"Tankprom and the transport revolution." This section will tell about the re-equipment of rail transport in 30 – 70-s, as well as about the present, which is represented by the UVZ corporation. Visitors will be able to see unique documents and photographs, albums with drawings and models of railway products with the UVZ mark. For example, a covered wagon with wooden body cladding, which was one of the first to be put on the Uralvagonzavod conveyor in 1936 and was made before 1941. Its production was established already in 1946, when the company returned to peaceful rails again. A total of covered wagons with wooden siding were manufactured 29 870 pieces.
Uralvagonzavod was built during the first Soviet five-year plans as part of a grandiose project - the Ural-Kuzbass Combine, a large industrial complex in the east of the country. October 8 1936 was launched the main car assembly conveyor. For the first time in the USSR, a large-scale production of four-axle high-capacity railway cars equipped with an automatic coupling device and an automatic brake was started at Uralvagonzavod. For the first time in the world, semi-automatic welding with an inclined electrode was used here, for the first time in the USSR - casting of a side frame of a trolley. It was a factory with an unprecedented level and volume of production for the country, designed for the production of 54 thousands of cars per year. For comparison: in 1935, on the eve of the launch of Uralvagonzavod, 11 universal engineering and seven car-building enterprises produced 16 298 four-axle freight cars. It was an enterprise with a flow-conveyor principle of production of a closed cycle.
Before the start of World War II, the enterprise could not be completed. Nevertheless, in the prewar period, an unfinished Uralvagonzavod manufactured 35 400 platforms, gondola cars (gondolas), covered wagons.
Created in 1935, after two years of work, the design department received the status of the head office in the country for gondola cars, covered wagons and platforms, as well as coupler and bogies. In 1938 – 1939, under the leadership of the chief designer of the enterprise, Dmitry Lorenzo, projects of unified freight cars were developed - a nacelle, two types of platforms, a covered wagon. In 1940, they were approved as uniform and binding for all plants in the Soviet Union. This allowed to reduce the number of parts used by an order of magnitude and eliminate all discrepancies in the designs. Due to the widespread introduction of stamping and casting, the amount of welding work has noticeably decreased. Significantly reduced the range and consumption of rolled per one car. The recycling of the structures yielded a certain decrease in its own weight.
The fact of creating and mastering the production of standardized structures is not without reason considered to be a great achievement of Soviet car building. For the first time, freight cars that appeared in Nizhny Tagil significantly surpassed their Western counterparts in their manufacturability and service qualities and came close to the American ones. Unified cars served as an excellent base for the development of special rolling stock.
September 26, 1941 the production of cars at the plant was stopped. Uralvagonzavod became the world's largest producer tanks and the lead in the country for the T-34 medium tank.
After the end of World War II, the car building returned to the enterprise. The country had high hopes for the restoration of the railway park with Uralvagonzavod, the largest manufacturer of rolling stock. 19 March 1946, the plant passed the first post-war batch of platforms. Production of gondolas was restored in 1947, and covered cars in 1948. In 1946 – 1950, he annually produced 48 percent of the total rolling stock in the country. And in 1948, the company built 70 percent of freight cars in the USSR. In addition, the UVZ, before and after the war, supplied the car-building and repair plants of the Soviet Union with castings and forgings. So, in 1950, the Altai, Kryukovsky, Mariupol and Dnepropetrovsk factories fully supplied the cast parts and axles of Uralvagonzavod. In the first post-war years, he was also the only supplier of wagon wheels in the country for both the new car building industry and repair services. Something, for example car axles, in 50-s was supplied not only to enterprises of the USSR, but also for export, and to the most exotic countries, in particular to Argentina. In 1954, the plant switched to the production of only gondolas, the production of which doubled.
The quality of post-war tagil cars for its time was considered exemplary. If they complained about them, they were connected only with Griffin's cast-iron wheels manufactured in great need. Everything else (three to five complaints per year) is either caused by improper operation, or was of a single, no longer repetitive nature.
In 30 – 50, under the leadership of Dmitry Lorenzo, the P-36 platform was designed with metal sides and lighter frame, four-axle cooling tower cars for electric trains, cattle trucks for X / NUMX tons, covered cars for transporting cars, agricultural vehicles , furniture and bulk fodder, two-axle wagon for transporting peat of g / n 50 tons, two-axle and four-axle tanks. Total - about 12 projects of various types of cars. Drawing documentation was transferred for production to other enterprises of the USSR.
All new cars could not be created without continuous work to improve the chassis - axles, springs, bearings, trucks. So, from the middle of 50-ies, the plant switched to the production of new two-axle carriages of the TsNII-X3-0 type. At the same time, the transfer of rolling stock to roller bearings began. In 1954, the specialists of the chief designer’s department on the instructions of the Ministry of Railways developed draft State standards for a gondola car, a covered wagon and a two-axle bogie MT-50.
In 60-s, Uralvagonzavod began mass production of the country's first six-axle and eight-axle gondolas with a carrying capacity of 100 and 125 tons, respectively. The eight-axle gondola model 12-508 in 1973, was awarded the gold medal VDNH. At the beginning of the 70-x their production was transferred to the Abakan Carriage Works.
By the year 1961 for 25 years of its work, Uralvagonzavod doubled the lifting force of railway transport in the USSR.
Technical Revolution 70's
At the enterprise for the first time in the USSR, the introduction of electric contact spot welding into serial car-building began. The first automatic assembly and welding line for the manhole covers together with the multi-point machine was built and put into operation in the 1960 year. This welding method is widely used in 70-e in connection with the transition to the production of all-metal gondolas.
“UVZ already has assets and joint projects in France, Luxembourg, Ukraine, China. The creation of joint ventures in the Baltic States and Kazakhstan began. ”
In 70-s at Uralvagonzavod, a radical reconstruction of the car assembly production was carried out without stopping the production of gondola cars. In 1979, the company completely switched to production of all-metal gondolas of the 12-532 model on roller bearings with extensive use of special, economical, cold-formed and periodic rolled profiles using 0,96 – 0,97 metal. This car was the most technologically advanced history domestic car building. At UVZ, for the first time in the USSR, a complex-mechanized automated production of wagons was created in freight wagon building. For the first time in the world, contact welding of thick metals, automatic welding of vertical seams with free forming, and tilter of the gondola car body built into the conveyor were created and introduced into production. In 1976, UVZ launched a 500 thousandth carriage on the country's highways. In 1977-m was built the maximum number of cars - 20 600 pieces. In 1985, the company delivered an improved gondola model 12-119 to the conveyor.
In 70 – 80-ies, every third car on the highways of the Soviet Union was with the brand Uralvagonzavod.
Always in development
Uralvagonzavod survived the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent economic upheavals that occurred in the country in the 90s. When Mariupol Azovmash was the main producer of rail tank cars abroad, the Russian government set the enterprise the task of mastering their production. During these years, design documentation was developed at Uralvagonzavod and the production of more than 10 types of tanks for the transportation of oil and refined products, liquefied petroleum gases, sulfuric acid, oleum, etc. was created. In addition, the Ural Design Bureau of Car Building developed special car designs. Among them, a hopper for transportation of mineral fertilizers. This project was highly appreciated by Ukrainian scientists and specialists in a two-volume study entitled “Modern Car Building”, which was published in Kharkov in 2007 year: “Drop-shaped UVZ mineral transport truck is a very convenient and safe design, sliding roof, two-way opening of hatches, management of loading and unloading is underway from the bottom, there are platforms for control of loading. Easy opening, reliability, the ability to carry aggressive loads, undoubtedly, belong to the advantages of this model. ”
The most important direction in the development of car building is the introduction of new structural materials, both metallic and nonmetallic. Uralvagonzavod for a long time was engaged in new steel grades for car building, such as 12Г2ФД, 10Г2ФДП - for bearing elements, steels 10ХНДПФ, 10ГФДПП - for enclosing elements and a number of others. Back in 70 – 80s, the technology of steel alloying with vanadium-containing slags was developed and introduced into production, for which a number of engineers were awarded the prize of the USSR Council of Ministers.
In 2000 – 2002, UVZ together with OJSC VNIIZhT and OJSC NTMK carried out a set of works on the development of low-alloyed steel modified with vanadium (a carbide-forming element). NTMK OJSC has mastered the production of hot-rolled sections for the car building industry of the specified steel grade. Moreover, steel is alloyed with copper in the amount of 0,15 – 0,3 percent, which makes it possible to increase its resistance to atmospheric corrosion by almost 30 percent. Currently, in railcar building, steel 12Г2FD is widely used for the manufacture of the main load-bearing elements of freight cars, including gondola cars with extended overhaul mileage and extended service life. This allows to increase the static and fatigue strength of the structure, reduce the number of failures, reduce repair costs.
In 2007, the open joint-stock company “Scientific and Production Corporation“ Uralvagonzavod ”was established, which dynamically developed in the past years and entered the transnational level in the second decade of the 21st century. UVZ already has assets and joint projects in France, Luxembourg, Ukraine, China. The creation of joint ventures in the Baltic States and Kazakhstan began. UVZ remains the largest participant in the freight rolling stock market in Russia and the CIS. Following the 2012 results, the company produced almost all 28 000 freight cars of all kinds, which was not only the best result for Uralvagonzavod, but also an absolute world record, not surpassed by any of the car manufacturers.
Over the 75 years of its existence (1936 – 2011), Uralvagonzavod produced more than 1 000 000 cars!
In 2008, the government of the Russian Federation approved the Strategy for the development of rail transport to 2030. The program provides for the creation of new-generation cars with increased payload, reduced tare weight and increased reliability. Uralvagonzavod Research and Production Corporation is involved in the implementation of the program, participates in large projects and makes key decisions on the revision of existing requirements and standards. The general director of the corporation, Oleg Sienko, is a member of the state commission for the development of railway transport, the chairman of the supervisory board of the non-commercial partnership Car Engineers Association, the most consistent supporter of creating a self-regulating organization of manufacturers of railway equipment.
Ural Design Bureau of Carriage Engineering LLC (UKBV) is the head company in its industry, working to create the most modern and innovative railway technology and expanding the range of rolling stock. The Bureau of the NP "OPZHT" Committee noted that the design bureau is the most advanced in its industry. The UVZ corporation has led the so-called project office, which will be called upon to coordinate work on the creation, testing and manufacture of new types of freight cars and their components. One of the modern developments of the UVZ is TMV-2 - a multifunctional vehicle that is intended for transporting cars from the station to the car-repair depot and back, setting up repair positions, cleaning railway tracks at enterprises and roads from snow and mud.
Currently UKBV continues to actively use in its development elements of structures made of composite materials. Today, the company is working to create a composite roof for a promising 19-5153-01 model hopper car for the transportation of mineral fertilizers. At the same time, the issue of replacing the metal roof of a serial gondola model 12-146 with its composite counterparty is being worked out.
The use of the roof of composites that are absolutely neutral to aggressive loads and structurally made smooth, streamlined shape eliminates body corrosion. This leads to a decrease in operating costs, as well as tare weight and an increase in the volume of transported cargo.
Among the newest developments of UKBV is the hopper car model 19-5167, made of composite materials (fiberglass and carbon fiber). At the enterprise, the gondola of the new generation model 12-196-01 with increased carrying capacity and increased overhaul mileage and the trolley model 18-194 are commercially available.
Along with partners, UVZ finances the work on the adjustment of the “Provision on the system of maintenance and repair of freight wagons admitted to circulation on public railway tracks in international traffic”. When the document is recycled, it will allow full use of rolling stock with increased turnaround mileage, regulate its maintenance.
Also, an urgent task is to conduct accreditation of repair enterprises, especially in terms of carrying out repair work on innovative rolling stock with increased payload and overhaul mileage. The pledge of such accreditation is the presence in each depot of the repair documentation developed by the plant - the car manufacturer. In addition, the car-repair enterprises must, without fail, agree with the manufacturing plants the design documentation for the overhaul and repair work with the extension of the railcar service. The Scientific and Production Corporation Uralvagonzavod insisted on additional consideration of the GOSTs on bogie-sized three-element bogies of 1520 railcars and the specifications of the cast parts “Nadressornaya Beam”, “Lateral Frame”. These standards were previously submitted for approval, but UVZ experts did not agree with some of the positions of these important documents.
UVZ, together with JSC Russian Railways, initiated a program aimed at recycling old rolling stock and the conditions for extending its service life.
Almost 80 years ago - 13 May 1935, the first director of Uralvagonzavod, Gregory Pavlotsky, in his keynote speech at the general assembly party meeting, said: “We literally have to become a factory that makes car building policy”. Throughout its history, UVZ has been making policy in this industry.