According to the results of 2013, the sum of signed real contracts for the export of military goods and services carried out by Ukrainian enterprises and special exporters belonging to the Ukroboronprom State Concern will, according to preliminary estimates, be from $ 1,5 to 1,7 billion. This is the highest indicator of concluded deals for the entire period of activity of Ukraine as an independent state. At the same time, the enterprises of the concern, according to published data, according to the results of last year, ensured the growth of production volumes by 22% and the growth of arms exports by 25%. What was filled and secured this increase? Let us highlight the largest projects and areas that formed the gun picture-2013 and the main outlines of the current year.
The armored palette is traditional for Ukrainian arms exports. The technologically most complex and interesting project is the establishment of mass production tank BM "Oplot" and the implementation of the export contract for the supply of 49 units of this main battle tank to Thailand. February 4, 2014 the first batch of five “Holds” produced by the State Enterprise “Plant named after V.A. Malyshev” arrived in Thailand as part of the implementation of the contract concluded in September 2011. between the Ukrspetsexport Group of Companies and the Royal Thai Army. In the tender, the Ukrainian tank managed to bypass the South Korean K1A1 tank and the Russian T-90. The total cost of the contract is more than $ 240 million. This tank order for new tanks is the largest since Ukraine concluded and fulfilled the agreement on the delivery to Pakistan of 320 T-80UD tanks worth $ 640 million. The first batch of new “Oplot” was manufactured in conditions of stringent optimization of production at the Plant them. Malyshev, associated with the need to achieve maximum efficiency and cost rationality in the formation of a new industrial and technological cycle. What effort it was worth - a topic for another discussion. But there is a positive result that not everyone believed even at home, not like competitors.
Following the new “Stronghold”, the modernized T-64 tank has already entered the world export market. Signed a contract with one of the African countries. A firm order, which was carried out by the Kharkov Armored Plant, was launched for several dozen vehicles, and there is a further option. During Soviet times, this car was not sold abroad. Powerful T-64 Union coast for war with Europe. And all the cheap market niches filled the "seventy-twofolds" - which became especially noticeable after the collapse of the Union. Discussions in Ukraine itself, that it’s time to start exporting T-64, have now been stopped by talk that, they say, T-64 will narrow the maneuver for the promotion of Ukrainian tanks - the same “Oplot”. But now it has been decided that an upgraded T-64 with a new dynamic protection, a new engine, a new fire control system may be the best option for those customers for whom Oplot seems like an overly expensive pleasure. Now there are two export niches - “Oplot”, created taking into account the promising requirements of tank fashion, and T-64, the appearance of which, according to the customer’s wishes, can vary widely - from the most sophisticated to the version “tomorrow to battle”. T-64 has all chances to become a hit of Ukrainian armored sales, since it is unlikely that it will have worthy competitors by the criterion of "cost-effectiveness".
Well, to the T-72, the modernization of these machines and Ukrainian special exporters are not discounted. A striking confirmation of this is the installation of Ukrainian engines on T-72 tanks for Ethiopia, where, under a contract worth more than $ 100, 200 retrofitted tanks were delivered earlier under the T-72U1 option (with 5TDFMA-1 diesel engines).
Tank engine-transmission units based on Ukrainian diesel engines are a very stable source of income in themselves. After fulfilling the contract for the supply of 50 MTO for MBT-2000 tanks to the PRC in the amount of $ 20 million, the Chinese partners have an interest in further purchases. In turn, the Ukrainian 6TD-2 engine manufactured by the Kharkiv Engineering Design Bureau named after A. Morozov, which is part of Ukroboroprom Group of Companies, is installed on the main Al-Khalid battle tanks of Pakistan, where more than 300 tank engines were previously supplied. It is through Pakistan that the probability is high that the Ukrainian tank engines will reach Saudi Arabia as well. In January 2014 g. Jane's edition reported that, as part of a large-scale agreement on military-technical cooperation between Islamabad and Riyadh, negotiations have begun on the supply of new main battle tanks Al-Khalid to Saudi Arabia.
Among the new light armored vehicles “made in Ukraine” the most branded products are armored personnel carriers BTR-4 and BTR-3Е1. Indonesia will be the second export customer after Iraq for the purchase of the BTR-4. The first contract for the delivery of a consignment of five Ukrainian BTR-4 will be signed in the near future, during the first quarter of this year, according to Ukroboronprom state concern. It will be executed by Ukrainian factories under the auspices of the state self-financing foreign trade enterprise “Spetstechnoexport”, which are part of the Ukroboronprom group of companies. Indonesian Defense Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro stated that it was planned to buy 55 Ukrainian BTR-4. The “fours” should replace the Soviet BTR-50P, which are now in the arsenal of Indonesian marines more than 70 pieces.
Ukraine also fulfills a contract signed with 2009 with Iraq for the supply of 420 armored personnel carriers BTR-4 and vehicles based on it. This contract has become a serious challenge for the Ukrainian defense industry. As in 2009, the technological chain itself for serial production of the BTR-4 in Ukraine simply did not exist. The delivery in three years of a large number of new armored personnel carriers required a significant consolidation of the defense industry. That did not happen. As for 2012, as previously planned, the contract was not executed - due to a number of organizational, financial and technical reasons. Its implementation is still ongoing.
In turn, the signing of a full-scope contract with Indonesia gives the Ukrainian side every opportunity to “hone” the production technology of the armored vehicle and demonstrate to both the customer and the market the competitive advantages of the new design. It is not yet known in which configuration and in which “appearance” Indonesia will buy the BTR-4 Indonesia. With average price indices for 55 machines, Ukraine can receive income ranging from $ 60 to $ 80 million. The Indonesian side plans to replace the BTR-50P with the BTR-4 in the period 2015-2019. But, perhaps, the delivery time of the Ukrainian armored personnel carriers will be more brief.
In terms of the number of sold new armored personnel carriers, the BTR-3E1 can be considered the leader so far. According to orders for the BTR-3Е1 in Thailand alone, Ukrainian special exporters have already shipped more than 120 vehicles at an average cost of $ 1.3 million per unit. Some of these machines have been in operation for more than two years and have a mileage of more than 2 thousand km. “Despite the difficult climatic conditions, the Ukrainian-made equipment turned out to be reliable in operation,” say the manufacturers. All existing programs for the supply of BTR-3-1 in Thailand are calculated to 2015 g.
Two major contracts - Indian and Kazakh - provided a substantial share of profitability for SE "Ukroboronprom" in 2013.
Kazakhstan is a long-time customer of the services of Ukraine in the repair and extension of the resource of anti-aircraft missile systems and air defense systems. Since then, as in 2007, the company Ukroboronservis, which today is part of the Ukroboronprom Group of Companies, has repaired C-300PS for Kazakhstan. In 2012, the repair of the command center of the system - KPS 5Н83С for Kazakhstan was completed, and in July 2012 a new contract was signed between SE Ukroboronservis and the Ministry of Defense of Kazakhstan for the repair of another division C-300PS. In 2013, this C-300PS division was delivered to the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan and test fires were conducted using the 5H83С CPS. All fired missiles hit targets. After that, the Minister of Defense of Kazakhstan said that Astana is interested in expanding cooperation with Ukraine in the military sphere and will actively develop it.
There are all prerequisites for this - especially against the background of the Russian promises already sounded in early February. "Five C-300PS divisions will be delivered to Kazakhstan from the presence of the Russian Defense Ministry. Earlier, these divisions were on alert in the Russian army, and now the specialists of the two countries will have to look at how to bring them to combat readiness," said Deputy Defense Minister Anatoly Antonov on the results of negotiations between the heads of the military departments of Russia and Kazakhstan.
To bring them to a combat-ready state, and then deliver them to Kazakhstan, we need repair and production facilities and specialists. And they are in the Russian Federation, as paradoxical as it may sound, now they just don’t. Since they are all engaged in the production of a new generation C-400 air defense missile systems (moreover, obviously not keeping up with the previously announced plans) and creating a C-500 advertised air defense system with TMD capabilities. So, to restore and revive C-300 air defense systems, promised to Russia by Russia, except for Ukraine.
“The practice of recent years has shown that not one of the CIS countries today is capable of ensuring that the depth of repair, at the level of repair of a cell, unit or subblock, which is being carried out by Ukroboronservice.” And the most important thing in this matter is that the product after our repair extends the resource for seven years or five thousand hours. Which is confirmed by ground tests. Moreover, Ukraine has already implemented the production of a new element base for the C-300PT / PS complexes, in exchange for the one that is no longer produced in Russia, ”say Ukroboronservis.
Along with the repair of ground-to-air systems, after a rather long pause, Ukraine, or rather the Artem State Holding Company, in 2013. demonstrated its capabilities as a serial manufacturer aviation air-to-air missiles. Ukraine is quite active in exporting air-to-air guided missiles of the R-27 type in various modifications. The export volumes of air missiles depend on where and in what quantities Soviet or Russian fighters such as MiG-29 or Su-27 and their modifications were previously sold. In May 2012. an agreement was signed with India on the supply of medium-range R-27 aircraft guided missiles, which was subsequently carried out under the auspices of the Ukroboronprom State Corporation, which included the Artem State Holding Company. The contract in the amount of $ 246 million made it possible to fully utilize the labor and production facilities of the company in the period 2012-2013. and so on. The terms of the contract also provided for the supply of equipment for technological maintenance of the supplied products - the Gurt complexes (Luch State Design Bureau) and missile launchers (Krasilovsky Aggregate Plant).
A special place in the export of Ukrainian precision weapons 2013 was occupied by the products of the State Kyiv Design Bureau "Luch". These are anti-tank guided missiles and complexes for ground forces, heavy and light armored vehicles, helicopters, and offshore platforms. These are guided munitions of 152, 130, 125, 120, 105, 100 and 90 mm calibers, as well as the ATGM family for ground forces, wearable and portable. “Luchevsky” contracts are characterized by two important features - a stable expansion of the samples of the products offered and an increase in the partners and customers interested in jointly developing and purchasing them.
In 2013. it became known that Luch State Design Bureau and the Belgian company CMI (Cockerill Maintenance & Ingénierie) Defense have implemented a very interesting joint project. Its essence is that a new ammunition has appeared in the ammunition of the 90-mm gun of the Cockerill turret - a Ukrainian round with the Falarick 90 anti-tank guided missile. The missile can be fired through the bore of a 90-mm gun and hit armored targets at a distance of up to 4 km, which is more than twice as far as compared to other rounds of the standard ammunition rack. The project was implemented in the interests of one of the rich countries of the Persian Gulf. Towers produced by the Belgian company CMI Defense with Ukrainian missile and cannon armament (90, 105 and 120 mm) are compatible with all types of lightly armored vehicles and are offered to armored vehicle manufacturers interested in increasing the firepower of their vehicles. This "new thing" has already been tested on the South Korean K21 BMP of Doosan and on the Polish armored personnel carrier "Rosomak" (Rosomak) in the version of the fire support vehicle called "Wolf", which can be equipped with a cannon of both 105 mm and 120 mm in the CT-CV turret CMI Defense products. Also in Poland, a new guided 120-mm mine with laser semi-active homing was recently tested, created as a joint project of the State Design Bureau "Luch" and Polish enterprises.
The contracts for the modernization and repair of combat and transport airplanes and Soviet-made helicopters made and executed at the enterprises of the Ukroboronprom group of companies are the most noticeable order for the modernization of the An-32 for India. A five-year contract worth $ 397,7 million for the repair and upgrading of X-NUMX An-105 machines for the Indian Air Force was signed in July by 32 g. between the Ministry of Defense of India and Spetstechnoexport. The agreement had a “chain” effect, as its $ 2009 million was added to its financial part to manufacture 110 aircraft engines at Motor Sich JSC. To date, Ukraine has undergone modernization and transferred 100 aircraft from 30 to the customer, which, according to the contract, must be modernized in Ukraine. In February, 40. the transfer to the customer of the seventh batch of An-2014 vehicles of five vehicles should take place. The transfer of the eighth and final “five” is scheduled for May. The rest of the aircraft will be upgraded at the aircraft plant of the Indian Air Force BRD-32 in Kanpur, in northern India. The direct executors of the contract are the state enterprise Antonov and the state enterprise 1 Plant for Civil Aviation, which is a part of the Ukroboronprom group of companies.
According to the “Indian model” - with the installation of new avionics and digital on-board equipment, maintenance and revision of the AI-20D engines - it is also proposed to modernize the An-32B aircraft for the Peruvian air force. This Ukrainian proposal is already framed. Currently, Peru is armed with eight An-32.
In the first quarter of 2014, the transfer of the Chinese Navy of the second of the four high-speed amphibious assault ships was scheduled. Earlier, “ukroboronpromovskaya” shipbuilding company “More” (Theodosia), a serial manufacturer of vessels with dynamic principles of maintenance, sent the first MDKVP to the customer. The Ukrainian project of a small landing ship received the 958 index and the name "Bison". It is a further development of the 1232.2 Zubr project, which was developed in the Soviet Almaz Central Design Bureau at the end of 80, and is the world's largest amphibious assault ship. Under the terms of the contract with the Ukrainian "defense industry", the amount of which exceeds $ 315 million, five years have been allotted for the execution of works. Two ships have already been built in Ukraine, and two more will be built - in China, according to Ukrainian technologies and with the participation of Ukrainian specialists.
FGC "More" is building "Bison / Buffaloes" on the basis of a bilateral agreement with Russia on the use of the intellectual property of the former Soviet Union. This arrangement allows the Ukrainian side to dispose of the technical documentation on the ships of this project.
In the new project, developed in the design bureau of the Feodosia plant “More”, the ship, in particular, is equipped with fundamentally new control equipment and necessary navigation and radar equipment of domestic production. New technical and software to control the technical means and movement of the unique ship was developed by the specialists of OJSC “Plant“ Fiolent ”(Simferopol). For the 958 “Bison” project, a complex for controlling the KSU Flora-958 ship was designed. Integrated management system is innovative.
The state enterprise “Zorya” - “Mashproekt” (Nikolaev) in 2013 provided gas supply to both Bizon and a number of other foreign customers, including Russia, India, and Vietnam. The demand for Dawn products - Mashproekt remains stable. Orders for offshore power plants - and in the export structure of Zarya - Mashproekt is about 20% - form the company's production program already before 2019. But, according to experts, the company's capabilities can be used even more actively.
Instead of conclusions
Evaluating the results of the Ukroboronprom Group of Companies on the top of the export iceberg, it can be argued that the concern managed to stabilize the situation in the defense industry and create prerequisites for increasing the volume of exports of military products and services. This was done under conditions when the main and classical pillar of the development of the national defense industry — the internal state defense order in the interests of the Armed Forces of Ukraine — was simply miserable and practically did not contribute to the tasks of industrial development. Sadly, 2014's situation looks even more complicated. Thus, in the current year, the Ministry of Defense’s planned expenditures on the development of armaments and military equipment, as compared to 2013, decrease from 919 million UAH ($ 114,8 million) to 463,316 million UAH ($ 57 million). Budget funds for the preparation of the production of new types of OBE through the Ministry of Industrial Policy are also scanty.
Of course, you need to consider that the budget and defense order 2014 g. conditions of economic crisis and state deficit were formed. But for some reason it is forgotten that investing in the defense industry should and can provide the necessary multiplier effect, can strengthen Ukraine’s position on international arms markets, and become the basis for fulfilling more export contracts and orders for a native army with higher profitability. The production capacity of the enterprises of the defense-industrial complex of Ukraine allows producing goods up to 50 billion UAH. And the annual volume of arms exports of Ukraine to the external market should be at least $ 2 billion. Such tasks, at first glance, look too ambitious. But the height of the bar determines how deeply and systematically further transformations will take place in the domestic defense industry and the power block, what will be the reaction to both external and internal challenges.
Analysis and development of solutions to minimize them requires a separate, detailed conversation - including the public component. It may be true that gun money loves silence. But no less true is that the further development of Ukraine along the technological path - where only the defense industry has so far developed, demonstrates the maximum share of value added in the national product being created - urgently requires systematic government attention and support. For breakthrough results, the activity of some “defense industry” or special exporters is no longer enough. We need integral long-term strategies.