Military Review

Late to war

Self-propelled artillery installation of high power ISU-130:
weight - 46,3 t; speed - 40 km / h; armament: naval gun B-13, ammunition - 25 shots; powerplant - diesel V-2IS power 520 hp; booking: cannon mask, hull forehead - 120 mm, board - 90 mm, feed - 60 mm, roof of the cabin and the bottom of the case - 30- 20 mm; power reserve - 180 km; length with a gun - 10810 mm, body length 6770 mm, width - 3070 mm, height - 2480 mm, clearance - 470 mm; calculation - 5 people.

Barrel 130-mm gun
numbers indicated:

1 - breech; 2 - rear cover cap; 3 - casing; 4 - front grip cover; 5 - pipe; 6 - front grip; 7 - rear grip.

130-mm high-explosive fragmentation grenade OF-482:
1 - body; 2 - leading belts; 3 - TNT bursting charge; 4 - Smoke-enhancing checker; 5 - paraffin alloy with perezin; 6 - Fuse GU-1.

After the battle in the summer of 1943 on the Kursk, in which the Germans used new and improved models of armored vehicles, the Red Army needed Tanks and self-propelled artillery mounts that could fight them. Recall that the reservation of the frontal part of the hull and the felling of tank destroyers "Elephant" reached 250 mm, and the "Tigers" - 110 mm. In addition, self-propelled guns had to support “advancing infantry, motorized and tank units with fire and caterpillars,” including during the assault on settlements and the breakthrough of fortifications. Consequently, the new machines had to increase the firing range (including from closed positions), the initial velocity of the shells. And for this it was necessary to increase the mass of the charge and the pressure of the powder gases in the bore.

SAU "Elephant", Elefant SdKfz 184

Self-propelled guns with high-power cannons (BM) on a competitive basis were designed at the Uralmash design bureau 9, the Central Artillery Design Bureau (CACB), the Transmash Central Design Bureau, at the Design Bureau of Plant No. 172. It was decided to borrow the undercarriage, transmission and engine from the heavy tank EC-1, on the basis of which in 1943 there were already created two variants of the IMS-122 - with the A-19 gun of the 1931-1937 model. with a barrel length 46,3 caliber and D-25T with a barrel length 47 caliber. The shells fired from them had an initial speed of 800 m / s, which was considered insufficient for new requirements. All developers submitted their samples in 1944 and at the beginning of 1945.

Thus, in the Central Artillery Design Bureau, under the direction of VG Grabin, the ISU-122BM and ISU-130 were prepared. In both machines, the guns were housed in a cast frame in the front part of the fixed felling, with the same bolts and recoil devices. Understandably, the artillery systems themselves had inherent features.

The gun 122BM barrel, length 59,5 calibers, was with 1,5-percent cutting and screw-up breech. Under the barrel there was a hydraulic recoil brake and a hydropneumatic knurler. Later, such a layout was recognized not very successful, since the height of the line of fire increased, which negatively affected the stability of the self-propelled gun when firing full charges. The shutter was wedge, horizontal, with semiautomatic copier type.

After the shot and ejection of the liner, the barrel was blown with compressed air stored in the cylinder. When firing from closed positions, the gunner used the ZIS-3 panoramic sight, while direct aiming he used a telescopic CT-10.

The lifting mechanism of the 122BM gun was of a sector type and provided the elevation angles of the barrel from minus 1 to plus 14 degrees, the rotary mechanism of the screw type - horizontal guidance along 5 degrees in both directions.

The ammunition consisted of 25 high-explosive fragmentation and armor-piercing rounds of separate loading with 25 kg shells, which had an initial speed of 1000 m / s, and the firing range reached 9800 m.

In the frame, the ISU-130 armored vehicle mounted the rocking part of the X-NUMX-mm B-130 naval cannon, which was equipped with a muzzle brake to reduce rollback. The horizontal alignment angles were increased by the degree, height of the 13 caliber, plus minus 54,7 to plus 2. ISU-15 could hit targets at a distance 130 m from the firing position.

30 June - 4 August 1945, both self-propelled guns passed ground tests, which revealed their shortcomings. These included the unsatisfactory accuracy of armor-piercing projectiles hit the targets (therefore, in a combat situation, into enemy tanks) and excessive scattering of high-explosive when firing over the squares. Customers were not satisfied with the rate of fire of the 2 shot per minute and the stability of the machine when fired, and the angles of horizontal and vertical pickup were considered small. Consequently, ISU-122BM and ISU-130 needed to be improved, but in September 1945 ended the Second World War, they hadn’t thought about the “cold” yet, and it was considered inexpedient to improve both machines.

Simultaneously with them, in 1944, in OKB-172, they developed their own version of a high-powered self-propelled gun based on JSU-122. To do this, X-NUMX-mm BL-122 cannon with a barrel length 9 of calibers, which in ballistics exceeded A-59 and was close to the Grabinsky 19B, was placed in a closed wheelhouse.

SAU ISU-122 "Hypericum" MO-B57

In May, plant No. 172 prepared the undercarriage; in June, the artillery system was mounted on it. The trunk of the BL-9 was monoblock, the bolt was wedge, horizontal, semi-automatic. The ammunition had 24 high-explosive fragmentation and armor-piercing-tracer shots of separate loading with 25-kilogram projectiles, which had an initial speed of 1100 m / s and hit the enemy at a distance of 10700 m. The squad kept 12,7 ammo for it.

This machine was given the designation JSU-122-1, in September 1944, it was subjected to field testing, and in May 1945, after the elimination of some shortcomings, and the state one. Since the Great Patriotic War had ended by that time, it was not accepted for service.

In the same OKB-172 in the self-propelled armored cushion placed a swinging part of the anti-tank gun BL-20, which had the same ballistics as the BL-9. The elevation angles of the trunk, 59 lengths of calibers, were from minus 1 to plus 25 degrees, therefore the maximum firing range - 17000 m - exceeded that of 122BM, the angles of horizontal fire increased to 10 degrees on both sides, the rate of firing reached 10 shots per minute

Unlike the previous ones, the self-propelled gun was conceived on the basis of the medium tank T-34, thereby making it easier to 33,1 t and increasing speed and maneuverability. However, they were late here as well - by the end of the war they managed to prepare only a technical project, and it did not come to its realization.

In 1944, two more high-power self-propelled guns, equipped with X-NUMX-mm D-122 guns, were made on the chassis of the modernized T-25-34 tank. And they came out easier self-propelled guns, designed on the basis of EC-85, their weight did not exceed 1 t, but the speed reached 31,5 km / h. And these installations did not have time to go to war, and work on them also remained unfinished.

Self-propelled artillery installations of similar power were engaged in the OKB-9 under the supervision of F.F. Petrov. There they plotted a powerful anti-tank system based on the serial SU-100, also made on the “thirty-four” chassis, with the X-NUMX-mm D-85 gun.

Its barrel, 58,4 long in caliber, was composite and included a smooth front-wall pipe (choke), 1136 mm in length and 87,8 mm in diameter, and a rifled back. The gun received a semi-automatic, wedge, horizontal shutter, which provides the maximum rate of fire to 10 rounds per minute. D-10 had a hydraulic brake of recoil and the same nádnik, whose cylinders after the shot went off with the barrel. The sectorial lifting mechanism (from minus 2 to plus 17 degrees) and the helical rotary (by 8 degrees aboard) were of push-pull type. For shooting from closed positions on the 13200 m served as a panoramic sight, with direct aiming - telescopic TSH-15. The ammunition was 28 high-explosive and armor-piercing rounds with shells 9,5 and 9,4 kg, which had initial speeds in 1030 and 1050 m / s. The front part of the liner from the more powerful shot of the 100-mm gun was crimped under the bottom of the 85-mm projectile from the anti-aircraft gun.

From 13 to 26 in January 1945, this self-propelled gun, SU-85BM, was presented to the ground tests, the result of which was disappointing - the accuracy of hits with shots on shields and terrain at a distance of 500 and 2000 m was considered unsatisfactory. Acknowledged low and the vitality of the trunk, which was observed increased heights of the cuts and chambers when using enhanced charges.

Late to war
SU-85. Self-propelled artillery installation. 1943 year

Therefore, the OKB-9 urgently manufactured a new barrel with modified ballistics and deep grooves, and the D-10-85А index was assigned to the weapon equipped with it. Now the chamber was squandered under the over-pressed sleeve of the more powerful ammunition for the X-NUMX-mm A-122 cannon. And although the pressure in the barrel has decreased from 19 to 3150 kg / cc, the initial velocity of the armor-piercing projectile weighing 3000 kg has remained very high - 9,4 m / s.

When tested in May-June 1945, self-propelled gun at a distance of 1000 m punched armor plates with a thickness of up to 155 mm. At the same time, this car, as well as its competitors, found all the same flaws - poor stability in firing, low accuracy and low survivability of the trunk.

By the summer of 1945, the Central Aviation Design Bureau of VG Grabin also developed and manufactured the H-3-457 cannon of the same caliber, which had the same ballistics as the D-10-85. Only it was completed without a smooth-bore muzzle nozzle, thanks to which it was possible to significantly increase the service life of the barrel and slightly improve the accuracy of hits, which is especially important when firing at moving targets. But even in this case, further work on high-power self-propelled guns did not consider it necessary to continue, since hostilities in Europe had ceased, and military equipment used by the Red Army was sufficient for the planned operations against Japan.

And soon it was time to start creating self-propelled high-power artillery installations of the new generation. Now, at the disposal of the designers, there was also information verified during the tests about the optimal ratio of charge mass, pressure of powder gases in the barrel, the initial velocity of the projectiles, which was to provide future guns with the necessary combat effectiveness and survivability. The same applied to the running gears - the combat experience and running-in of experimental machines made it possible to identify their positive and negative sides.
Youth Technique # 8 for 1998 year
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  1. svp67
    svp67 18 May 2013 07: 35 New
    Hmm, I represent the torment of our "home-made" take into service such "long-nosed bearers", especially in cities and forests. Although the guns are certainly powerful and the “skins” of the German panzers would be spoiled qualitatively ...
    1. Argon
      Argon 18 May 2013 14: 50 New
      In general, it’s a minus article, I don’t think that the “academician” could have gotten so wrong, there were a lot of inaccuracies, conclusions similar in spirit to those of the late 70s. It’s another matter that the next WOT speaker signed by someone else’s name. , it’s enough to recall the political situation of those years. In the summer of 45, the Soviet political leadership took measures to ensure the defense of the occupied territories, followed by a counter strike. (Rep. G. Zhukova). And Churchill prepared (as we now know) a strike, prisoners of war were already mobilized (3 to 5 divisions were formed but not armed), plus the English units in fact. The Amer reasoned, they hadn’t included their plans yet. They didn’t pin them on two fronts. Our industry simply couldn’t master the production of anti-tank artillery complex with an initial velocity of the projectile of 1000 or more M / C. And as it turned out during the development of the listed samples and was not affordable, I mean absolutely not money. For example, in the manufacture of Pak-43 (one of the most successful anti-tank guns) out of 12 barrel stocks, only one became an instrument, in terms of bread and butter, Germany paid with five unborn / dead babies, could the USSR afford such a luxury? after such a war. On the other hand, it cannot be said that nothing has been done, the D-10 is a wonderful gun with perfectly balanced characteristics that allowed to destroy all MBTs of the Germans and allies, but even such a gun required considerable efforts to modernize production (which explains the delay series) .It should be mentioned that armor penetration depends on at least 60% of the projectile, and here the situation returned to normal only in 50 g. As a result, it can be said that 44 g was very difficult for our army in terms of VET, and although work aimed at correcting the situation was carried out, sappers were the main means of fighting German heavy tanks, yes sappers the main losses in the TTB: damage, mines, aviation, artillery, tanks (according to German documents although it’s not worth considering that this is the ultimate truth) .If we assume that the war would have lasted another year, I think the BASIC self-propelled gun would become one of those experimental machines that were developed under the impression of a “Hetzer” with a gun in calibres 76- 85mm. Now, regarding the illustrations, Ferdinand against the background of T-34-85; after the Kursk battle, the remnants of 90 self-propelled guns were sent (after repairs and organizational events of the units) to Italy and the east did not return. "St. John's wort" so our fighters they called the SU-152 car on the KV chassis during the Battle of Kursk, which, although it carried any enemy, it was more luck than skill to hit a maneuvering target. lol
      1. Igarr
        Igarr 18 May 2013 21: 18 New
        Sergey Vladimirovich..
        Why do you specially distort the language?
        Believe me, the difference is a truly illiterate person .. and a person who consciously pretends to be illiterate is gigantic.
        It is not a matter of syntactic and grammatical errors. The point is the construction of sentences, the semantic load.
        But with this you are all right.
        "... aviation, arteLLeriya, tanks .. "
        What for?
    SIBIR38RUS 18 May 2013 08: 31 New
    I read the article and marvel at how quickly and quickly everything was developed and needed for the front at that time, and in the post-war years ... Now it takes years to develop and, of course, a lot of money due to overfilling and sharing of the budget.
    1. Mikhado
      Mikhado 18 May 2013 10: 12 New
      Quote: SIBIR38RUS
      I read the article and marvel at how quickly and quickly everything was developed and needed for the front at that time, and in the post-war years ... Now it takes years to develop and, of course, a lot of money due to overfilling and sharing of the budget.

      Yes, everything is simple - firstly, war is the best catalyst for progress, and secondly, technology was then much simpler than the current one, and cheaper, that’s speed. Although, even at that level of difficulty, the rush turned into "childhood illnesses", which were brought in the series, and the soldiers suffered at the front. And as soon as everything was eliminated, the equipment managed to become obsolete, especially for the aircraft of that time.
  3. avt
    avt 18 May 2013 09: 47 New
    After an unpleasant meeting with the Tigers and Panthers, they thought that the Germans would prepare a new surprise and decided to play ahead of the curve, but they didn’t need it, but they didn’t finish further due to the reasons stated in the article.
  4. Iraclius
    Iraclius 18 May 2013 11: 11 New
    The vehicles turned out to be very powerful and represented a very great danger to German heavily armored tanks. Although not without drawbacks. Separate loading and low rate of fire are the main ones. Carrying 40 kg of shells manually in the confined space of the armored cabin is something else. Plus, a small portable ammunition. However, knowledge of their technology and combat experience allowed us to work miracles.
    For example, in the Berlin operation on April 19, the 360th Guards Heavy Self-propelled Artillery Regiment supported the advance of the 388th Rifle Division. Parts of the division took possession of one of the groves east of Lichtenberg, where they gained a foothold. The next day, an enemy with the strength of up to one infantry regiment, with the support of 15 tanks, began to counterattack. When repulsing attacks during the day by heavy artillery fire, 10 German tanks were destroyed and up to 300 soldiers and officers.

    During the East Prussian operation, the 378 th guards heavy self-propelled artillery regiment successfully used the formation of the battle order of the regiment in the battles on the Zemland peninsula during the East Prussian operation. This provided the regiment with shelling in the 180 ° sector and more and made it easier to fight enemy tanks attacking from different directions.

    One of the ISU-152 batteries, having built its battle formation with a fan on the front with a length of 250 m, successfully repulsed 7 on April 1945, a counter attack of 30 enemy tanks, knocking out six of them. Battery loss is not suffered. Only two cars received minor damage to the chassis.

    Back in December, 1943 of the year, given that in the future the enemy could have new tanks with more powerful armor, the State Special Forces ordered to design and manufacture self-propelled artillery units with increased power by April 1944:

    • with an 122-mm gun, which has an initial speed of 1000 m / s with a projectile mass in 25 kg;

    • with an 130-mm gun, which has an initial speed of 900 m / s with a projectile mass in 33.4 kg;

    • with an 152-mm gun, which has an initial speed of 880 m / s with a projectile mass in 43.5 kg.

    All these guns pierced armor 200 mm thick at a distance of 1500 – 2000 m.
  5. Alf
    Alf 18 May 2013 15: 11 New
    "armoring the front of the hull and wheelhouse fighter tanks" Elephant "reached 250 mm, and the" Tigers "- 110 mm."
    For reference ... Ferdinand forehead-200 mm, Tiger forehead-100 mm. The author clearly confused Ferdinand with the Jagdtiger.
    The main reasons for not adopting these self-propelled guns were overloading the front rollers and low maneuverability due to the long reach of the barrel. In addition, it was decided to build self-propelled guns according to the Ferdinand type, i.e. with aft placement of the fighting compartment.
    1. Iraclius
      Iraclius 18 May 2013 16: 07 New
      Yes that's right. Ferdinad’s frontal part was formed from two sheets of armored steel, each 100 mm thick. It is strange that this academician admits such mistakes. what
  6. Bongo
    Bongo 18 May 2013 15: 22 New
    In the USSR, from 55 to 61, T-54 was produced on the basis of CU-122-54 (Object 600), with 122-mm. the D-49 instrument, according to the ballistics of a close D-25T, which was installed on the post-war Isa. Perhaps it was the last anti-tank ACS in our country.
    1. Yemelya
      Yemelya 18 May 2013 23: 05 New
      Quote: Bongo
      Perhaps this was the last anti-tank self-propelled guns in our country.

      They are still releasing - "Octopus-SD" - the most anti-tank.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 19 May 2013 06: 15 New
        Octopus as well as ASU-85, these are specialized airborne vehicles with anti-bullet armor.
  7. Igarr
    Igarr 18 May 2013 21: 33 New
    "..Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences ...."
    Well, free will, fools paradise.
    Guys, I don’t even specifically go into search engines ... look for this academy. I think there is.
    Only now "..tagger me vague suspicions .." - muddy, in other words, insights - and what is ..MISSION Rocket?
    or artillery?
    This, roughly, is how to call all sailors without exception - with the pretentious professionals in the highly intellectual game "Tug of War".
    Even there is MMK ..
    Of course, I am flattered that my Kaliningrad Higher Marine Engineering School, KVIMU, suddenly became - the Academy, and even the Baltic, and in addition, the State .. BFFSA
    That's just ... sardines, damn it, in parallel, that they are caught during spawning .. academics, now. And not just sailors.
    What then - sopromat, theory, ballistics, chemistry, materials science?
  8. bublic82009
    bublic82009 18 May 2013 21: 35 New
    now such systems are no longer relevant
  9. Iraclius
    Iraclius 19 May 2013 10: 27 New
    Since when did not actual self-propelled artillery become? belay In my opinion, she will not go anywhere, because without her, no, no.
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 19 May 2013 10: 48 New
      Self-propelled artillery is certainly relevant, in this case we are talking about PT SAU.
  10. Iraclius
    Iraclius 19 May 2013 11: 40 New
    Yes, they have not gone anywhere.
    B1 “Centaur” 120-mm, classified as tank destroyer, for example. We have already been told about our Octopus-SD.
    They, of course, became less. But this is understandable with the abundance of something modern means of destruction of armored vehicles.