Anatoly Isaikin stressed that today many countries would like to buy C-400. However, the Russian industry in the face of the EKR Almaz-Antey primarily works with the order of the Russian Ministry of Defense, the complexes are actively coming into service with the Russian army. According to the head of Rosoboronexport, even with the expansion of existing production capacity, it will be difficult for several States to transfer the C-400 Triumph to them at once. In this regard, China became the first sign, he stressed.
The amount Beijing will pay for the supply of 4's C-400 divisions has not been disclosed. But now we can confidently assume that we can talk about at least two billion dollars. According to the calculations of the American portal Strategy Page, one division of Triumphs in the overseas market will cost 500 millions of dollars to buyers. This is assuming that each package includes 8 launchers, a command vehicle, a radar station and a launcher.
It is worth noting that in recent years, China has quite strongly reduced military arms exports from Russia, they have learned a lot to do on their own. But in the field of air defense systems, the Chinese continued to rely on Russian-made military equipment. The last major contract with China for the supply of air defense systems was completed in 2010, when the transfer of the PRC 15 to the C-300 PMU PMU-2 air defense systems division was completed, as well as the four 83М6Х2 control systems. The air defense systems transferred to China were included in the air defense systems of Beijing, Shanghai and some other cities in the Middle Kingdom.
At the same time, China wanted to purchase the Triumph C-400, when this complex just got on the conveyor in Russia. Negotiations with Rosoboronexport began in 2012 year. And, judging by the information available in the public domain, the speech was originally conducted about the delivery of X-NUMX divisions to C-6 to China. But even then the negotiations on the supply were very difficult. First, the Chinese were not satisfied that Russia was not ready to begin the delivery of complexes earlier than 400 of the year. The primary task was to equip the Russian army with a new air defense system, and even hastily opened plants in St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Kirov did not seem to be allowed to begin deliveries to China earlier. Secondly, in Moscow, reasonably and for a long time, they feared that the Chinese partners needed the newest C-2020 air defense system not so much to urgently strengthen the defense of their own airspace, as for a banal engineering design study and subsequent copying of the Russian weapons. In order to then issue the received copy of the product of the Chinese military industrial complex and start dumping trade in the international arena. It is worth noting that China has done so many times.
Problems with possible copying of C-400 China
According to Simon Weseman, an expert on armaments and military expenditures of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, the Russian government is aware of the fact that Beijing is likely to copy the technologies used in C-400. This has already happened with the C-300 air defense system, as well as other types of military equipment from Russia, which have been supplied to the PRC over the past two decades, the expert noted. “It is believed that the issue of copying technology was one of the most difficult in the conclusion of agreements between the two countries. However, for Russia today it is of less importance than the political and economic advantages of the C-400 sale to Beijing, ”notes Simon Wesemann.
At one time, the Russian C-300, which Russia began to export in the middle of the 1990, became the first modern air defense system in service with the Chinese army. Using the technology of the Russian complex in China, its own long-range air defense system was later created, designated HQ-9 “Red Flag”. “At that moment, it seemed that Beijing had enough strength to create more advanced air defense systems based on the technologies obtained. However, interest in acquiring C-400 signals that China is not yet in a position to do so and, at least in the short term, will be dependent on foreign technologies, in this case Russian, ”notes Wezeman.
It is worth noting that in recent decades, the PRC has presented Russia with many examples of arms copying. For example, the new Chinese BMP ZBD04 is very similar to the Russian BMP-3. The Chinese MLRS PHL-03 exactly resembles the Russian MLRS Smerch. A fighter J-11 outwardly not even distinguish from the domestic Su-27SK. The same can be said about the deck fighter J-15 very much resembling our Su-33. The list goes on and on. What this copying can lead to, 2013 showed the year when Russia lost the tender for the supply of 12 long-range air defense missile systems, announced by the Turkish Defense Industry Secretariat. The total amount of the transaction was 4 billion dollars. The amount that is significant for any state in the world. For this reason, the United States submitted its Patriot PAC-3 to the competition, Russia C-300, Europeans SAMP / T Aster 30, and China HQ-9. The latter, which, in fact, is an unlicensed copy of the Russian C-300PMU-1, was able to win the Turkish competition, although it is inferior in terms of the characteristics of the Russian counterpart. The lowest price said its word; it became a decisive factor for Ankara. In addition, China proposed to localize 10% of the production of complexes in Turkey itself, and a large arms contract sailed to Beijing.
It is clear that with the C-400 “Triumph”, which so far has no analogues in the world, Russia reasonably pin special hopes on the international market for long-range air defense systems. Albeit after the 2020 year, when the Russian system will be saturated with Russian parts, and production facilities will be released for production for export. At that moment, it would be very sad to know that something similar, offered by China, will turn out to be on this virtual counter. As practice has shown, it seems useless to fight against Chinese piracy in the legal field.
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At least, all previous attempts by Russia to call on the Chinese for at least some order were not crowned with success. The fact of the matter is that the eastern trick on the part of Chinese engineers is that when copying, they necessarily add to the original product, some of their own refinements and improvements. After that, referring to the completed revision, they declare a copy of their “know-how”. Why did Moscow, knowing this very well, nevertheless decided to make a deal? There are two answers to this question. The first one lies on the surface. Russia, which currently lives in a strict regime of international sanctions, needs an inflow of currency. In the current crisis, throwing two billion dollars is not worth it. But this reason is not the main one. The main thing, according to Sergei Ishchenko from Free Press, is not in finance, but in politics.
At one time, the deal with the Mistrals also became political. The then French president, Nicolas Sarkozy, spoke in favor of a conciliatory stance in Russia's transient armed conflict with Georgia in August 2008. At that moment, Sarkozy helped Moscow out of the situation with the least reputational, financial and political losses for her. In turn, Russia could help the French president by loading the French military industrial complex with a solid order. At least, this version of the development of events seems convincing, given the fact that since then neither the political nor the Russian military leadership has given any intelligible comments on why Russia needed these landing ships.
Returning to the PRC, it can be noted that the political leadership in Beijing from the very beginning rejected the very idea of the political and economic isolation of Moscow in connection with the tragic events that unfolded in Ukraine. Even on the situation with the return of the Crimean Peninsula, China expressed itself quite openly and with straightforwardness unusual for Chinese politicians. The director of the Department of Europe and Central Asia at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China, Gui Tsunyun, said: “China is opposed to any nation gaining independence through a referendum. If we talk about the Crimea, then there are some peculiarities. We know very well history accessories of the Crimea ".
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This was followed by a statement by Zhou Li, deputy head of the CPC Central Committee Department for International Relations, who noted: “Russia and the PRC are facing various challenges today. However, I can say with confidence that in the near future we will face even more challenges. We must jointly fight to protect the interests of our states. The main thing is not to drive a wedge between our states, which the Americans would very much like to do. ” Under current conditions, such support at the international level is expensive. Perhaps you can risk even the C-400 Triumph. In the end, Russia is on the way and there is a more promising complex - the powerful anti-missile missile system C-500 "Prometheus".
C-400 will cover priority facilities in China
According to Simon Weseman, first of all, the C-400 complexes acquired from Russia will be located at priority facilities in the PRC, which include the country's key military and administrative centers, which are currently protected by the Russian C-300 and Chinese HQ -9. The C-400 is effective in repelling the attacks of cruise and operational-tactical missiles, which pose a major threat to such centers, the expert said.
“These complexes are guaranteed to destroy various targets - from enemy cruise missiles and ending with its strategic bombers, including those built using stealth technology,” said Igor Korotchenko, chief editor of National Defense magazine. “I believe that there are two main directions for using the C-400 Triumph: they will cover Beijing as the country's largest political center, as well as one of the coastal directions. China, acquiring C-400 complexes from Russia, makes good investments in ensuring its national security, ”said Igor Korotchenko. Earlier in the Chinese press, information appeared that new Russian air defense systems could be used to cover the country's airspace in potentially dangerous areas from Japan, Vietnam, South Korea and Taiwan.
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According to Vasily Kashin, an expert at the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies (Russia), China will be supplied not with the basic configuration for the Russian army, but with “heavy” missiles with a range of up to 400 km. These missiles will allow China to shoot down air targets over the East China Sea. “These missiles will allow air targets in the space of the Diaoyu Islands to hit from the mainland of China,” explained Vasily Kashin.
In turn, Simon Weseman believes that the increased range of missiles of the C-400 complex will allow China to cover the Taiwan Strait and part of the airspace above the island itself. "Thus, China will gain an advantage in possible armed conflicts in the Taiwan region, as well as in the water area of the South China and East China seas," said Wezeman. According to a foreign military expert, such a ZRS in the hands of China is able to change the balance of forces in the region, although such a change will not be dramatic.
Simon Wesemann believes that other countries in the region will try to find opportunities to neutralize the advantages of C-400, just as they did it earlier after Beijing bought modern weapons systems. For example, with the help of long-range missiles with the anti-radar system, electronic warfare devices and the latest aircraft made using stealth technology.
The C-400 complex in service with the Russian army
The C-400 anti-aircraft missile system was created by the Russian air defense concern Almaz-Antey on the basis of their other long-range air defense complex, the C-300. One of the main foreign buyers of the previous complex was also China. In total, the People’s Liberation Army of China acquired the C-15 300 divisions, the contract was completed in the 2010 year. Now in Beijing they decided to rely on Russian weapons, now on C-400.
It is worth noting that at present, the saturation of this complex of the Russian armed forces is in full swing. The last regiment, equipped with a C-400 ZRS, was deployed in Kamchatka. In April, the 2015 of the year arrived at the port of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky by maritime transport with 40 units of equipment from the regimental set of this air defense system. The complexes will be deployed at duty positions near the cities of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vilyuchinsk. They must change the C-300 air defense systems on combat duty.
Modern air defense system C-400 is really unique. It can confidently hit not only enemy aircraft, but also cruise and operational-tactical missiles at a distance of up to several hundred kilometers. During the C-400 tests at the Ashuluk and Kapustin Yar test site, the complex’s calculations succeeded in knocking down a target with a speed of 2800 m / s, while the other missile hit a target at an altitude of 56 km.
The C-400 complex allows you to simultaneously fire up to 36 air targets, directing up to 72 missiles at them. In the west, the complex received the designation SA-21 Growler ("Growler"). With this means of defense can be used a wide range of missiles, including from the previous complexes. Three of them - the 48Н6Е, 48Н6Х2 and 48Н6Х3 - are suitable for combat firing with both C-400 and C-300М version. Especially for C-400 "Typhoon" was created 48H6DM rocket. These missiles are controlled on the principle of semi-active radar homing with correction. Also, the Russian industry is preparing to release two more missiles - 9М96Е and 9М96Е2, which will use the method of active radar homing on the target.
The use of various types of anti-aircraft missiles allows you to create a layered air defense system using the C-400. At the same time, the Triumph system is ready to simultaneously solve the tasks of both anti-aircraft and non-strategic missile defense. And the automation equipment used in this AAMS almost completely eliminates errors caused by the so-called human factor.
On December 2014, the 9 regiments (19 divisions) of the C-400 complexes were deployed in Russia. One regiment is deployed in a three-division structure. The plans for 2015 the year before was called the placement of the ZRMS C-400 Triumph near Novosibirsk (summer 2015 of the year), as well as on the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. The Russian Defense Ministry expects to receive 2020 C-56 battalions before the 400 of the year, while X-NUMX of the C-4 regiment should be allocated for the defense of Moscow. Each deployed division consists of 400 launchers.
Currently 9 regiments / 19 divisions / 152 PU are deployed:
2 division in Elektrostal (first in 2007, second in 2009), Moscow region.
2 Division in Dmitrov (the regiment deployed in 2011 year), near Moscow.
2 Division in Zvenigorod (the regiment deployed in 2012 year), near Moscow.
2 Division in Nakhodka (the regiment deployed in 2012 year).
2 division in the Kaliningrad region (the regiment deployed in 2013 year)
2 division in Novorossiysk (the regiment deployed in 2013 year).
2 division in Podolsk (the regiment deployed in 2014 year), 4-th regiment in the suburbs.
2 Division on the Kola Peninsula (the regiment deployed in 2014-2015 years).
3 Division in Kamchatka (the regiment deployed in 2014-2015 years).