Military Review

SR-71 Blackbird: the fastest aircraft in the world

65



In the middle of the 60-s of the last century, residents of American megacities repeatedly appealed to the city administration with complaints of strange phenomena occurring in the sky. In a completely cloudless weather, thunder unexpectedly resounded in the sky and, rapidly dying down, disappeared without a trace.

As time went. Mysterious thunder continued to periodically frighten ordinary Americans. Finally, July 10 1967, after single complaints escalated into mass discontent, the United States Air Force made an official statement in which it was reported that strange thunder occurs as a result of the flights of supersonic strategic intelligence officer Lockheed SR-71.

Continuation of this stories There were several dozen lawsuits of American citizens in which they demanded that the Air Force compensate for the damage caused during the flights. The amount that the military had to pay by the court was 35 thousand dollars, however, in the thirty-year history of the fastest and one of the most expensive military aircraft in operation, the SR-71 is a small drop in a sea of ​​victories and defeats.

The history of creation, or like, as better, but it turned out, as always
SR-71 Blackbird: the fastest aircraft in the world


The first flight of the Blackbird or the Black Bird, as the US military nicknamed the SR-71 for its appearance, took place on December 22 of the year 1964. New supersonic reconnaissance aircraft were intended for use by the US Air Force, which at that time did not have a worthy rival to the supersonic reconnaissance aircraft of the new generation A-12, which was in service with the CIA.

At that time, the A-12 was the fastest aircraft in the world - approximately 3300 km / h and had one of the highest ceilings of maximum height - 28,5 km. Initially, the CIA planned to use А-12 for reconnaissance over the territory of the Soviet Union and Cuba, however, the plans had to be changed in connection with the event that took place on 1 on May 1960, when the predecessor of "Titanium Goose" (as they called А-12) U-2 was shot down Soviet anti-aircraft missile system. The CIA decided not to risk expensive aircraft and used reconnaissance in the USSR and Cuba using satellites, and A-12 sent to Japan and North Vietnam.


A-12


To A-12 Chief Designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, such a distribution of reconnaissance forces seemed to be unfair and, beginning in 1958, he began to negotiate closely with the Air Force top command to create a more sophisticated military aircraft that could combine the functions of a reconnaissance and bomber.

Four years later, the US Air Force finally appreciated the possible advantages that they could get if they had an A-12 or its possible prototype in service and gave their consent. By that time, Johnson and his team had been working on two new models, the R-12 and RS-12, for over a year. A few months later, the mockups were ready and Johnson presented them to the "torn apart" air force commander. General Li Mei, who arrived at the presentation, was extremely unhappy. He stated that the RS-12 is nothing more than a repetition of the North American Aviation bomber designed at that time - XB-70 Valkyrie, a modification of the RS-70.

Perhaps the reason for such a statement was: firstly, the combat mission of both aircraft — reconnaissance bombers; secondly, the ability to refuel in the air for both models, and thirdly, the maximum speed, both of them have three times the superior speed. sound. In all other respects, neither in size, nor in form, nor in terms of their technical characteristics are the planes completely alike.



1) Length RS -12 - 32,74 m / Length Valkyrie - 56,6 m.
2) Wingspan RS -12 - 16,94 m / Wingspan Valkyrie - 32 m
3) The maximum speed of the RS-12 (at that time was assumed) - more than 3300 km / h / The maximum speed of the Valkyrie - 3200 km / h.

Convince General Maya Johnson and could not. Moreover, the dispute became so serious that the US Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara had to intervene. Without taking sides, he simply ordered that the development of both aircraft be stopped. If someone else had replaced Johnson, then perhaps the projects would have remained just projects. However, Hall Hibbard, Johnson’s manager and head of the project for the creation of the first F-117 Stealth aircraft, said quite rightly about him: “This damn Swede literally sees the air.” Perhaps now Johnson saw the air better than before and therefore decided to use his last chance.

He simply changed the abbreviation RS decoding from “Reconnaissance Strike” (reconnaissance / shock) to “Reconnaissance Strategic” (strategic intelligence officer). Thus, having changed the combat function of his aircraft, no one could reproach him for duplicating Valkyrie and he continued to develop the RS-12.

In the SR-71, the RS-12 model evolved quite by accident. In his speech in July 1964, the President of the United States (namesake Johnson) Lyndon Johnson, speaking about the RS-12 aircraft, mixed up the letters in some places and said SR-12. Incidentally, this was not the only misstep by the president in his speeches concerning aircraft. In February of the same year, Johnson read, instead of the abbreviation AMI (Advanced Manned Interceptor - a promising manned interceptor), the name A -11, which also later became the official name.



The 71 index, Clarence Johnson, took as an indication that his scout model is the next step after the Valkyrie project. This is how Lockheed SR -71 ("Blackbird") appeared.

In fact, the SR-71 was the prototype of two other aircraft of Johnson's design - the A-12 and YF-12, which simultaneously combined the functions of an interceptor and a reconnaissance aircraft. It was YF -12 that became the model that Johnson eventually began to build on. Compared to YF-12, he increased the dimensions of the SR-71: its length was 32,7 meters instead of 32 m, and its height was 5,64 m instead of 5,56. In the entire history of the world military and civilian aviation The SR -71 is one of the longest aircraft. It is rare to find a model whose length reached at least 30 meters. But, despite this, thanks to the record speed and one of the largest ceiling ceilings - 25,9 km, SR-71 joined the ranks of stealth aircraft of the first generation - "Stealth".

Johnson increased the maximum take-off mass, instead of 57,6 tons, like the YF-12, SR-71 began to weigh on the take-off 78 tons. The phrase “they wanted the best, but it turned out as always.” It was not easy to lift such a mass into the air, so Johnson decided to use the in-flight refueling system with the help of a specially converted KC-135 Q tanker aircraft. The scout was lifted into the air with a minimal amount of fuel, which made it much easier. Refueling was carried out at an altitude of 7,5 km. Only after that SR -71 could be sent on a mission. Without refueling, he could hold out in the air, as well as the previous 1,5 models of the hour, however, during this time he overcame 5230 km - 1200 km more than A-12 and YF-12. One flight with refueling cost the US Air Force 8 million dollars, which soon forced the military command, following the example of the CIA with A-12, to scream about the cost of flying SR-71.



The fact is that on December 28, the X-NUMX program for the production and development of intelligence officer A-1968 was closed. The company Lockheed Corporation called the main reason for the high cost of operation of the Titanium Goose (data on the cost of one departure A-12 not). Moreover, there was no point in continuing its production, while for service for two years a more sophisticated SR-12 stood. The CIA at that time had already given all of its A-71 air forces and in return received spy satellites with the most modern photo equipment. Looking ahead, we can say that one of the reasons why the surviving SR-12 began to be decommissioned from 71 to 1989 was the high cost of operation. Over the 1998 of the SR-34 model, the USAF spent more than 71 billion dollars flying on 31 flights. Save did not work.

Finally, the most important difference and the unsurpassed advantage so far is the supersonic speed SR -71 - 3529,56 km / h. This figure is three times the speed of sound in the air. A-12 and YF-12 lost to Blackbird over 200 km / h. In this regard, Johnson's aircraft made a revolution. After all, the world's first supersonic aircraft appeared in the 1954 year, just eight years before the A-12 or SR-71. The maximum speed that he could develop, barely exceeded the speed of sound - 1390 km / h. In 1990, thanks to its speed, “Blackbirds” avoided the usual “conservation” in museums and hangars of military bases, since NASA, where several copies were transferred, showed considerable interest in them.



At SR-71, scientists and designers from NASA conducted aerodynamic studies on AST (Advanced Supersonic Technology - promising hypersonic technology) and SCAR (Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research - development of aircraft with hypersonic flight speeds) programs.


The minimum level of hypersonic speed is about 6000 km / h.

In the sky, everything was not easy

High speed not only solved the tasks set by Johnson, but also created many difficulties in the operation of the “Blackbird”. At the Mach 3 speed (Mach number = 1 the speed of sound, i.e. 1390 km / h), the air friction was so great that the aircraft’s titanium skin was heated to 300 ºС. However, Johnson solved this problem. Minimal cooling was provided by the black paint of the hull, made on a ferrite basis (ferrite - iron or iron alloy). It performed a dual function: firstly, it dissipated heat entering the surface of the aircraft, secondly, it reduced the radar visibility of the aircraft. In order to reduce the visibility of ferrite paint is very often used in military aviation.


Двигатель "Черного дрозда" - Pratt & Whitney J58-P4. Длина - 5,7 м. Масса - 3,2 тонны


The main "air conditioning" in the design of the SR-71 was a special fuel JP-7, which was developed for supersonic aviation in the United States. Thanks to its constant circulation from the fuel tanks, through the skin of the aircraft, to the engines, the Blackbird’s body was constantly cooled, and the fuel managed to warm up to 320 ºС during this time. True, the technical advantages of the JP-7 were not justified by its expense. At cruising speed, two Pratt & Whitney J58 reconnaissance engines consumed about 600 kg / min.

At first, the circulation system was a major headache for engineers. JP-7 fuel could easily leak even through the smallest leaks. And there were more than enough of these in the hydraulic and fuel systems. By the summer of 1965, the problem of fuel leakage was finally solved, but the chain of failures of the Blackbird was just beginning.

25 January 1966, the first SR -71 crashed. The scout flew at a height of 24 390 m with the speed of Mach 3, at this moment the plane lost control due to the failure of the air intake control system. Pilot Bill Weaver successfully catapulted, despite the fact that the ejection seat remained in the plane. On the SR-71, Johnson installed new ejection seats that allowed pilots to safely leave the cockpit at an altitude of 30 m and Mach 3 speed. Perhaps it was a fluke, it just vomited out of the cabin with a stream of air. Weaver’s partner Jim Sauer also managed to eject, but he could not survive.

An air intake is an element of aircraft design that serves to take in ambient air and then feed it to various internal systems. Air from the air intake can serve as a coolant, oxidizer for fuel, creating a supply of compressed air, etc.


Air intake "Blackbird"


Bill Weaver conducted most of the Blackbird trials. For him it was not the only disaster, as well as for his companions. 10 January 1967 of the year SR-71 held high-speed runs on the runway. For greater complexity, the strip was wet beforehand in order to enhance the effect of sliding. Having landed on the lane at a speed of 370 km / h, the pilot Art Peterson could not release the braking parachute. It is worth noting that the separation speed from the SR-71 band is 400 km / h. Of course, conventional brakes could not stop the scout on a wet surface and the SR-71 continued to move along the runway at the same speed. As soon as he stepped onto the dry section of the track, all the chassis tires burst from the heat. Bare chassis wheels began to strike sparks, causing the wheel hubs made of magnesium alloy to catch fire. If we consider that magnesium alloys ignite at temperatures from 400 to 650ºС, then about the same temperature was in the area of ​​the chassis during braking. The plane stopped only when it slipped through the whole lane and hit its nose into the soil of the dried lake. Peterson survived, however, received numerous burns.

The failure of the braking parachute turned out to be a single case, but the magnesium bushes repeatedly led to the ignition of the Blackbird. In the end, the engineers replaced the magnesium alloy with aluminum.



The last accident in the test program occurred again due to the failure of the air intake. 18 December 1969, the crew of the SR-71 was working on the onboard electronic warfare system. As soon as the scout reached the maximum speed, the pilots heard a strong bang. The plane began to lose control and gave a sharp roll. After 11 seconds after the cotton, the commander of the crew gave the order to eject. The plane crashed, and it was not possible to find out the exact cause of the accident. However, experts have suggested that the disaster occurred due to the failure of the air intake. Sharp roll, which gave the plane after the clap, could be explained only by the uneven distribution of thrust engines. And this happens if the air intake fails. The problem with not starting the air intake was inherent in all A-12, YF-12 and SR-71 aircraft. In the end, Johnson decided to replace the manual control air intakes on automatic.



In 1968-1969 three more crashes occurred with SR -71. The reason was: the failure of the generator (the battery, which could provide the 30 aircraft minutes of flight, was not enough), the engine ignited and the fuel tank ignited (after fragments of wheel disks pierced it). The planes failed and another serious drawback appeared on the project's surface: firstly, there was a catastrophic lack of spare parts, and secondly, the repair of one aircraft would have hit the US Air Force "pocket" badly. It is known that the cost of maintaining one squadron of SR-71 was equal to the cost of maintaining the two tactical fighter wing wings in flight condition - that is approximately 28 million dollars.

Those "Blackbirds" who successfully passed the flight tests, were subjected to rigorous technical inspection. After landing, each flight unit passed about 650 checks. In particular, it took several hours at the two technicians for post-flight inspection of air intakes, engines and bypass devices.

During the tests, which took place up to the 1970 year, when SR-71 had been in service for four years, Lockheed suffered heavy losses, both technical and human. However, military service for the Blackbirds was just beginning.

"Blackbirds" on assignment

Approximately 1300 meters need SR-71 on the runway for a takeoff run at speed 400 km / h. After 2,5 minutes after the scout leaves the ground, at a speed of 680 km / h, he gains altitude 7,5 km. So far, the SR -71 remains at that height, only increasing the speed to Mach 0,9. At this point, the KC-135 Q air tanker refuels the Blackbird. As soon as the tanks are full, the pilot transfers the scout’s control to autopilot, as the plane must begin to gain altitude at 860 km / h, no less, no more. At altitudes of 24 km and speeds of Mach 3, the pilots again switch to manual control. So begins each mission mission.



The main points of intelligence for SR-71 were: Vietnam, North Korea, the Middle East, Cuba, and yet, despite the warnings of the Air Force command, the Soviet Union in the Kola Peninsula.

When the Blackbirds began to be sent to North Vietnam in 1968, the Vietnam War between the north and south of the country (1955 - 1975) was in full swing in its territory. From 1965 to 1973, the year went through a period of full-scale US military intervention. For SR -71 it was the largest military mission.

The Blackbirds had their own reconnaissance equipment installed. An automatic autonomous astro-inertial navigation system was installed on them, which, guided by the stars, made it possible to accurately calculate the position of the aircraft even during the day. A similar navigation system was used later in the projected, at that time, Soviet bomber T-4 bomber. The exact compliance of the flight with a given route on the SR-71 could be verified using an air data computer and an onboard computer.

In the reconnaissance process itself, the SR-71 could use several aerial cameras, a side-looking radar system (radar) and equipment capable of operating in the infrared range (thermal imaging devices). A panoramic aerial camera was also located in the nose instrument compartment. Such reconnaissance equipment allowed the Blackbird for 1 flight hours at an altitude of 24 km to survey the territory in 155 thousand km 2. This is slightly less than half the territory of modern Vietnam. As for the photographic equipment only, the intelligence officer shot several hundred ground objects in one flight. So, for example, in November 1970, in Vietnam, before the failed operation of the American military "Falling Rain" to free prisoners from Son Tay camp, the Blackbird managed to photograph the place where it was allegedly held prisoners.

The North Vietnamese artillery repeatedly tried to bring down the SR-71, according to some calculations, several hundred artillery rockets were fired at the reconnaissance aircraft, however, not a single launch was unsuccessful. Experts believed that the electronic warfare system, which suppressed the radio signal on the Vietnamese launch complex, allowed the Black-Thrush to escape the shelling. SR-71 was also subjected to the same ineffectual attack once over the territory of the DPRK.

However, the Air Force still lost several SR-71 during reconnaissance missions, although in all cases weather conditions became the cause of the accident. One such incident occurred on May 10, 1970, the Blackbird crashed over Thailand, which was home to American military bases during the Vietnam War. SR -71 just went through refueling and came across a thunderstorm front. The pilot began to raise the aircraft above the clouds, as a result of which he exceeded the permissible limit of pitch angle (i.e. the angle of raising the nose of the aircraft upwards), the thrust of the engines fell, and the aircraft lost control. The ejection seats did their work again, the crew safely left the plane.


Former pilot "Blackbird"


Missions for exploration in the Middle East during the Eighteen Day War of the Doomsday (the war between Israel on the one hand and Egypt and Syria on the other) and in Cuba were of a single character and were crowned with success. In particular, the intelligence operation in Cuba was to provide the American command with confirmation or denial of information about the strengthening of the Soviet military presence in Cuba. If this information was confirmed, the “cold war” could turn into a real international scandal, since according to the agreement signed between Khrushchev and Kennedy, it was forbidden to supply Cuba with shock weapon. SR-71 made two sorties, during which images were taken that refute rumors of deliveries to Cuba of fighter-bombers MiG-23BN and MiG-27.

The Blackbirds photographic equipment, capable of shooting in 150 radius, allowed the US military intelligence to photograph the coastal zone of the Kola Peninsula without disturbing Soviet airspace. However, once not very agile SR -71 still went too far. 27 May 1987 of the year SR -71 entered Soviet airspace in the region of the Arctic. To intercept the command of the Soviet Air Force sent a fighter-interceptor MiG-31. With a speed of 3000 km / h and a practical ceiling height of 20,6 km, the Soviet aircraft successfully forced the Blackbird into neutral waters. ” Shortly before this incident, two MiG-31 aircraft also intercepted the SR-71, but already in neutral territory. Then the American intelligence officer failed the mission and flew to the base. Some experts believe that it was the MiG-31 that forced the Air Force to abandon the SR-71. It is difficult to say how plausible this version is, however, there is reason to believe so. He could also cause the SR-71 to leave and the Soviet Circle anti-aircraft missile system, which could easily reach the Blackbird at the maximum height.


MiG-31



Circle anti-aircraft missile system


The photographs of the Blackbirds were, indeed, effective, however, it was powerless in cloudy weather. Poor visibility could be not only the cause of the failed task, but also the cause of the accident. In the rainy season, when the sky was overcast, the pilots had to maneuver in search of an open view. The loss of height on a heavy aircraft did not have the best effect on its piloting. It is for this reason that the US Air Force abandoned the idea of ​​sending SR-71 to European intelligence.

Before landing the SR -71 pilots turn on the autopilot. When the speed of the aircraft reaches 750 km / h, a decrease begins. According to the plan, at the moment when the plane starts to land, the flight speed should go down to 450 km / h, and when the runway is touched - 270 km / h. As soon as the touch occurs, the pilots release a braking parachute, with which the SR -71 overcomes the 1100 m. Then, when the aircraft’s speed drops significantly, the parachute is fired and the Blackbird continues to brake using the primary brakes. So every departure ends.

"Blackbirds" retired

At the end of the 80-ies, the first wave of the decision to deactivate the US Air Force "Blackbirds" began. The reasons turned out to be abound: a large number of disasters, high operating costs, lack and cost of spare parts, and finally, vulnerability to the above-mentioned Soviet weapons. In the autumn of 1989, the final decision was made to remove the SR-71 from service. Opponents of this decision argued that there was no alternative to the SR-71, and the spy satellites for which they had fought in Congress and in the Air Force themselves did not pay off either at a price that was several times higher than the cost of Blackbirds, or in efficiency, how SR -71 could conduct more extensive intelligence.

Practically all the planes were transferred to museums, several copies remained inactive on the bases, several planes were handed over to NASA and the Pentagon for use.



The SR Air Force SR-71, irreplaceable at that time, could not leave just like that and in the middle of the 90-s the military decided to partially return to the use of Blackbirds. In 1994, the DPRK began testing nuclear weapons. In the Senate, they sounded the alarm and asked Lockheed to resume SR-71 flights, as there was nothing to explore. The management of the company agreed, but demanded to allocate 100 million dollars. After the agreement was reached, several Blackbirds re-joined the ranks of the US Air Force. A year later, the Senate re-allocated the same amount to maintain the SR-71 aircraft in flight condition. Flights continued up to the 1998 year. However, in 1998, the Blackbirds were finally removed from service. According to news agencies, one can judge that SR-71 has been replaced by unmanned aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft and spy satellites, however, information about them is kept secret.



Such were the history of the creation, victory and defeat of the fastest manned aircraft in the world of Lockheed SR-71 (“Blackbird”).
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  1. pahom54
    pahom54 19 October 2013 09: 19 New
    13
    I do not like to praise the States, but always admired this plane. The car is super!
    However, do not forget about the difficulties of preflight crew training, and further matters ... So the machine, if you remove the reconnaissance mission from it, is simply a beautiful and very expensive toy.
    Свидетельством тому являются наши Миг-31 и ЗРК "Круг".
    Most likely, ours simply did not set themselves the goal of creating an aircraft of this type and mission ...
    1. Algor73
      Algor73 19 October 2013 11: 54 New
      +3
      Why didn’t they set it - but the Yak-25RV? But only the development of rocket science recognized the inappropriateness of such projects. But the plane, I do not argue, is good
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 20 October 2013 20: 09 New
      0
      MiG-25R / RB and modifications - according to the LTX almost an analogue (only the combat radius is less)

      http://airwar.ru/enc/spy/mig25r.html
      http://airwar.ru/enc/spy/mig25rbsh.html
      1. Saburov
        Saburov 21 October 2013 02: 29 New
        +1
        Although it is not the fastest of combat aircraft on the MiG-25, 40 world records were set, including the speed of 3421 km / h.
  2. Ahmed Osmanov
    Ahmed Osmanov 19 October 2013 10: 44 New
    27
    Молодцы американцы, ничего не скажешь. Особенно поражает футуристичность самолета на сколько он опередил свое время, впрочем как и наши самолеты - ТУ-160 и т.д. Вообще, как бы мы и американцы не критиковали себя в период "Холодной войны", но все же я убежден (возможно и не только я), что именно этот период дал науке принципиально новый толчок в своем развитии. Если бы СССР существовал по сей день, при такой высокой конкуренции между странами, то вероятно мы бы уже построили базу на Луне и потихоньку начали осваивать Марс. Эх мечты, да мечты...
    Although I did not live during the USSR period, but according to my father, this was just a beautiful country with a high standard of living and an educated population. And people were judged not because of how wide your pocket was, but by the presence of gray matter in your head.
    1. UVB
      UVB 19 October 2013 12: 03 New
      +1
      Quote: Akhmed Osmanov
      then probably we would have already built a base on the moon and slowly started to explore Mars.

      The N-1 rocket under the leadership of S.P. Korolev was originally created for flight to Mars. But the country's leadership in response to the American program, it was decided to reorient to the moon. And then what happened happened.
    2. Comrade1945
      Comrade1945 21 October 2013 23: 17 New
      0
      Only we all crap ...
      And so, they said everything correctly.
    3. Bratkov Oleg
      Bratkov Oleg 13 May 2018 11: 13 New
      0
      On the moon? What kind of competition is there if the Americans only flew into space for the first time in the early 70s, and before that they made films in the pavilion as they keep up with the USSR, and even the USSR stole technology from them. And when it became clear that the USSR was going to the moon, or maybe to Mars, and then all the American swindle would crawl out, because like the USSR had stolen everything, but for some reason the USSR was already on the moon, and the USA wasn’t ... on the one hand, to make a lie about your flight to the moon, and on the other hand, what kind of competition is there if they just simply bought all the higher Soviet communists. and those, for the sake of benefits for their children, sold the entire USSR, like cattle.
  3. Gooch v. 2
    Gooch v. 2 19 October 2013 10: 49 New
    +4
    the plane is 100 years ahead of its time for commercials :)
  4. ruslan207
    ruslan207 19 October 2013 10: 49 New
    +1
    The futurism of the aircraft is especially striking by how much it was ahead of its time, however, like our planes - TU-160, so than this Tu-160 was ahead of its time the amers already had a similar b-1; here is Sukhov t-4 hundred and yes ahead of its time
    1. Zerstorer
      Zerstorer 21 October 2013 10: 15 New
      +1
      What do you mean ahead of your time? Aircraft implemented, performance achieved. A project can be ahead of its time if it is not feasible with existing and developing technologies and materials. And I almost forgot the most important thing) - The project should be expedient. So the A-12 / SR-71 appeared in due time. And T-4 and Valkyrie have shown their inexpediency about the criterion of cost-effectiveness.
  5. PValery53
    PValery53 19 October 2013 11: 12 New
    +2
    Как чудо техники Чёрный Дрозд впечатляет. Но на его применение против СССР у нас нашлись эффективные и эффектные "противоядия"
  6. Technologist
    Technologist 19 October 2013 11: 25 New
    +2
    Very interesting car, the designers did a great job.
  7. ruslan207
    ruslan207 19 October 2013 11: 25 New
    +5
    What impressed him that he should warm up his body by cutting the refueling circles and only then fly the MiG-25 at a lower speed for more than a thousand and even set the altitude to 38 km and a new modification of the MiG that did not go into the series could come off 3340 km / h
    1. servant.
      servant. 20 October 2013 08: 02 New
      +5
      Moreover, the MIG-25P also carried 4 air-to-air missiles and could maneuver at maximum altitude and flight speed, the SR had no weapons and at maximum speeds and altitudes flew almost in a straight line, therefore it was an ideal target for interception.
      1. Bratkov Oleg
        Bratkov Oleg 13 May 2018 11: 16 New
        0
        Mig-25 was iron, and Drozd - from titanium purchased in a roundabout way in the USSR.
        Processing titanium is noticeably more expensive, the plane only because of this is noticeably more expensive Miga.
        That is, the USSR possessed, and now Russia possesses, higher technologies in this area. That's bad with chips, yes.
    2. magelan
      magelan 29 June 2018 11: 26 New
      0
      The MiG-25 was a unique masterpiece in that it was specifically a high-altitude interceptor. All MiG-25 regiments at that time were part of the USSR Air Defense Forces, not the Air Force. My regiment commander made a pre-planned flight to the MiG-1975 in the summer of 25 to a height of 32 kilometers and immediately after the discussion of the flight results received the rank of colonel. And there is a lot of discussion about the speed of the MiG-25. Even at the stage of final flight tests, it was found that the aircraft will continue to gain speed until the destruction of the fuselage structure itself begins. Thus, the concept of maximum speed in this aircraft does not come down to engine power, but to the ability of the fuselage itself to withstand flying at that speed. An unmanned test was conducted in which the aircraft was accelerated to the speed at which it began to crumble. It was at a speed of more than 5 thousand per hour. Therefore, a limiter of 2,8 max was installed on this aircraft. BUT in those days, in the case of a BATTLE interception, the pilot, with the permission of the command, could remove the restriction and continue to intercept using the full engine power potential. The ceiling of the aircraft was then considered 36 km. The excess of the rocket is another 8 km. Thus, the interception height reached 44 km. Yes, he could be in the air in such a combat mode for only 45 minutes, BUT IT IS A ALTITUDE FIGHTER, and not a simple one, which was supposed to drive ordinary Phantoms at an altitude of up to 15 km.
      1. egeny patykov
        egeny patykov 30 July 2018 07: 16 New
        0
        5 thrust enough? and whether it flew
  8. Technologist
    Technologist 19 October 2013 11: 26 New
    0
    Very interesting car, the designers did a great job.
  9. SIBIR38RUS
    SIBIR38RUS 19 October 2013 11: 43 New
    -1
    XB-70 "Валькирия" уж до боли похож на нашу "сотку"..:):):) Кто у кого слямзил технологию интересно:)
    1. ruslan207
      ruslan207 19 October 2013 12: 40 New
      +3
      and not close like
    2. Witold
      Witold 19 October 2013 12: 56 New
      +1
      Appearance is not technology yet. But Concord and TU-144, you can immediately see who slammed anyone.
  10. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 19 October 2013 14: 23 New
    0
    Compare with Valkyrie, nothing to do.
    1. svp67
      svp67 19 October 2013 14: 47 New
      +1
      Quote: Ivanovich47
      Compare with Valkyrie, nothing to do.
      And so?

      1. Siberian
        Siberian 19 October 2013 19: 49 New
        0
        And so one to one, twin. laughing
  11. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 19 October 2013 14: 25 New
    +1
    Weaving, Front View:
  12. svp67
    svp67 19 October 2013 14: 39 New
    +1
    The machine is certainly cool ... some kind of UFO
  13. svp67
    svp67 19 October 2013 14: 50 New
    +3
    That is why you can not give a second wind to this?
    1. Pimply
      Pimply 19 October 2013 17: 28 New
      +1
      Because this will not make sense
      1. svp67
        svp67 20 October 2013 08: 53 New
        0
        Quote: Pimply
        Because this will not make sense
        Let me disagree
        аппарат способный выходить на околоземную орбиту и возвращаться самостоятельно,да еще и несущий у себя во "чреве" много всякой всячины - имеет смысл, и очень скоро понадобиться ...
  14. smprofi
    smprofi 19 October 2013 14: 59 New
    +8
    здесь, на topwar.ru, это уже далеко не первая статья о SR-71 Blackbird. вот только при просмотре, читать это просто невозможно из-за ляпов и несуразиц, возник только один вопрос: зачем тащить сюда материал в стиле "Мурзилки"? кому нужна такая профанация?
    not to be unfounded:
    however, plans had to be changed in connection with the event that occurred on May 1, 1960, when the predecessor of the Titanium Goose (as they called the A-12) U -2 was shot down by the Soviet anti-aircraft missile system. The CIA decided not to risk expensive aircraft for reconnaissance in the USSR and in Cuba used satellitesA-12 sent to Japan and North Vietnam.

    U-2 Dragon Lady scouts flew over Cuba in 1962 and later.
    plans had to change in connection with the event that occurred 1 May 1960 years

    but it turns out:
    To A-12 chief designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, such a distribution of intelligence forces seemed unfair and, starting with 1958 years

    philosophical question: what appeared earlier chicken or egg ...
    similar question about:
    In fact, the SR-71 was the prototype of two other Johnson-built aircraft, the A-12 and YF-12

    in chronology:
    - the first is the Oxcart A-12 project, the start of the project can be attributed to the end of 1957;
    - Kedlock project aircraft YF-12, the beginning of the project in March 1960;
    - March 1962, the beginning of the RS-12 project. The first meeting of the mock commission took place on June 13, 1963. The fourth prototype of the interceptor, known as the YF-12C, which became an intermediate modification between the interceptor and the intelligence, served as the prototype for the strategic intelligence. and already from RS-12 the SR-71 Blackbird appeared;
    - even on the basis of A-12 there was a Tagboard project, the M-21 aircraft, the launch of the project on October 10, 1962.



    and again the chicken / egg:
    The phrase “they wanted the best, but it turned out as always” was just related to this parameter. Raising such a mass into the air was not easy, so Johnson decided to use a refueling system in the air using a specially refitted KC-135 Q refueling aircraft

    The SR-71 Blackbird did not refuel completely on the ground due to fuel tanks leaking on the ground. fuel tanks were sealed due to thermal expansion already at operating temperatures when gaining marching speed by plane.

    1. smprofi
      smprofi 19 October 2013 15: 03 New
      +4
      Also, the Soviet Krug anti-aircraft missile system, which could easily get the Blackbird at maximum height, could also have caused SR -71 to leave.

      да не мог ЗРК 2К11 "Круг" достать SR-71 Blackbird! чисто номинально по высоте - да. но с какой скоростью ходит SR-71 Blackbird - для "Круга" это не по силам. да и просто нестыковка, что ЗРК 2К11 "Круг" принят на вооружение в октябре 1964 г, а SR-71 Blackbird отправили в отставку в марте 1990 г никого не заставляет задуматься. вот истинная причина:
      http://topwar.ru/33360-nablyudenie-vedet-cru-sverhzvukovoy-strategicheskiy-razve
      dchik-lockheed-a12.html # comment-id-1502227

      ferrite - iron or an alloy of iron

      it's just a celebration of the soul!

      and that’s not all ...

      want to read more serious material, please (link to the last part, in the text of the link to the previous ones):
      http://nnm.me/blogs/smprofi/zona_51_chast_iiif/
  15. Ddhal
    Ddhal 19 October 2013 15: 04 New
    0
    А.Н.Туполев: "Хорошо летать могут только красивые самолеты"
    1. smprofi
      smprofi 19 October 2013 15: 40 New
      +1
      There is a legend that Sikorsky had a saying in his office:
      From the point of view of physics, a fly should not fly.
      (or about the may bug sometimes found)
  16. Vittt
    Vittt 19 October 2013 15: 08 New
    +5
    Глядя на SR-71,я испытываю только восхищение,конструкторы этой "птицы" - гении.Очень люблю авиацию,хотя сам блюю на карусели.Этот самолёт заслуживает,чтобы войти в Зал Славы авиации...после МИГ-31 smile
    1. servant.
      servant. 20 October 2013 07: 53 New
      +2
      I will add here MIG-25
  17. Yankuz
    Yankuz 19 October 2013 15: 55 New
    +1
    Beautiful and serious car! Ahead of her time!
  18. cormorant
    cormorant 19 October 2013 18: 50 New
    -1
    The SR-71 Blackbird did not refuel completely on the ground due to fuel tanks leaking on the ground. fuel tanks were sealed due to thermal expansion already at operating temperatures when gaining marching speed by plane.

    Is that really true? laughing
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 19 October 2013 19: 05 New
      +5
      Quote: cormorant
      Is that really true?
      The absolute truth is, as a result of thermodynamic heating, the glider of the aircraft was heated to 300 degrees.
      1. servant.
        servant. 20 October 2013 07: 57 New
        +2
        It's like that. But Soviet designers solved this problem on the MIG-25 plane simply and cheaply — they made the fuselage welded.
        1. Zerstorer
          Zerstorer 21 October 2013 10: 33 New
          +1
          MiG-25 has other temperatures and not such a long time.
          1. Bratkov Oleg
            Bratkov Oleg 13 May 2018 11: 22 New
            0
            Mig-25 from iron, which normally welds. But Americans still have not learned how to cook titanium; Russian Avisma does racks for Boeing. Russia is a world leader in titanium processing.
            Well, Americans don’t know how to make welded titanium Thrushes.
    2. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 19 October 2013 20: 19 New
      +1
      According to the story of my technician of the REO service group Chi-va A.M. To surrender to a discharge, he needed to fit a 6-coal tile into a 6-coal hole in another plate of the same thickness. All by hand. The quality of the fit was checked by leaking kerosene. Himself, grinding the valves of the cylinder head, used a similar technique.
    3. servant.
      servant. 20 October 2013 07: 55 New
      +1
      Not really, the main reason is that the plane simply could not take off with full refueling.
      1. smprofi
        smprofi 20 October 2013 13: 59 New
        0
        for cormorant и servant
        смотрим ролик. не хотим весь - мотаем до 6'05" ознакамливаемся как "потеет" топливом днище SR-71 Blackbird

  19. MJ23.net
    MJ23.net 19 October 2013 19: 07 New
    0
    Yes, this is an airplane from X-Men) I remember as soon as the first computer appeared in the late 90s, put the screensaver of this bird. Very futuristic and beautiful plane.
  20. Taoist
    Taoist 19 October 2013 19: 55 New
    +7
    Это "рекордный самолёт" - назвать его полноценной боевой машиной с такими "эксплуатационными параметрами" язык не поворачивается.
  21. Altona
    Altona 19 October 2013 20: 10 New
    +3
    When an emergency in air defense took place just in 1989, reconnaissance every day issued a report on the ZAS-telegraph, that there were 2 SR-71 scouts and 3 Orion pieces in the sky ... This is so standard ... One SR-71 flew from Norway , the second is in the Far East ...
  22. Silkway0026
    Silkway0026 20 October 2013 08: 41 New
    +3
    With such costs for research and development, construction, operation .... Yes, what for it is needed ... Rights Zadornov - stupid !!! They have it all - where brains are not enough, they throw money. Won Northrop B-2 Spirit in total costs 2,1 billion dollars ... and cho in the end? neither one nor the other does not fly ...
    1. servant.
      servant. 20 October 2013 09: 15 New
      +3
      It's like that! MIG-25! That was a breakthrough!
    2. bif
      bif 21 October 2013 00: 35 New
      +2
      Quote: Silkway0026
      B-2 Spirit costs a total of

      The cost of the entire B-2 program on 1997 year estimated at almost 45 billion dollars; Thus, taking into account R&D, the cost of one car at that time reached 2,1 billion dollars !!! That is. in 1997 year money, taking into account inflation ... I saw an example of calculation calculation, so in terms of 2013 year - an aircraft at the price of an aircraft carrier.
      In order not to refer to the controversial calculation it is not clear who, just the facts:
      1. B-2 1997year - 2,1bn $
      2. USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75) Pledged 29 November 1993 years, launched 7 September 1996 years - 4,5bn $
  23. ded10041948
    ded10041948 20 October 2013 09: 40 New
    +2
    Ох и помотала нервы эта "птица", когда служил на Новой Земле в 81-83 годах! Как по расписанию летали! Каждый четверг в 13.45 сигнал "Дрофа" и понеслась! Хорошо, что хоть барражировать, как "Орион", не могли!
  24. Ckyf
    Ckyf 20 October 2013 09: 42 New
    +1
    Quote: Akhmed Osmanov

    Although I did not live during the USSR period, but according to my father, this was just a beautiful country with a high standard of living and an educated population. And people were judged not because of how wide your pocket was, but by the presence of gray matter in your head.
    If this were so, then the beautiful country of the USSR would not have collapsed overnight. There was a lot of positive compared to the current situation, but ...
  25. Ckyf
    Ckyf 20 October 2013 09: 52 New
    0
    Quote: Yankuz
    Beautiful and serious car! Ahead of her time!

    I would not say that. Our Tu-144 did not have a set of such structural mistakes as Drozd, it was much larger in size, took off with full refueling, drove people and cargo. Here he is ahead of his time.
    1. Witold
      Witold 20 October 2013 10: 44 New
      -3
      If you do not take into account that the Tu-144 was slammed with Concord.
      1. svp67
        svp67 20 October 2013 10: 48 New
        +1
        Quote: Vitold
        If you do not take into account that the Tu-144 was slammed with Concord.

        Ха, Ха... Вы посмотрите на "Сотку" - делаем вывод "Конкорд"слямзили с "Сотки"...
      2. Taoist
        Taoist 20 October 2013 11: 34 New
        +7
        "Первый полёт Ту-144 состоялся 31 декабря 1968 года (его выполнил испытатель ОКБ А. Н. Туполева Эдуард Елян[1]), that is, two months earlier than Concord. Ту-144 также является первым в истории пассажирским авиалайнером, преодолевшим звуковой барьер, это произошло (5 июня 1969 года) на высоте 11 000 метров." (с)

        Who and what has slammed?

        И вообще, судить о "одинаковости" самолётов по их внешнему виду это большая глупость. Внешность диктует аэродинамика - а её законы для всех одинаковы. А вот конструктивно тот же Конкорд и Ту 144 совершенно разные машины. Так что никто ни у кого ничего не лямзил... это просто появившиеся в одно время самолёты созданные по сходным техзаданиям - они неминуемо будут похожи.
      3. lelyk72
        lelyk72 21 October 2013 13: 11 New
        0
        And if you compare the dates of the first flights of one and the other?
        1. Bratkov Oleg
          Bratkov Oleg 30 September 2016 18: 40 New
          0
          Supersound is not just dispersed and flew. In addition, the wings of the Tu144 have a more complex profile, and the additional wings behind the cockpit, which make it easier to control the aircraft at low speeds, did not work at Concord, because they had only the appearance of the Tu-144.

          And I remind you that the Americans are not a month behind with the first man in space, they only managed to make their first ORBIT flight in a few years, and at the time of the Soyuz-Apollo program they still did not have a space toilet, they blew diapers.

          And their home appliances are excellent, and the cars are excellent, but in all areas you can not be the first.
      4. The comment was deleted.
  26. nazgul-ishe
    nazgul-ishe 20 October 2013 15: 28 New
    0
    Quote: Taoist

    Taoist
    (1)

    Today, 11: 34

    ↑ ↓


    "Первый полёт Ту-144 состоялся 31 декабря 1968 года (его выполнил испытатель ОКБ А. Н. Туполева Эдуард Елян[1]), то есть на два месяца раньше «Конкорда». Ту-144 также является первым в истории пассажирским авиалайнером, преодолевшим звуковой барьер, это произошло (5 июня 1969 года) на высоте 11 000 метров." (с)

    Очередной "выкидыш" к дате.На два месяца раньше полетел ТУ-Конкорд дольше и успешней. Кто у кого слямзил-это трудно сопоставить,главное внедрить с хорошими результатами.
    1. servant.
      servant. 20 October 2013 17: 24 New
      0
      Why did the concord fly longer and more successfully? There were no rich people in the USSR capable of paying such money for a flight! And the concord program ordered to live, too, for the same reason, it is economically unprofitable! The communists were wiser. But the first took off TU-144 and it is a fact!
  27. Megatron
    Megatron 21 October 2013 07: 35 New
    +1
    And why only drove out of the airspace and not shot down? They had the full right.
    1. Bratkov Oleg
      Bratkov Oleg 30 September 2016 18: 41 New
      0
      International treaties. Type a little, it is possible.
  28. Amapok
    Amapok 21 October 2013 17: 30 New
    0
    ShturmKGB
    A plane burning money ... in the spirit of the Americans ...




    Here: http://52vadim.livejournal.com/265955.html
  29. Amapok
    Amapok 21 October 2013 17: 42 New
    0
    [quote=Amapok]http://i011.radikal.ru/1310/ca/f95bfc54414b.jpg http://52vadim.livejournal.com/265955.html
  30. Vittt
    Vittt 22 October 2013 00: 33 New
    0
    Quote: Altona
    When an emergency in air defense took place just in 1989, reconnaissance every day issued a report on the ZAS-telegraph, that there were 2 SR-71 scouts and 3 Orion pieces in the sky ... This is so standard ... One SR-71 flew from Norway , the second is in the Far East ...

    Кончиком заворачивали за счёт скорости.Нам бы такие.Наши развед-самолёты - слегка были не такие (в то время),отказались от них,включили ум - появилась А-50 (в дальнейшем А-100).Но никто никогда не говорил,что наши самолёты-разведчики утюжили пространство США,в отношении разведаппаратов наши,как говорит Путин,"партнёры",ушли вперёд.
  31. samolet il-76
    samolet il-76 12 December 2013 12: 48 New
    0
    And I heard about a similar A-12 aircraft.
  32. bezdonnyj
    bezdonnyj 21 May 2015 01: 33 New
    0
    video about the SR-71 SR-72

  33. Vasya_kuvalesov
    Vasya_kuvalesov 17 May 2016 09: 09 New
    +1
    Quote: Akhmed Osmanov
    Молодцы американцы, ничего не скажешь. Особенно поражает футуристичность самолета на сколько он опередил свое время, впрочем как и наши самолеты - ТУ-160 и т.д. Вообще, как бы мы и американцы не критиковали себя в период "Холодной войны", но все же я убежден (возможно и не только я), что именно этот период дал науке принципиально новый толчок в своем развитии. Если бы СССР существовал по сей день, при такой высокой конкуренции между странами, то вероятно мы бы уже построили базу на Луне и потихоньку начали осваивать Марс. Эх мечты, да мечты...
    Although I did not live during the USSR period, but according to my father, this was just a beautiful country with a high standard of living and an educated population. And people were judged not because of how wide your pocket was, but by the presence of gray matter in your head.

    your father is absolutely right, I lived in the USSR, it was a society of total justice, the toughest boss then was a baby compared to wolves now, Brezhnev has a pay-800r, at the factory workers received 300-600r (military aircraft factory), quality food, even and non-diverse, etc. etc.
    1. Bratkov Oleg
      Bratkov Oleg 30 September 2016 18: 43 New
      0
      The ministers were not elected, their political bureau appointed.
      And the ministers couldn’t leave the plant or the industry as children by inheritance ...
      And now they can!
  34. Fonamir
    Fonamir 9 November 2016 17: 21 New
    0
    Да уж "черный дрозд" действительно мощный даже слишком. Скорость почти полета со звуком, очень приятный как по мне самолет и скоро улучшат все самолеты до скоростных. Я уже жду аренду частного самолета http://arendasamoletov.com такого типа, но ждать мне придется еще пару лет до выхода лишь первых релизов. А бабок они будут стоят так же немерено как и сейчас, но это не важно. Ведь полет со скоростью звука, повысит мой адреналин до ужаса.
  35. Protos
    Protos 28 August 2017 10: 49 New
    +1
    Quote: Ckyf
    Quote: Akhmed Osmanov

    Although I did not live during the USSR period, but according to my father, this was just a beautiful country with a high standard of living and an educated population. And people were judged not because of how wide your pocket was, but by the presence of gray matter in your head.
    If this were so, then the beautiful country of the USSR would not have collapsed overnight. There was a lot of positive compared to the current situation, but ...

    The country did not fall apart in one part and not by itself, but with the help of an agent of influence and under wild external pressure! hi