The implementation of the national maritime policy in the regional areas requires the combined efforts of all participants in the maritime activities of both federal and regional authorities of Russia. An important practical role in this is given to advice on maritime activities.
To form coordinating bodies - councils for maritime activities in a number of federal districts, and to establish them in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation was recommended at a meeting of the Maritime Collegium of the Government of the Russian Federation held on July 16 on July 2004. In 2004 – 2005, similar councils were formed in two federal districts (North-West and Far East) and in most coastal subjects (in 21 from 26).
It was assumed that the new structures will coordinate the interaction of federal and regional authorities, scientific, industrial and public organizations in the implementation and management of maritime activities. Part of these expectations were met. A number of educated councils have been successfully operating to date.
An example of the effective use of such a form of organization of state management of maritime activities in a constituent entity of the Russian Federation is the work of the Maritime Council of the Northern Capital headed by the Governor of St. Petersburg, Georgy Poltavchenko. It was formed in the 2004 year with the aim of creating conditions for the implementation of the Russian national maritime policy in the city and the St. Petersburg course being formed on this basis in this area. To ensure work in various areas of maritime activity, the Council has formed a number of sections and commissions (on sea and river transport activities, ports and coastal infrastructure, naval activities, shipbuilding, etc.) interacting with executive authorities. Taking into account the increase in maritime economic activity in the Arctic direction, at a meeting of the Council held in June 2013, it was decided to establish a permanently functioning coordination body - the Polar Commission, which is responsible for coordinating the actions of the executive authorities of St. Petersburg, institutions and organizations ensuring the implementation of the main provisions of the strategy and the policies of the Russian Federation in the Arctic and Antarctic. The main task of this structure has become informational and analytical support for the implementation of the provisions of the main strategic documents that determine the activities of our country in the northern and southern polar regions of the Earth.
The polar commission consists of several working groups. For example, it includes a working group on the “Arctic Innovation Territorial Cluster”. This is due to the fact that St. Petersburg recently announced its intention to create an Arctic cluster based on the existing complex of research and industrial enterprises in the city, sufficient for large-scale research and development of the Arctic territories, as well as the development of shipping along the Northern Sea Route.
Thus, in the framework of the meetings and meetings of the Marine Council and its sections, the most acute and urgent problems associated with the maritime activities of not only St. Petersburg and the region, but the whole of Russia are considered. In 2013, they included the development of a strategy for the development of the Russian seaport infrastructure for the period up to 2030, the adoption of a national program of measures to improve and rehabilitate the Baltic Sea ecosystem, and prospects for the development of shipbuilding in the city.
The Maritime Council actively interacts with the executive and legislative authorities of St. Petersburg, as well as with scientific, public and other organizations related to maritime issues. Representatives of the council participate in meetings and meetings of the Maritime Collegium - a permanent coordinating body in the field of maritime activities, prepare the necessary reference and analytical materials in accordance with its requests. Some of the events organized or held with the participation of the council are included in the annual work plan of the Maritime Collegium, such as the historical-patriotic contest Maritime Crown of Fame: Seamen in the Service to the Fatherland, the XIV International Ecological Forum "Baltic Sea Day" and a number of others.
Based on the above, we can conclude about the important role played by the Maritime Council in the development of St. Petersburg as the sea capital of Russia, as well as in the development of the maritime component of the entire North-West region.
The activities of sea councils in the regions of the Federation in the Arctic direction are of particular importance in the context of the implementation of large-scale projects for the development of deposits of the continental shelf in the Arctic and the development of the Northern Sea Route. Thus, the Council for Maritime Activities under the Governor of the Arkhangelsk Region provides preliminary consideration and preparation of proposals on the implementation of the national marine policy of Russia in the region, as well as the interaction of federal and regional authorities. The most important issues for the development of the region are discussed at council meetings. For example, in 2013, the progress in the implementation of the federal target program “Development of shipbuilding for 2013 – 2030 years” and the prospects for the development of the Arkhangelsk seaport were reviewed.
A similar council under the governor of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug was formed in 2013 year to solve marine economic problems in the territory of this subject of the Federation and in the adjacent part of the Russian Arctic zone. One of the tasks of the council is to interact with the Maritime Collegium and monitor the execution of its decisions in the district.
The revitalization of the activities of the maritime councils in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation is also taking place in other regional areas. In 2013, in order to effectively implement the national maritime policy in Kamchatka, a decision was made to create a Maritime Council under the Government of the Kamchatka Territory. It consisted of representatives of government bodies and local self-government, heads of various organizations engaged in maritime activities. Among the main tasks of the council is the development of proposals for the implementation of the federal and the formation of a regional transport policy, measures aimed at creating conditions to ensure maximum load on port facilities and fleet, as well as preparation of proposals for improving the structure of port management and analysis of maritime activities, taking into account economic factors.
The head of state stressed that the country's resources should go for development, for the achievement of strategic goals, for example, such as the rise of Siberia and the Far East. In the context of the implementation of projects designed for the rise and development of the Far Eastern region, the work of the council will become highly relevant and in demand throughout the entire range of maritime activities.
Despite a promising start, by now most of the councils created in 2004 – 2005 have actually stopped their work. One of the main reasons for this situation is insufficient regulatory support for their activities. The adoption of the federal law “On the State Administration of the Maritime Activity of the Russian Federation” can help solve this issue. The concept of this law was mainly approved at a meeting of members of the Maritime Collegium held in March 2013. The proposed draft law defines the system of institutions of state power and the subject composition of the state governing of the maritime activities of Russia, as well as the powers of the subjects of the national maritime policy. The document will fix the possibility of creating permanent coordinating bodies - sea councils under the heads of Russian subjects located on the sea coast - to help ensure coordinated actions to implement the national marine policy of the federal executive bodies, executive bodies of state power of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local governments, marine entities activities and non-profit organizations expressing the interests of the subjects of the marine activity sti. According to the draft law, the regulation of relations between the subjects of the national maritime policy should be based on the basic principles of the national maritime policy, including interaction and coordination of efforts in the formation and implementation of the national maritime policy of the state authorities of the Russian Federation, the state authorities of the subjects, local governments and interested public associations.
In addition, another document should be mentioned: at the end of August 2013, the updated Regulations on the Maritime Collegium were approved, defining new areas of its activities, expanding the range of the main tasks and rights of this structure. Although the current councils cooperate with the college, participating in its meetings and meetings, preparing the necessary reference and analytical materials in accordance with requests, as well as supervising the execution of decisions of the college on its territory, the procedure for their interaction is not spelled out in the new position.
Given the role that the councils in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation could play in the implementation of local marine policy by local authorities, it seems appropriate to establish a procedure for their interaction with the Maritime Collegium, in which the solution of regional issues of marine management, requiring settlement at the federal level, would be decided directly through Maritime Collegium. Making such changes to the Regulations on the Maritime Collegium would contribute to a more optimal use of the potentials of the councils.
An important issue of the effective functioning of the councils for maritime activities in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation is the solution of the problem of organizing joint actions of federal and regional authorities in the processes of preparing and making decisions in the field of marine management.
An example of the interaction of all stakeholders, not only government, but also scientific, public and commercial, is the experience of managing maritime activities in the United States, carried out on the basis of the implementation of the principle of co-management. The need to create a comprehensive framework for coordinating the efforts of federal, state, local authorities, including regional government structures, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and the public, arose in the context of the multifaceted nature of the tasks solved by the participants of maritime activities in the United States. According to the principle of co-management, the object of management is the national treasure of the country in the common use of all US citizens, the subjects are many participants in maritime activities, including legislative and executive bodies, administrative structures of regions, states, counties and municipalities of the country, etc. in one of his works, doctor historical Vladimir Pisarev, the basis of the co-management system is, firstly, a course towards expanding the number of participants in the decision-making system, and secondly, using the advantages of connecting all participants in the oceanic process and their partners to the development and adoption of balanced decisions for the maximum possible consideration of public interests and positions specific parties. At the legislative level, the principle of ocean co-management implies cooperation between the parties in the development of conceptual provisions, initial principles, strategies for their achievement, plans and conditions for the implementation of national ocean policy.
The application of such a principle of co-management in domestic practice, taking into account Russian specifics, would contribute to the expansion of the powers of the maritime councils in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and would allow them to more effectively use their capabilities in solving practical problems in regional economic and scientific activities.
Equally important is the use of the potentials of the Soviets in the implementation of military shipbuilding programs, the development of patronage ties with ships and military units of the Navy, as well as in promoting activities of military-patriotic education of youth and promoting military service in the Navy, organized with the direct participation of the fleets and the Caspian flotillas.
A significant contribution to the training of personnel for the Navy would be the work of sea councils aimed at improving the training of young people for military service, as well as facilitating the recruitment of posts replaced by foremen, sergeants and sailors, and military personnel under contract. It seems that the main part of this work should occur precisely at the regional level and therefore the maritime councils can play a key role in resolving these issues.
Also, maritime councils could be especially actively involved in solving environmental problems and problems of ensuring the safety of navigation. Decision making on environmental safety issues in the waters of coastal constituent entities of the Federation may take considerable time and have a long lag time, which will reduce the relevance of decisions made and the effectiveness of measures to eliminate the consequences of environmental problems. In this regard, strengthening the regional level of management and making it more independent can fundamentally increase the efficiency of management processes and the effectiveness of practical actions to eliminate the consequences of accidents, disasters and environmental disasters in the seas of the Russian Federation.
It seems that the main directions of development of maritime activities, taking into account regional specifics, as well as investment and economic specifics of coastal regions, should be formed in conditions of greater independence of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in terms of managing and coordinating the activities of stakeholders in this process at the regional level. The expansion of powers and functions, the enhancement of the status of sea councils, the organization of interaction between subjects of maritime activities, as well as the implementation of high-quality information support for their work will stimulate the development of maritime activities in regional areas.