The expenditures of the US Department of Defense for the 2015 fiscal year will amount to 495,6 billion dollars. This is exactly the amount indicated in the budget application of US President Barack Obama, sent to US lawmakers for review and amendment. On the whole, this is 0,4 billion dollars less than the military received in the current fiscal year, and meets all the restrictive rules on the allocation of defense funds. In addition, in accordance with the program of the federal government, known as the "Initiative for Opportunity, Growth and Security Initiative" (Opportunity, Growth, and Security Initiative), the US president has requested another 26,4 billion dollars, which will be spent on maintaining the combat readiness of troops, modernizing weapons, the maintenance of military bases and the construction of military facilities. The presidential application also states that in the 2016 – 19 fiscal years, the Pentagon as a whole should receive a billion dollars more on 115 than the current rate of military spending cuts require. During this period, the annual requests of the US military will vary from 535 billion to 559 billion dollars.
The MO’s allotment request was based on the provisions of the Four-Year Defense Policy Review, which was laid down on the tables of the legislators of both houses of the US Congress along with the draft budget for the 2015 fiscal year (see “IEE” from 21.03.14), which reflects all directions of construction of the US Armed Forces for the near and distant future. The next such review should appear as early as 2018.
POTATIO, EQUIPMENT AND PROFESSIONALISM TROOPS
In the presented draft budget, the main priority is given to financing measures to ensure a balanced state of combat readiness of the national armed forces, the required equipment of troops with modern weapons and military equipment (IWT), professional training of servicemen to solve their tasks and decent pay for their military work.
Approximately two-thirds of the requested allocations (336,3 billion dollars) should be spent on paying money and providing benefits to existing military personnel, the number of which is currently 1,3 million, to pay for 800 activities of thousands of representatives of the National Guard and the reserve of the Armed Forces, for 700 salaries Thousands of civil servants, as well as medical support for 9 million military beneficiaries, both current and retired. This amount also includes expenses for combat training of troops, for material and technical support (MTO) of military contingents, for the maintenance of weapons and military equipment, for administrative management, for housing for military personnel and a number of other expenses of the Ministry of Defense.
The remaining part of the military budget (159,3 billion dollars) is planned to be spent on meeting the future needs of the Pentagon, including upgrading and replacing weapons and military equipment, as well as maintaining it in working condition and developing military infrastructure. 90,4 billion will be spent on purchases of weapons and military equipment, 63,5 billion will be spent on research and development, and 5,4 billion will be spent on military construction.
From the future budget, the Army (Ground Forces - SV) should receive 24,2% (120 billion), the Navy and the Marine Corps (KMP) - 29,8% (147,8 billion), and the Air Force - 27,8% (137,8 billion). . The remaining funds 18,1% (89,8 billion dollars) are planned to be spent on solving problems of a general defense nature. This includes allocations for the US Department of Defense Healthcare Program, for intelligence agencies, missile defense management, Advanced Military Research Administration (DARPA), as well as funding for the activities of many other smaller independent Pentagon units.
The $ 26,4 billion requested in addition to the budget should be spent on increasing funding for army operations, on material and technical support for activities aviation The Navy and the training of personnel of the US Air Force. A part of these funds will be allocated for the implementation of the aircraft modernization program, including an increase in the volume of purchases of F-35 family fighters, which are being put into service with the US Air Force, Navy and KMP, and P-8 Poseidon marine patrol aircraft, as well as an increase in allocations for the modernization program UH-60M Black Hawk helicopter.
IMPROVING MANAGEMENT EFFICIENCY
In order to free up funds needed to solve the tasks of the US Armed Forces and to increase the effectiveness of troop command and control in the 2015 fiscal year, the US DoD leadership envisaged a number of administrative reforms. This will allow the defense ministry to reduce 18 billion in this area of activity in the next year. According to Pentagon’s specialists, the total savings for management will amount to 94 billion. At the same time, it is planned that 20% will reduce the cost of headquarters operations, reduce allocations to contractors, purposefully reduce the number of civilian personnel, cut down the costs of providing support units, reduce subsidies for the health care program, and move the time frame for the construction of military units facilities and housing for military personnel.
The US Department of Defense will continue to monitor measures to save the military budget, which were started in previous years. Expected savings to 2017 include a reduction in 150 billion in the cost of weapons and military equipment systems that was launched in 2012, a budget cut in 60 billion in dollars last year, and a decrease in 35 billion in the current. In addition, the Defense Ministry is making the necessary efforts to improve its financial statements and by the year of 2017 should be fully prepared to conduct audits by the relevant authorities. The leadership of the US DOD is also actively implementing initiatives to improve the structures and processes of arms procurement aimed at increasing the effectiveness of the IWT acquisition system.
The 2015 budget for the fiscal year includes a request for funding for a new cycle of measures to modernize and close military bases, which is due to start in the 2017 fiscal year. According to Pentagon experts, the refusal of parliamentarians from this proposal of the Defense Ministry will lead to unjustified expenditure of funds for the development of unnecessary infrastructure, which can be spent on upgrading the US armed forces and increasing their combat readiness.
Another way to save military expenditures and redistribute them to the implementation of programs to modernize the troops and ensure the necessary level of their combat readiness is to reduce the growth rate of the increase in the pay for military personnel. In recent years, incomes of military and civilian subordinates of the Pentagon have grown fairly quickly. Pentagon specialists believe that at present it is necessary to somewhat reduce their growth and channel the funds received to modernize the troops and train personnel.
The reduction in the growth rate of compensation will be carried out in accordance with the principles of maintaining contractual forces, maintaining payments at a level that will allow recruiting new military personnel and retaining at their workplaces military personnel who have already signed contracts, and providing guarantees to existing military personnel that they will receive further stable salary without any reductions. All savings will also be directed towards eliminating deficiencies in the training and education system, on the MTO troops and improving IWT.
On the basis of these principles, with the full consent of the Secretary of Defense and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the leadership of the US military in the budget for the next year made several proposals. So, for most of the personnel and personnel of the US Armed Forces, the growth of the basic salary is limited to 1%. Similar restrictions are planned for future years. In this case, the generals and senior officers in the 2015 fiscal year, the increase in cash is not provided at all.
Some slowdown in the growth of housing payments is also planned for the coming year. Now the servicemen will have to pay extra from their own pocket for renting housing, on average, up to 5% of the amount allocated to them for this purpose. In addition, the Pentagon liquidates housing insurance payments previously received by military personnel.
Reducing subsidies to the US Department of Defense trading network for purchasing industrial goods and food by military personnel in 2015 alone will save 200 million dollars, plus 2016 million in 600, of which it is planned to allocate about 400 million to military stores outside the United States. or in remote regions of America. According to military experts, in the future, none of the Pentagon’s trade enterprises will be closed. They will still be exempt from taxes and rents, which will allow them to sell goods to servicemen at significantly reduced prices.
In the 2015 fiscal year, it is planned to modernize and simplify the TRICARE military healthcare program. Its three components will be consolidated. In small limits, the cost of services that the servicemen previously paid from their own pocket will be increased. The involvement of the US Department of Defense in the payment of drugs and medical insurance for retirees who have reached the age of 65 will also be expanded.
MAINTAIN MILITARY AND DEFENSE FORCES
The leadership of the US military plans to reduce the number of troops and accelerate the implementation of programs to modernize them. In addition, the Pentagon intends to solve all the problems associated with ensuring the combat readiness of troops that have arisen during the conduct of wars over the past 13 years and aggravated by the sequestration of last year.
In accordance with the military budget, the United States Department of the Air Forces should receive the necessary funds for maintaining 59 squadrons, including the Air Force and National Guard reserve squadrons, which should ensure the elimination of all emerging threats to US national security. The program to modernize weapons and military equipment of the Air Force in the coming year is planned to spend significant funds. Thus, the request of the Ministry of the Air Force includes 4,6 billion dollars required for the purchase of X-NUMX F-26 fighter jets in the 35 fiscal year. In the coming 2015 years, 5 billion dollars will be spent on purchasing more 238 of such machines. The Pentagon intends to spend 31,7 billion dollars on funding to build a promising long-range bomber next year, and in five years this amount should increase to 0,9 billion. Next year, the Air Force plans to purchase seven KC-11,4 refueling aircraft worth 135 billion dollars, whereas after five years for 2,4 billion dollars, it is planned to purchase more 16,5 such aircraft. In addition, in the coming 69 years, the command of the US Air Force plans to spend 5 billion dollars on the creation of a new propulsion system for the next generation of fighters.
On the other hand, the US Air Force leadership plans to decommission A-10 attack aircraft, which have been in service for 50 years, and U-2 reconnaissance aircraft, which will be replaced by the Global Hawk UAV. It is also planned to reduce the number of acquired multi-purpose UAVs "Predator" and "Reaper", and the funds received are expected to be spent on the creation of a new combat reconnaissance helicopter.
In the 2015 year, the US Navy, in accordance with the Pentagon’s budget application, will have to finance the maintenance of 288 ships, but in five years their number will be increased to 309 units. The application contains a request for funding for the construction of strike submarines, squadron destroyers of URO, as well as floating naval bases. All these tools are designed to counter the threats to the United States, arising from potential adversaries and world terror.
The Navy’s budget also includes $ 5,9 billion for the purchase of two Virginia-type submarines. By 2019, it is planned to purchase two more such submarines. Their cost will be 28 billion dollars. At the 2015 fiscal year, the command of the US Navy also requests 2,8 billion dollars for the purchase of two destroyers of Arley Burk-type URO (DDG-51). Until 2019, it is planned to purchase one such ship annually. For the purchase of three littoral combat ships (LBK, originally - LCS) in 2015, the US Navy requested 1,5 billion. In the next 5 years, the ministry intends to purchase 14 for such ships, the total cost of which should be 8,1 billion.
The Navy also wants to receive from the federal budget next year 3,3 billion dollars for the purchase of eight F-35 fighter jets, two of which are to go into service with the USCM aviation. In total, up to 2019, the United States Navy plans to purchase 109 aircraft and spend 22,9 billion for these purposes.
The command of the Navy also intends to implement plans for the long-term and phased upgrading of 11 URO cruisers that are now in their arsenal. Improved ships will gradually enter the US Navy, will have greater combat capabilities and have a longer service life.
In the next fiscal year, the KMP requested 182 billion dollars for the maintenance and security of 700 900 marines, including 22,7 fighters, providing security to the US embassies.
In 2015, the United States Ground Forces (Army) will operate 32 combat brigades and 28 brigades of the National Guard, which are part of the United States Army. Due to the fact that the military strategy of America does not provide for the conduct of long-term large-scale wars, in the very near future the size of the Army will amount to 440 – 450 thousand troops. In order to create balanced forces, the National Guard and the reserve of the Volga-Navy will reduce their contingents to 335 and 195 thousand, respectively.
This military contingent, according to the Pentagon, together with the fighters of the KMP is able to solve all the tasks formulated in the US military strategy, including defeating the aggressor in one theater, protecting the continental part of America and providing support to the Air Force and Navy in the second theater. However, US DoD experts believe that the use of troops of such size is fraught with great risks if they need to simultaneously participate in multilateral conflicts.
As a result, the US Army leadership proposes to close the program to create a promising infantry fighting vehicle and consider alternatives to this type of military equipment. In addition, it is planned to remove from service the multipurpose reconnaissance and assault helicopters OH-58D "Kiowa" and replace them with AH-64 "Apache" attack helicopters and light multi-purpose UH-72A "Lakota" helicopters. The National Guard will also receive more universal UH-60 "Black Hawk" helicopters.
At 2015 fiscal year, the US Department of Defense is requesting 7,5 billion dollars to support the Missile Defense Administration. Another 5,1 billion dollars is supposed to be spent on conducting cybernetic operations, which will expand the defensive and offensive capabilities of the respective military contingents employed in this field.
The command of special operations at the request of the US Department of Defense should receive 7,7 billion dollars, i.e. 105 billion more than in the current year. These funds will be used to maintain the required level of combat readiness of 69 700 military personnel of this kind of troops, including their training and expansion of opportunities to solve a wide range of tasks on a global and regional scale.
Currently, the relevant committees of the House of Representatives hold hearings on the military budget for the 2015 fiscal year. Legislators are representatives of the top leadership of the four military ministries, the NKNSH, as well as the joint and special commands of the Pentagon. The higher ranks of the military department substantiate the future plans of military construction and give appropriate explanations to congressmen and senators. What will be the military budget for the 2015 fiscal year, time will tell.