The solutions are different here - devices for coupling several stores in order to speed up the replacement of an empty store with a full one, return to drum shops (in addition to the most used boxed ones), switch to other types of stores that allow combining a large “supply” of cartridges with compactness and ease of weapon control . An example of the latter approach can serve as two domestic samples of submachine guns.
Unification, characteristic of the modern system of small arms, was manifested, among other things, in the creation of submachine guns based on machine guns and assault rifles, which are used by armies. Such submachine guns are usually designed for special purpose units that already use regular assault rifles (assault rifles). It would be strange if this method of getting a submachine gun was not used in our country, where, in fact, for the first time the idea of a wide unification of automatic weapons based on one system was practically implemented.
At the beginning of 90-s, interest in automatic small arms with a range of actual firing up to 100 – 150 meters intensified in Russian law enforcement agencies. The corresponding tactical and technical task was issued in 1993 year.
The designers of Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant used the well-proven and long-used “Kalashnikov system” in production. The development was carried out by V. M. Kalashnikov - the son of an outstanding gunsmith designer M. T. Kalashnikov and A. E. Dragunov - the son of the famous creator of a sniper rifle E. F. Dragunov. By that time, however, both Viktor Mikhailovich and Alexey Evgenievich were already experienced gunsmith designers. The result of their joint work is the 9-mm submachine gun PP-19 "Bison-2", which became the basis for a peculiar family of submachine guns.
In 1996, the BNS-BNN-9 19-mm PP-2, under the standard pistol cartridge 9x18 PM (57-H-181C), entered into service with the Ministry of Internal Affairs. However, for firing from a new weapon, the high-pulse cartridge 9x18 PMM (7H16) with a bullet of increased penetrability that had appeared by that time could have been used.
At preservation of many “family” features, “Bison-2” has a number of significant differences. Automation works on the basis of recoil free shutter. The stem of the bolt serves only as a room for the return spring. A relatively large stroke made it possible to soften the effect of recoil on the weapon and the arrow and reduce the rate of fire. The reloading handle is located on the right and is part of the shutter. The trigger mechanism, like that of the base model, is assembled in a receiver; its device is almost the same as an automaton; it allows for single and automatic fire. The flag non-automatic translator-fuse in the “safety” position locks the trigger, whispers single and automatic fire and prevents the slide frame from moving backward, blocking the groove for the passage of the shutter handle. There is an option in which the large translator-fuse lever is supplemented with a lever located directly above the pistol grip. The left-side frame butt is borrowed from the AX74 submachine gun. On the left wall of the receiver there is a standard strap for installing a collimator, optical or night sight.
The most interesting feature of the "Bison-2" was the power system. The submachine gun is supplied with a screw shop with a cylindrical body and the laying of cartridges in screw grooves in parallel with the axis of the shop. This design with some complication allows you to combine a large magazine capacity with sufficient compactness. The very idea of a screw shop, in which cartridges are fed to the shop window by rotating the screw surface (a principle familiar to any housewife by the screw of a conventional meat grinder), is not new. Him history can be traced from the first experienced store rifles. The Russian fleet, for example, in the 70 of the 19th century, tested the American Evans 1871 system rifles with a screw store located in the butt: such rifles were obtained together with cruisers built in America for Russia. However, the rifles were very soon handed over to warehouses due to unreliability. But time passed, technology improved, new materials appeared. Already in 80-ies of the 20th century, the American weapon system CALICO caused a great interest in screw shops - widely publicized, but never adopted anywhere, in which a large-capacity magazine was placed horizontally on top of the back of the weapon.
Tactical and technical characteristics of submachine guns of the family "Bison-2"
|Mass of weapons without ammunition (kg)||2,8||3,0||2,7||3,2||2,8||3,0||2,7||3,0|
|Weapon length (mm): - with folded butt — with folded butt||460690||460690||460690||570790||460690||460690||460690||530665|
|Initial bullet speed (m / s)||340 / 460 *||380||330||290||340||380||330||530|
|Types of fire||od./ aut.||od./ aut.||od./ aut.||od./ aut.||one||one||one||od./ aut.|
|Rate of fire (rds / min)||680||700||680||680||-||-||-||750|
|Sighting range (m)||100 / 150 *||200||100||100||100||200||100||200|
|Magazine capacity (cartridges)||64||53||64||64||64||53||64||35|
The developers of "Bison-2" placed the store in front of the bottom. This mount, besides maintaining the compactness of the weapon, also shifts its center of gravity forward, contributing to the accuracy of shooting, and allows you to use the store as a forearm. An important point was the use of high-impact plastic in the store's design, which limited the “dead” mass of the store.
A flame arrester is attached to the muzzle of the Bison-2. An open aiming device includes a fly with a fuse and a sector sight. The sight bar is notched at a distance of up to 100 meters - for a standard cartridge 9x18 PM and up to 150 meters - for a high-pulse cartridge. PP-19 "Bison-2" is distinguished by its ease of holding and excellent accuracy for submachine guns. Soon PP-19 "Bison-2" got a considerable amount of modifications.
"Bison-2" Col.03 (or "Bison-2-03") refers to the category of silent weapons. His appearance is natural, given the role of the submachine gun as a special purpose weapon. This sample is equipped with an integrated silencer: an expansion chamber is put on the barrel into which powder gases are removed through holes made in the barrel walls along the bottom of the rifles to reduce the initial velocity of the bullet below the speed of sound. The camera is put on the trunk along with the front sight. A removable device for silent and flameless firing (PBS or just a silencer) is mounted on the muzzle of the barrel.
A removable tactical silencer can be used instead of a flame arrester for other modifications of the Bison-2. If the initial speed of the bullet exceeds the sound speed, such a silencer plays the role of a low-noise firing device, moreover, it completely eliminates the shot's flame. This not only reduces the visibility of the shooter for the enemy, but also makes it easier to work with night vision devices and simplifies voice communication within the unit, especially in urban areas, in underground communications, etc. Instead of folding sideways, the weapon can have a butt that folds forward upward - on the receiver cover.
In 1997, the Bison-2 submachine gun, Coll. 07 (Bison-2-07), chambered for 7,62x25 TT. It should be noted that a number of developers tried to “return to service” the old Tethas cartridge in 90, especially since it differs from the 9х18 PM and PMM cartridges with a higher initial speed and penetration effect of the bullet, more flatness of the trajectory, and therefore allows to achieve better accuracy and increased lesion effect. "Bison-2-07" stood out box store.
However, at the same time appeared and was standardized domestic pistol cartridge type 9х19. Creating a submachine gun for this cartridge was a natural step. And in 2001, the Ministry of Internal Affairs adopted the “Bizon-2-01” for cartridges of the type 9х19.
Performance characteristics of the PP-19 "Bizon-2"
- 9h18 Cartridge
- 2,8 kg Mass without cartridges
- 460 mm Length of arms with folded butt
- 690 mm Length of arms with folded butt
- 230 mm Barrel length
- 340 m / s (PM), 460 m / s (PMM) Initial bullet speed
- 680 rpm Rate of fire
- 40 / 100 (rds / min) Combat rate of fire
- 100 m (PM), 150 m (PMM) Sighting range
- 64 cartridge Store capacity
Tactical and technical characteristics of PP-90М1
- 9x19 Cartridge
- 1,6 kg Mass without store
- 410 mm Length of arms with folded butt
- 620 mm Length of arms with folded butt
- 500 – 600 rds / min Rate of fire
- 200 m Sighting range
- 64 cartridge Store capacity
He proved himself in the family of "Bison-2" and another new cartridge for the domestic weapon system - 9х17 "Kurtz", adopted in Russia for the so-called service weapon. Under this cartridge modified the submachine gun "Bison-2-02". As a service carbine, a self-loading modification “Bison-2-06” was presented for the cartridge of type 9х17. Self-loading modifications appeared under the 9x18 and 9x19 cartridges.
Taking into account various variants of the butt, the trigger mechanism, the presence or absence of an integrated silencer and other elements, the Bison-2 may be presented in 12 modifications.
An experimental version of a submachine gun with a removable adapter for installing box magazines was shown. However, another branch was developing in this direction - the PP-19-01 “Vityaz” submachine gun, completed only with box magazines.
The designers of the Tula Instrument Design Bureau also used a screw shop in one of their submachine guns, but their development was approached somewhat differently. Here they developed a completely new design, and a modular one, in which compactness and lightness of weapons would be combined with the merits of box and auger stores. The result was the submachine gun PP-90М1, designed for powerful cartridges 7H31 and 7Н21 of type 9 х19. Other 9-mm Lugger (Parabellum) cartridges of domestic and foreign production can be used. It is worth noting that the PP-90M submachine gun, presented to the PCU a little earlier, the PP-90М1 system is not connected.
PP-90М1 has an automatic based on the recoil of the free shutter and a classic layout with the location of the shop window in front of the trigger guard. The barrel and bolt group were made by a separate assembly, with guides for the movement of the shutter and a reflector located on the barrel. The system is designed so that the impact of the shutter at the extreme rear point during its movement under the effect of recoil is almost absent. This made it possible to use the plastic case, which was made integral with the pistol grip and trigger guard, reducing the weight and cost of the weapon, and move the center of gravity forward. The cycle time of the automation allowed to optimize the rate of fire by increasing the controllability of the PP-90М1. Together with the balance of the weapon it contributes to the accuracy of shooting.
Instead of a bolt handle, a rarely used technique was used - a notch was made at the end of the body protruding from the body above the barrel front part. It turned out the "button" of the arming. In addition to reducing the size of the weapon, this increased the hull tightness.
The trigger mechanism - the hammer type, allows for the maintenance of single and automatic fire. The shot is made from the rear sear (that is, with the shutter closed). Translator-fuse located on the left above the trigger guard. A stamped metal butt folds up forward. PP-90М1 turned out to be lighter and more compact than the variegated Bison-2.
The screw shop with a plastic case resembles the shops of the PP-19 “Bison-2” and CALICO submachine guns. Box stores for weapons were offered double-row metal. The screw shop was attached directly to the barrel and body, box-shaped - using a removable adapter-handguard. As improvements were made in KBP, they decided to abandon the adapter, and the submachine gun presented itself only with a screw shop.
However, in the 2005 year, the KBP showed a reinforced version of the PP-90М1 with the replacement of the plastic body with a metal receiver. Instead of a “button” in front of the valve stem, a more convenient for operation rotary knob appeared - similar to that used at PP-2000 developed by the same PCU. Changed and screw shop. This version of the PP-90М1 is equipped with a plastic pistol grip handle, the fore end is a magazine, the butt is bent from wire, folding upwards or sideways, in the form of a rod with a folding shoulder rest. In addition to the open sighting device, an optical or collimator sight can be placed on the submachine gun, instead of a flame arrester, a silencer can be mounted.
The use of an 7H31 cartridge with a bullet with a high penetrating effect makes it possible to hit the enemy's manpower, protected by means of individual armor, in a car or behind a light cover: when firing this cartridge from PP-90М1 at a distance of up to 30 meters, the bullet pierces a steel plate with a thickness of 8 millimeters of millimeters of millimeters which is millimeters at a distance of up to 60 meters and a bullet punches a steel plate with a thickness of 5 millimeters of millimeters of millimeters and a millimeter of millimeters at a distance of up to XNUMX meters and a bullet pierces a steel plate with a thickness of XNUMX millimeters of millimeters of millimeters and a millimeter of millimeters at a distance of up to XNUMX meters and the bullet pierces a steel plate with a thickness of XNUMX millimeters of millimeters which is millimeters thick. XNUMX meters - XNUMX millimeters.