Military Review

Domestic MANPADS: "Needles"

34
"Needle"


Even during the work on the Strela family, the creators of man-portable air defense missile systems came to the conclusion that the characteristics and capabilities of the systems based on the existing technical solutions are insufficient. MANPADS "Strela-2" and its modifications were not protected from false heat targets, and also had a warhead of insufficient power. In February, the USSR Council of Ministers decree of 1971, according to which the defense industry was to create a new portable anti-aircraft complex, devoid of the shortcomings of its predecessor. The head office of the project was to be the Kolomna Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau, besides the company LOMO, the Research Institute of Measuring Instruments and the Central Design Bureau of Apparatus Engineering were involved in the work.

Domestic MANPADS: "Needles"


The project, which received the designation “Needle”, was proposed to be created using the existing experience, but without directly borrowing the existing components. It should be noted that the creation of Igla MANPADS proved to be extremely difficult. Initially, it was required to submit a complex for testing at the end of 1973, however, due to the complexity of the project, tests began only in January of 1980.

The basis of the 9K38 “Igla” MANPADS was the 9М39 guided missile equipped with a specially designed homing head. The two-channel infrared GOS 9E140 was created with a view to improving noise immunity and improving the characteristics of the complex. The head of the rocket 9М39 was equipped with two photodetectors. The photodetector of the main channel in working condition was cooled to -200 °. The maximum sensitivity of the main photodetector was achieved in the 3,5-5 μm range and corresponded to the spectral density of the gases of the turbojet engines. The uncooled photodetector of the additional channel had a maximum sensitivity in the 1,8-3 μm range and was intended to detect false thermal targets. The automatics of the 9EXNXX seeker determined the targets and interferences by comparing the signal level from two receivers. If the stronger signal came from the photodetector of the additional channel, then the target was determined as false. Otherwise, the rocket continued aiming at the target.

To increase the probability of hitting the target, the GOS 9E140 received an additional scheme, which is responsible for turning the missile toward the target in the initial part of the flight. To perform such a turn in the steering compartment of the rocket, additional solid-fuel engines were provided.


Above the rocket MANPADS "Needle", its launch tube and control handle. At the bottom of the elements of MANPADS "Igla-1" - a rocket and launch tube


The 9М39 rocket had a length of 1574 mm and a case diameter of 72 mm. The starting weight of the product was 10,6 kg. To improve the aerodynamic characteristics on the hemispherical head fairing of the rocket a thin “needle” was provided. The layout of the internal volume of the rocket was the same as that of the previous ammunition of domestic MANPADS. At the head of the product was placed the GOS, followed by the steering compartment with the control equipment. Behind the steering compartment there was a warhead and a solid fuel engine. In the tail of the rocket mounted folding stabilizers. In order to save space in the folded state, they were located not behind the tail end of the rocket, but on its side surface.

The mass of the high-explosive fragmentation warhead of the 9М39 rocket was 1,17 kg. Having the same weight as the combat units of the Strela missiles, the combat unit of the 9М39 rocket carried a more powerful explosive. The warhead had two fuses: induction, triggered when approaching a metal target, and pin. In addition, there was an explosive generator, designed to undermine the remaining fuel in the engine.

The Igla MANPADS missile could fly to the target at speeds up to 600 m / s. The maximum firing range (in pursuit) reached 5,2 km, the maximum height (also in pursuit) - up to 2,5 km. When firing in pursuit of the 9M39 rocket could hit a target flying at speeds up to 320 m / s. The target speed when shooting towards reached 360 m / s. The probability of hitting a target with one rocket reached 0,63.

In addition to the rocket, the 9K38 “Needle” portable anti-aircraft complex included a launch tube 9П39, a trigger mechanism 9П516 and a portable electronic tablet. In terms of composition and function, the 9P516 trigger was largely similar to previous devices of this type, but it was equipped with the 1Л14 integrated ground-based radar interrogator. The principle of operation of the trigger remains the same. In a combat position, the Igla MANPADS weighed 17 kg.

An interesting feature of the Igla complex was the use of the 1L110 tablet. Using this device, the wired commander could transmit information to the anti-aircraft gunners on the detected targets. Using the tablet made it possible to simplify and speed up the process of finding and capturing targets.

The creation of electronic components of MANPADS 9K38 was delayed, because of which its state tests were carried out not in the mid-seventies, as planned earlier, but only in 1982 year. Nevertheless, the developers of the project managed to correct all the shortcomings, thanks to which the Igla complex successfully passed the tests and was adopted in September 1983.

In the future, the basic version of Igla MANPADS became the basis for several modifications. So, for the airborne troops was developed option "Igla-D". The launch tube and the missile of this MANPADS for transportation could be divided into two parts of relatively short length. For the armament of helicopters and ground equipment, a modification of the “Igla-V” was created. It differs from the basic “Needle” by a trigger mechanism, which allows the simultaneous use of two launch tubes with missiles. The Igla-N complex received a missile with a more powerful warhead, which made it possible to increase the probability of hitting the target by 25-50 percent. Because of the installation of a new warhead, the Igla-N MANPADS rocket was heavy on the 2,5 kg, which affected its flight characteristics. Thus, the maximum target speed on follow-up courses decreased to 280 m / s, on the opposite speeds - to 320 m / s.

"Needle-1"

As already mentioned, the creation of the homing head 9E140 turned out to be a difficult task, the solution of which took longer than originally planned. In this regard, in 1978, there was a proposal to create a new MANPADS. In parallel with the “Igla” system, it was proposed to develop a similar “Igla-1” complex, the design of which would not use complex systems, the creation of which was delayed. MANPADS "Igla-1" was not intended to replace the "Needles", but had to complement it, as well as simplify the process of re-equipping troops.



By 1978, all the main work on the “Needle” project, with the exception of the creation of the GOS, was completed. For this reason, it was decided to use the Needle-based groundwork for the new Igla-1 MANPADS, and to use the modified Strela-3 system as the homing head. In this way it was assumed in a relatively short time to create a portable anti-aircraft complex with acceptable characteristics.

Most of the design elements of the 9М313 rocket of the 9K310 “Igla-1” complex were borrowed from the “Igla” project. The launch tube 9P322 and the trigger mechanism 9П519 with the radar interrogator 1Л14 were also created on the basis of the existing groundwork for the main project.

The 9М313 rocket with a length of 1673 mm and a diameter of 72 mm had a starting weight of 10,8 kg. The product used an infrared homing head, which was a modified GOS missile complex "Strela-3". To improve the rocket aerodynamics, a special conical part was installed in front of its head fairing. Additional fairing was attached to three rods and had to reduce the drag of the rocket. The shape of the fairing, which is different from the “needle” of the 9K38 complex, was due to the use of a single-channel GOS with one photodetector. In the transport position, the conical fairing protruding from the forward cut of the launch tube was covered with a cover of the appropriate shape.

The warhead of the 9М313 rocket was borrowed from the 9М39 product. She had a total weight of 1,17 kg and was equipped with an explosive charge, as well as an explosive generator to explode the fuel in the engine. For the work of the warhead was responsible two fuses.



The characteristics of the GOS of the 9М313 rocket made it possible to capture the target when shooting at a distance of up to 5 km. The maximum possible altitude of the attacked target is 2,5 km. With its own speed up to 600 m / s, the Igla-1 rocket launcher could hit targets flying at speeds up to 360 m / s (in pursuit) or 320 m / s (opposite). The probability of hitting a fighter-type target with a single missile, depending on the conditions, reached 0,59.

For the convenience of anti-aircraft gunners, the squad leader could use the electronic tablet 1Л15-1. This unit allowed the commander to receive information from the divisions-regiment air defense command posts and monitor the territory of 25x25 kilometers. The 1Л15-1 tablet could simultaneously provide information on four targets, indicating their location, course, and other parameters.

Creation of MANPADS 9K310 "Needle-1" was completed relatively quickly. In early January, 1980, the first test launches of new missiles for training purposes were conducted. Trials continued until mid-summer of the same year. 11 March 1981 was issued by the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers decision to adopt the new complex.

Igla-S

The most recent modification of the Igla MANPADS is the 9K338 “Igla-S” system, which was put into service at the beginning of the two thousandth years. The aim of this modernization was to improve the characteristics of the base complex, as well as expand its capabilities. As planned by the authors of the project, the Igla-S complex was supposed to fight not only with enemy aircraft or helicopters, but also with cruise missiles. The development of the MANPADS was carried out by the machine-building design bureau and the LOMO enterprise. Serial production was deployed at the Plant. Degtyarev (Kovrov).


Russian Igla-S MANPADS at an exhibition in Peru, 2013 year


For the new portable anti-aircraft complex was developed rocket 9М342, which is a deep modernization of the base 9М313. In the previous dimensions (length 1635 mm and diameter 72 mm) with a slight increase in weight (11,7 kg), it was possible to place new electronic equipment and a warhead designed to improve product performance. The new infrared hsn 9E345 is built on a two-channel scheme and is able to determine false thermal targets. An interesting innovation is the updated algorithms of the GOS. T.N. the displacement scheme when approaching the target redirects the rocket from the engine nozzle to the center of the fuselage. In this way, the probability of hitting the most important and vulnerable units of the enemy’s aircraft or helicopter increases.

The warhead of the 9М342 rocket is equipped with a non-contact target sensor that works in conjunction with a contact fuse. According to reports, the proximity fuze is triggered with some delay after approaching the target. This allows the rocket to fly some distance and hit the target (in this case, the contact fuse is triggered) or explode near its fuselage. All these innovations significantly increase the likelihood of a reliable defeat of the target. The total weight of the warhead is 2,5 kg. In addition, the fuel solid engine can detonate with the explosion of the warhead, increasing its effect.

The homing head 9E345 allows you to hit targets at distances up to 6 kilometers. The maximum flight altitude of the target is 3,5 km. The 9М342 rocket can catch and hit a target flying at speeds up to 340 m / s. When attacking on a collision course, the maximum target speed is limited to 400 m / s.

The Igla-S MANPADS missile is supplied in the 9P338 launch tube with the 9B238-1 ground source power supply. The pipe is mounted trigger 9P522, which is a further development of devices of this type. If necessary, the anti-aircraft gunner can use the 1PN72M Mowgli night vision sight. MANPADS 9K338 in a combat position weighs 19 kg.

It should be noted that for the use of the Igla-S complex, a set of night shooting equipment (COCH) 9C250 was created. The kit includes a portable electronic kit with communication and information processing equipment, support devices (tripods with mounts for MANPADS and target designation equipment), target designation equipment for shooters and a set of means for storing and transporting set elements. The commander of the anti-aircraft gunnery unit using a tablet from the COCH 9C250 can receive information about the air situation from the air defense command posts. The tablet can recalculate the data and transmit information about the azimuth and distance to the targets to the anti-aircraft gunners. Data transmission from the commander's tablet to the shooters' equipment is carried out via a wired channel.

State tests MANPADS 9K338 "Igla-S" ended at the end of 2001 year. Soon the complex was adopted by the Russian army. Since then, the defense industry has created several types of additional equipment compatible with Iglo-S. Thus, with the 2009 of the year, the Barnaul set of COCH 9C935 is in service with higher characteristics in comparison with 9C250. The Igla-S MANPADS can be used together with the Dzhigit main launcher, which is a rotating base for two launch tubes with equipment. For the installation of MANPADS for various vehicles are offered complexes "Strelets" and "Komar".

Man-portable Igla anti-aircraft missile systems were actively used and used by the Soviet and then the Russian armed forces. A large number of such MANPADS was sold to third countries. In total, the Igla family of systems is in service with almost four dozen countries. The combat use of Igla-1 MANPADS began in the 1991 year, during the Gulf War. Man-portable air defense systems were actively used by Iraqi troops. Several International Coalition planes were shot down or damaged. After that, the “Needles” were used in almost all major armed conflicts of recent times.


Based on:
http://pvo.guns.ru/
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/
http://kbm.ru/
http://rusarmy.com/
Vasilin N.Ya., Gurinovich A.L. Anti-aircraft missile systems. - Minsk: Popurri LLC, 2002
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34 comments
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  1. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 21 May 2014 09: 50
    +8
    Good ... fairly easy to use complexes.
    1. Denimax
      Denimax 21 May 2014 13: 42
      +3
      Small and remote. MANPADS is one of the most effective air defense systems, with a large personal account.
  2. Doctorleg
    Doctorleg 21 May 2014 10: 48
    0
    And how was cooling down to -200 degrees achieved? Or is it a signet ?. Did they carry liquid nitrogen with them?
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 21 May 2014 11: 36
      +7
      Quote: DoctorOleg
      And how was cooling down to -200 degrees achieved? Or is it a signet ?. Did they carry liquid nitrogen with them?

      See the black ball from below? This is a liquid nitrogen tank.
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 21 May 2014 14: 09
        +2
        a question for experts: they cooled the IKGSN before work, and the enemy turned and flew away (flew out of range). What is done in such cases? Are spare cylinders probably included? How much, for how long does one cylinder last after activation? The autonomy of the complex is also not described - how much battery power is enough?
        in advance hi
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 21 May 2014 14: 45
          +5
          I found it: "a disposable ground source of electrical power and a refrigerant for cooling the photodetector of the homing head (the second source is supplied with a missile as part of a single set of spare parts and can be easily installed instead of the used one if, for some reason, the anti-aircraft gunner canceled the launch) ; "
          it turns out - two false or premature inclusions - and that's it, sit lit.

          how much power supply is enough for the trigger after switching on has not yet been found. in general: it turns out tight with autonomy - you need to pay attention to this when developing
        2. aleks 62
          aleks 62 21 May 2014 15: 01
          0
          .... See post above ...
    2. cat1973
      cat1973 21 May 2014 14: 21
      0
      There is such black garbage and liquid nitrogen in it
    3. aleks 62
      aleks 62 21 May 2014 15: 00
      +2
      ..... If you look closely, you will see a ball from below - this is a gas accumulator .... When starting up, a nitrogen (compressed) jet spins the gyro of the homing head and the e-energy generator, then passes through special channels in the homing head to cool it ... Compressed gas at expansion expands much (well, like compressed carbon dioxide in a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher ....) After the head capture system has been triggered, start ... If you don't have time, it doesn't matter: there’s a spare balloon with every missile .... Well, something like that ...
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 21 May 2014 18: 44
        +3
        This is not a gas battery, it is a Dewar vessel with liquefied nitrogen. When the trigger is first pressed, the liquefied gas first flows to the heat-sensitive element, then, evaporating it cools it, and only then it is removed from the head.
        We were told that the cylinder lasted for 15 minutes, but I didn’t shoot personally, so I won’t lie. Recharging this balloon with a new one is quite simple, the only requirement is the presence of an atmospheric-separation oxygen station in reach.
  3. goose
    goose 21 May 2014 11: 04
    0
    Quote: DoctorOleg
    And how was cooling down to -200 degrees achieved? Or is it a signet ?. Did they carry liquid nitrogen with them?

    Liquid nitrogen can create -192 Celsius, its evaporation, possibly create a lower temperature, but not a fact.
    Without w. nitrogen does not create such temperatures.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 21 May 2014 18: 52
      +2
      The boiling point of nitrogen is -195,75 ° C. Nitrogen does not give a lower boiling point, in principle.
      And in the cartridge that we have, that the Americans have liquid nitrogen.
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 21 May 2014 19: 29
      +1
      you’re mistaken, the point in the selectivity is that the contrast of the heat dissipation object is transmitted to the processor for encryption in -current and there is no current, then there is zero or plus to solid-state silicon triodes, and at the expense of temperatures, go through at least second-generation NVDs without saying About the third one, and about UV, well, teach me, I do not want to say in any way that a woman is a ram armed, on the contrary, it is in optics (accurate and painstaking work) - you are assy, ​​here all the paws up
  4. reality
    reality 21 May 2014 11: 05
    +1
    One thing I’m interested in is combat effectiveness. It is clear that all this is classified, but still. Maybe someone knows what would be shot down from these complexes?
    1. stoqn477
      stoqn477 21 May 2014 11: 22
      +3
      "The crash of the Mi-26 in Chechnya on August 19, 2002. On August 19, at about 16:10 Moscow time, a Mi-26 helicopter belonging to the Army Aviation of the Ground Forces took off from the Mozdok airfield and headed for the base in Khankala. those returning to their duty station after vacation, as well as contract soldiers and conscripts flying to Chechnya to replace their colleagues.

      At 16:54, the Mi-26 was a few kilometers from the Khankala airfield and made maneuvers as it landed. At this time, the crew commander Major Oleg Batanov handed over to the ground that he heard a pop in the right engine area and received a warning from the airborne systems about a fire. Fearing that the fire would spread to the second main engine, Batanov urgently went down.

      During an emergency landing, the Mi-26 hit its tail on the ground and the car fell apart. The servicemen who were at the door managed to jump out before the helicopter broke out. The crew was also safely evacuated - he was in the cockpit, which practically did not suffer from an impact. However, by a tragic coincidence, the landing was carried out directly on a minefield, which protects the base in Khankala from attacks by militants. For this reason, the extinguishing of a burning helicopter was impossible, and the evacuation of the wounded was difficult. After the sappers made several passes in the minefield, there was nothing left to extinguish.
      A total of 127 people died as a result of a helicopter crash, fire and mine explosions. 117 people died on the spot and 10 more died later in hospitals. On August 20, Russian President Vladimir Putin declared August 22 a day of mourning in Russia. "
      This is from Wikipedia. Unfortunately, to give you this example, but this I know for sure is the account of Igla MANPADS.
      1. Aleks tv
        Aleks tv 21 May 2014 16: 00
        +4
        Quote: stoqn477
        The disaster of Mi-26 in Chechnya on 19 on August 2002 of the year

        Yes ... it was a serious disaster.
        The cow was full to the eyeball ........................

        There was no greater helicopter tragedy in the world.

        MEMORY OF GUYS.
        1. Aleks tv
          Aleks tv 21 May 2014 16: 08
          +4
          Quote: stoqn477
          a total of 127 people died.

          And the Czech Dzhantemirov, who was in the group of the shooter, and three more obscure w.d.o.s. received only life ...
          And the one who shot it was finished in 2005 ...
      2. combat192
        combat192 21 May 2014 17: 27
        +1
        I have many photos of this disaster. If you need - write in a personal [email protected]
    2. Nayhas
      Nayhas 21 May 2014 11: 51
      +2
      Quote: reality
      One thing I’m interested in is combat effectiveness. It is clear that all this is classified, but still. Maybe someone knows what would be shot down from these complexes?

      There is nothing secret there. The effectiveness of modern TGSN is very high and there is no real guaranteed countermeasure to them. The same Igla-S TGSN is similar to Stinger (the copying process is veiled in the section on Igla-1), two-channel guidance, infrared radiation from the engine and UV reflected radiation from the aircraft itself. As you know, the source of UV radiation is the beloved sun, the aircraft reflects UV radiation, which is captured by TGSN, thereby nullifying the effect of heat traps, because TGSN simply ignores them. Now the third guidance channel, radiation in the visible range of light, i.e. on the very image of an air target, which is impossible to hide against the sky. But it is not known whether this guidance method is used in MANPADS.
      1. aleks 62
        aleks 62 21 May 2014 15: 08
        +1
        .... About copying a controversial issue .... The Vietnam War surprised amers with the presence of MANPADS from the Vietnamese (ours tried, the amers did not have such a thing), and ours were very surprised by the presence of easel infantry grenade launchers among the amers (although their own developments were even before the Second World War) .... After all, "Stinger" as translated ???
        1. Revolver
          Revolver 21 May 2014 17: 58
          +1
          Quote: aleks 62
          After all, "Stinger" as translated ???

          Stinger = Sting. It is also sometimes called insects equipped with a sting, but in this case, a "sting" is best suited.
          Quote: aleks 62
          The Vietnam War surprised Amers with the presence of MANPADS from the Vietnamese
          Et you confused something. The Vietnamese did not deliver anything rocket except the S-75, even the S-125 was not given out of fear that the Chinese would communize and copy. Relations with Mao then were, to put it mildly, not the best, and the supply of weapons went through Chinese territory. But even the S-75 was a very unpleasant surprise.
          1. traper
            traper 21 May 2014 19: 35
            +1
            There were our MANPADS in Vietnam http://artofwar.ru/p/ponamarchuk_e/text_0200.shtml
          2. marat2016
            marat2016 15 October 2017 22: 40
            0
            The mention of the first use of MANPADS in Vietnam dates back to August 1969. From a review by E. Ponamarchuk [27] it follows that, according to the Soviet side, a total of 589 launches of Strela-2 MANPADS were made by the North Vietnamese, of which the goals reached 204, but without detailing the latter in terms of performance (only hit or aircraft shot down). The figure of 204 hits was once again confirmed in the press in 2011 directly by S.P. Invincible, General Designer (since 1988; since 1965 - chief designer) Design Bureau of Engineering, developer of MANPADS
        2. Zymran
          Zymran 21 May 2014 23: 09
          0
          In Vietnam, most of the downed planes merit, oddly enough, not rockets or MANPADS, but barrel artillery and even small arms.
      2. badger1974
        badger1974 21 May 2014 19: 44
        +1
        in connection with the increase in selectivity and the power of selectivity (invariance) through two channels, this is good, but there is doubt, to whom will the electronic black prefer the reflection in the UV or all in the IR signature? this is where the whole chip of the embedded algorithm lies, and the third channel will even destroy a simple MANPADS, the third channel is a source of an electromagnetic wave of a certain length, vibration of atoms of a moving substance, the work was carried out back in the 80s of the last century, but there was no such electronic base like schyas, well, duck, and so it’s necessary not to create an Igloo and Shilo
  5. Argon
    Argon 21 May 2014 11: 34
    +3
    Unfortunately, we are witnessing a tendency of transformation of domestic MANPADS into a "easel" short-range air defense system. In the west, they are following the path of reducing mass / increasing mobility, increasing the noise immunity of the seeker by introducing additional guidance channels (for example, video), optimizing / simplifying launch procedures. into account it becomes clear that "Igla S" is a product that we can produce, but its characteristics no longer allow us to consider it a full-fledged "piece of air defense" in the hands of an infantryman. It is required to create a new MANPADS, the basis of which will be the GOS on a modern element base (in particular, not requiring pre-start cooling), given the complexity and cost of such R&D, it seems preferable to conduct such developments in partnership with another state, in this case with China, because. Russia will solve two issues at once: separation of financial and scientific risks, as well as prevention of unauthorized (free) technology transfer.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 21 May 2014 11: 41
      0
      Quote: Argon
      The creation of a new MANPADS is required, the basis of which will be the GOS on a modern elemental base (in particular, it does not require pre-cooling), given the complexity and cost of such research, it seems preferable to conduct similar developments in partnership with another state, in this case with China, because Russia will solve two issues at once: the separation of financial and scientific risks, as well as the prevention of unauthorized (free) technology transfer.

      As far as it is known, uncooled TGSNs have been developed in the USA and Europe; it is unknown to China whether such technologies are available. We could get them from the French, but we won’t get them, so the prospects are rather vague.
      1. Timeout
        Timeout 21 May 2014 12: 36
        +9
        Quote: Nayhas
        uncooled TGSN developed in the USA and Europe,

        The first models of uncooled matrices were developed back in the USSR in 1989 on the subject of "Horizon", and the technologies have safely flowed over the hill. His own and from the French ...
      2. Revolver
        Revolver 21 May 2014 18: 12
        0
        Quote: Nayhas
        We could get them from the French, but we won’t get them, so the prospects are rather vague.

        That's what the GRU is.
      3. samoletil18
        samoletil18 21 May 2014 20: 32
        0
        Quote: Nayhas
        no longer get

        Is intelligence not working at all? If so, then very sorry.
  6. gregor6549
    gregor6549 21 May 2014 16: 13
    -4
    Regarding the combat effectiveness of MANPADS in local conflicts, it seems useful to read the following materials http://lib.rus.ec/b/212224 http://navoine.ru/sa-7-vietnam.html In general, MANPADS are extremely unpleasant for pilots. For example, antidotes could not be found against the Stingers in Afghanistan, although the attempts were more than intense.
    1. Rubon
      Rubon 22 May 2014 06: 34
      +6
      Losses from Stinger Afghanistan do not occupy the very first place from other types of weapons, even a single hit did not always guarantee a shot down, there were cases of two Stinger hit and the crew could bring the car to landing. Special maneuvers were developed, and it was noted that if the crew had a place to maneuver and the moment of launching Stinger on it was signed, then a maneuver was made towards the start with the departure sharply up, Stinger does not work very well on oncoming courses.
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 22 May 2014 11: 09
        +2
        Well, of course. In addition to the fact that with the advent of the Stingers in Afghanistan, the number of casualties of the aircraft operating there increased sharply, the Stingers also drove this aircraft to heights beyond the reach of the Stingers. As a result, a reduced combat load in each aircraft departure and reduced accuracy of air strikes. The methods of aviation protection (heat traps, etc.) developed urgently, did not have a large effect in terms of protection. Although I understand the negative. That would be Stinger Soviet and not American then would be solid pluses
  7. erofich
    erofich 21 May 2014 16: 55
    -2
    Not enough power is cool! Machine translation or insufficient power of the author?
    1. igordok
      igordok 21 May 2014 20: 34
      +2
      Quote: erofich
      Not enough power is cool! Machine translation or insufficient power of the author?

      This is a very common term.
      The insufficient power of the 125 mm gun and its shells against the frontal armor of NATO tanks. Need to switch to 130 mm s ....

      The insufficient power of the 76 mm grenade against field fortifications

      30-mm stabilized automatic cannon BMP-2 allows firing from a place and on the move at ground and air targets, which increases the efficiency of solving the main combat missions of the BMP. However, this weapon has insufficient power of fragmentation and armor-piercing shells.

      The term "insufficient power" is used when the term "insufficient power" may not be correctly interpreted.
      For example: 60 g of TNT and grenade F-1 have the same power. But the TNT block compared to F-1 is not powerful enough.
  8. Earnest
    Earnest 21 May 2014 17: 58
    +3
    Quote: erofich
    ... power is ...?

    This is a standard term referring to warheads of ammunition, primarily artillery shells. Example: "Shot 3BM-17 (index of the projectile 3BM-42; index of the projectile with a propelling charge 3BM-44) (p / in 1986)
    developed within the framework of the research project "Mango", opened in 1983, powerdesigned to defeat modern multilayer armor barriers. "
    I often met in the literature of Rosoboronexport in describing Soviet / Russian BOPS as "a projectile of increased power"
  9. gregor6549
    gregor6549 21 May 2014 19: 12
    0
    And a cartoon on the topic. Watch, enjoy. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bewfds08wSI
  10. sivuch
    sivuch 22 May 2014 10: 43
    -2
    An interesting feature of the Igla complex was the use of the 1L110 tablet. Using this device, the wired commander could transmit information to the anti-aircraft gunners on the detected targets. Using the tablet made it possible to simplify and speed up the process of finding and capturing targets.
    ---------------------------
    The organization of the rifle department could have been more detailed. How the information was transferred - from whom the commander of the department received it and how he transmitted the arrow directly. By the way, I didn’t hear that they used wired communication in practice. Rather, they mentioned it as a potential opportunity
  11. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 22 May 2014 15: 49
    +1
    Against MANPADS (as well as explosives) recently appeared a new means of struggle:
    laser. He blinds the GOS and takes her away from the plane (or helicopter).
    True, the laser is quite massive (it is suspended under the fuselage).
    And while the system can only be mounted on large passenger liners,
    military transporters and military transport or medical helicopters.
    The system is fully automatic, scans the space and shoots itself.
  12. sivuch
    sivuch 22 May 2014 21: 28
    -1
    I would like to understand the psychology of the minus minusers. If you are not interested, this does not mean that no one is interested. Meanwhile, the shooting result depends on the organization no less than on the LTH. It is one thing to get information in advance from the ballistic control and the PU-12 and quite another - look for it yourself with your eyes, as it was in Iraq
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 23 May 2014 03: 55
      +1
      Quote: sivuch
      I would like to understand the psychology of Mr. Minus-minusers. If you are not interested, this does not mean that no one is interested

      there is no psychology or logic! minus just like that! without putting forward your opinion, which apparently is not ... hi
  13. aspid21
    aspid21 29 May 2014 15: 14
    0
    Can we, if we want?