirToad
    sirToad 8 October 2011 12: 32
    +9
    the correct approach: "The military department obliged A. A. Porokhovshchikov to return the money allocated for the construction" today would be so.
    But he turned out to be the grandfather of actor Porokhovshchikov.
  2. Vadivak
    Vadivak 8 October 2011 20: 17
    +6
    "All-terrain vehicle" with one caterpillar is the prototype of future snowmobiles. There would be no way to allocate money for revision, create a design bureau, otherwise they bought English and French ones in the civilian, however, a familiar song

    Today it is known that the first foreign-built tanks arrived in Russia during the Civil War, when the Entente began to help the White Army. On December 12, 1918, in Odessa, together with the French infantry, unloaded 20 Renault 17 FT tanks from the 3rd company of the 303rd regiment of assault artillery. It was this unit that “presented” the first trophy tanks to the Soviet state, because under the blows of the 2nd Ukrainian Soviet Army its personnel fled. March 22, 1919 on the ship "St. Michael" arrived the first batch of English tanks - six "large" (Mk V) and six "light" (Mk A). Together with the tanks, instructors arrived, drivers under the command of Major E. Brook. Soon in Yekaterinodar, the Salomas factory opened the School of English Tanks, which trained the future tankers of the Armed Forces in southern Russia.
  3. sirToad
    sirToad 8 October 2011 20: 45
    +2
    by the way, the remnants of those tanks still served in the EEEEE of the Estonian Army until 1940
    1. Moore
      Moore 16 November 2013 08: 54
      10
      Well, suppose in the 40th the history of Estonian tanks did not end. The Germans dragged them to themselves and figured out what to do with them. This is Berlin on the 45th.
  4. kesa1111
    kesa1111 13 October 2011 04: 06
    +6
    In fact, it was the first tank in the world.
    1. svp67
      svp67 16 November 2013 10: 03
      +3
      Quote: kesa1111
      In fact, it was the first tank in the world.
      Hurry TANKETTE. He did not carry cannon armament, it is not known whether he was able to break through the barbed wire, he could not reliably cover the infantry with his corps, so I think it would be more useful as a means of developing success when breaking through the enemy's defense, this is where he could send enough "rustle". ..
      1. Moore
        Moore 16 November 2013 13: 23
        +1
        I believe that there was already some means of developing success - cavalry.
        And as a means of breakthrough - of course, this device was no good.
        Yes, in 1914, no one thought about positional war. Hence, I believe, such a low interest in the sample - the field of its application did not represent at all.
      2. Aleks tv
        Aleks tv 16 November 2013 14: 20
        0
        Quote: svp67
        Hurry up TANKET.

        Ага.

        Porokhovschikov’s idea was interesting - a lightweight tracked armored car with a machine gun.
        It is a pity that they did not bring to mind. I would make a rustle.
  5. combat192
    combat192 16 November 2013 10: 03
    +3
    Actually, neither in the design documentation for the All-Terrain Vehicle, nor in any other documents, there are any hints about the installation of weapons. The picture with a machine-gun turret is nothing more than a fantasy of the "historians" of tkhnika, which arose in the mid-30s of the last century.
  6. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 16 November 2013 11: 09
    +2
    Thanks to the author. Losers-inventors often walk side by side, in circles, one step from the right decision. Good grandfather of a good grandson.
  7. tank64rus
    tank64rus 16 November 2013 15: 01
    0
    Then the MO had their own "Serdyukovs."
  8. family tree
    family tree 16 November 2013 19: 21
    +2
    If the car was conceived as an all-terrain vehicle, designed and made like an all-terrain vehicle, tested like an all-terrain vehicle and called an “All-terrain vehicle”, then, apparently, it was an all-terrain vehicle. Russia is NOT the birthplace of elephants. The closest in Russia to the tank scheme was, apparently, V.D. Mendeleev, but it was made by the British request
    1. fon_Stierlitz
      fon_Stierlitz 17 November 2013 23: 47
      0
      Well, not to say closer. His project was, of course, extremely interesting, but it turned out to be too expensive and complicated. Pneumatic suspension, lack of suitable engines (they planned to install captured German ones, that is, by definition, there could not be many such tanks), too large a mass, etc. In terms of money, it came out comparable to the construction of a new submarine, apparently that is why his project was rejected (we will keep silent about squandering the dough on the Tsar Tank, the tsar's whim remained with them.) Although it would still be interesting if his sample still built. winked
  9. waisson
    waisson 16 November 2013 20: 09
    +1
    everywhere there were SHUSHPENTERS who know this word he will understand