“You speak on the barrier:“ On the reservation ”- and you are given a permit for production,” representatives of the Moscow “Special Equipment Institute” instructed me (this is the defense division of the Technique enterprise, which produces armored cars).
Who would have thought that a dozen kilometers from the Kremlin make the latest technology for the defense industry! There are business-like welders, sparks fly from under the “Bulgarians”, the designers hang over the drawings behind the wall ...
At the gates of the production building there is the newly built and declassified Ural Federal-M, a typical representative of “armored carts”: this is what new cars based on trucks (or with “cargo” units) for the transportation of fighters can be called.
In our country, something similar had already existed many years ago: remember, say, the BTR-152 on the ZIS-151 units! These dinosaurs still serve in many countries, from Afghanistan to Ethiopia ...
Then, the role of "infantry carriers" for a long time was performed by traditional armored personnel carriers, until the experience of local wars showed that we need another transport: more comfortable and spacious, with a "car" resource and good visibility, protected not only from bullets, but also from detonation machines denote American abbreviation MRAP).
By the way, armored personnel carriers can move along public roads only with escort, and therefore their participation in special operations, as well as routes, is known in advance - and the operation loses the effect of surprise.
There are two main types of "armored carts" - the army and the police. The military versions (such as Typhoons created by KAMAZ and Ural) protect even from a heavy machine gun, but are heavy, created on the original chassis, poorly adapted for movement in a normal traffic flow, and most importantly, incredibly expensive: the price reaches a million euros!
But the Ministry of Internal Affairs in hot spots needs other MRAPs, not so powerfully protected, but inexpensive, easy to maintain and as close as possible to the characteristics of cars, which is why they are made on the chassis of production trucks.
Column Uralov Federal goes to the south: this year made about 60 machines
During a recent trip on the Gazelle Next to Voronezh, we met a convoy of brand new Ural Federal - the usual Uralov 6х6, but with body armor and a "armored vehicle" in the back. Apparently, these are machines from the recent state order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for 50 bullet-proof Uralov (5,34 million rubles per car) and five more explosion-proof (7,87 million rubles per unit).
Federal-M in the process of construction. It is clearly seen that the body is a solid "capsule". Nose plumage - still from serial machine
“Give the driver a ride!” The Federal-M passenger compartment is combined with a cabin, air conditioning above the heads
Since the beginning of the two thousandth, hundreds of armored Urales have been delivered to the Caucasus, and the fighters call them Pokemon - perhaps because the cartoon word “pockemon” stands for “pocket monster”, “pocket monster”. Despite the simplicity, "Pokemon" (now they are released by the aforementioned "Institute of Special Equipment") perfectly cope with their functions, and it comes to funny cases. During the recent football match in Nazran, the Ingush fans fought with no less hot Ossetians and, in order to defuse the situation, the police took the Ossetians from the stadium to the “Pokemon” - apparently stuffing them there, like herrings in a barrel ...
Armored capsule inside: view after welding
In the back - “anti-overload” seats and anti-shielding wall and ceiling trim
But the Feds even in the explosion-proof version - not the ideal solution. The serial cabin cannot be fully booked from the blast, the men in the back are separated from the driver and the commander in the cockpit and do not see the situation in front of the car, the interior of the “armor” is primitive. The riot police themselves complain that the roofs of the “jackets” of ordinary Feds flow into the rain, and it is inconvenient to jump out of a tall body.
The body has a U-shaped bottom, reflecting the blast wave
From the point of view of the driver - almost the usual Ural
A year ago, we already talked about the Stargazer project — a prototype model of the future of Federal-M — but only possible solutions were worked out on that vehicle with a huge nose.
And now before you is the second in series serial Federal-M on the chassis of an Ural-55571 dump truck-all-terrain vehicle (instance No. 1, which went for testing to the Interior Ministry troops, built on the Ural-4320 chassis). It is made “weighty, rough, visible”, but the main thing is different!
This Federal-M is built on the chassis of an off-road dump truck Ural-55571. Pay attention to the comfortable steps under the body and the cabin
All-welded body-capsule - one-volume. And since the armored carriage is short and sloping, the cockpit windows are large and the windscreen pillars are rather narrow, the visibility is excellent on the sides that are ahead. Access to the motor is convenient: climbed up on the bumper, opened heavy sash - and the engine clearly. Getting into the cabin and getting out of it is also very convenient, since wide and long steps are made along the sides. Design find!
On the driver's seat - excellent visibility, loophole ... And a funny blue fan
I was handed a whole bunch of keys: this one, probably, from the driver's door ... The doors are thick, as many as 8 cm at the butt, and the thickness of the armor plate is 6,5 mm. “Kalashnikov” bullets with a heat-strengthened core will not be taken (fifth grade of protection according to GOST), and by request, you can protect them in sixth grade from a sniper rifle. Protection against explosion - either from the explosion of three kilograms of TNT (in this instance), or - seven kilograms (in instance No. XXUMX).
The entrance is convenient: even the tank does not hinder much
Under the lid - the filler neck
The rear entrance is very wide, the ladder extends manually
I continue to sort the keys: which one is from the ignition lock? Isn't it time for the creators of Urals and special equipment on their base to switch to keys of only two types: “from the ignition lock” and “from everything else”? And the driver's seat ergonomics are harsh: the steering wheel is not adjustable, the gas pedal stands almost vertically.
Specificity of the setting adds a “plump” camouflage upholstery on all sides and the roof, which is actually not an upholstery, but an AOD, anti-shielding protection. On the one hand, it protects against fragments and ricochet of crazy bullets, on the other hand, it serves as thermal and sound insulation. Even the hatches in the roof are closed by AOZ on velcro. “Our task is not to leave a single section uncovered,” the designers comment. True, the fabric sags under the hatches. And will the stickies lose their "tenacity" over time?
Under the feet of the front riders - special "anti-grip" help: they reduce the effect of the shock wave on the legs during an explosion under the car. The driver's seat, like all the others, is not ordinary, but also “anti-overload”, the patented seats in the cabin have obligatory steps.
Confused only by the fact that the fighters are sitting behind their heads exactly to the bulletproof glass. And the attackers shoot at the windows first! Maybe it is better to place the windows and seats in a staggered manner?
The necessary key has finally been picked up - and the good old YaMZ-236 begins to rumble under the armor cascade. The car in the pictures he meets the environmental standards Euro 0 ... Which is quite acceptable to the African special forces: the armored car was built by order of one of the countries of North Africa. But, we repeat, the first copy is already undergoing tests in the Interior Forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and in my shop the machine No. XXUMX was being prepared in the workshop, also for the Interior Ministry troops.
By the way, internal troops will have plenty to choose from: this model has a competitor-classmate - also based on the Urals!
If you raise the armored hood ...
... you can see a spacious "cave" with the motor YMZ-236
Ural with the prefix "BB"
If Federal-M was created by the “Institute of Special Equipment” (but with the support of the Ural plant), the Ural-VV was designed by the Ural Automobile Plant itself, and the armor cases for it were made at the Moscow Research Institute of Steel.
Ural-BB was designed by UralAZ itself, and the body for it was made by the research institutes of steel
The chassis is the Ural-4320 with the new YMZ-536 in-line engine, unlike the aggressively angular Federal M piglet, traditionally Ural and even elegant: "A large crocodile walked down the street." The cabin interior is also more elegant, since the front panel is unified with the Army Typhoon, and the front doors have a plastic trim.
Reservations are not uniform, but differentiated (the “forehead” and the windows are protected more powerfully, in the sixth class of the GOST, the engine compartment is in the third class). But the protection from the explosion is weaker than that of Fedla-M (two kilograms of explosives are declared).
Side doors open in different directions
Rear partition dividing the entrance
There are unusual solutions in the design - a spare tire with a winch on the side (at Fed-M, the spare wheel will be mounted at the back) and a rear ladder, which can be tilted by means of a powerful pneumatic cylinder (it can be folded and folded manually). Under the engine and gearbox - steel protection, which the Federal-M does not have: according to the Urals designers, it protects against fragments, which is verified by the experience of the war in Chechnya.
But, if our will, we would have combined the stylish look of the Ural-VV with simple and reliable solutions of the Federal-M! Do you know why?
Part of the seats is face to face, part is back to back: both layouts are possible.
Climbing into the cabin is difficult: the steps are unsuccessful
The hood of the Ural-BB is decorative, fiberglass: the “nose” of this size limits visibility, and fiberglass is difficult to repair. The engine itself is enclosed in a "sarcophagus" of armored panels with bolts.
- Fighter, check the engine oil level!
- I can not, Comrade Lieutenant, forgot the 10 key on 12.
And will not the motor overheat?
One-piece frontal bulletproof glass of this class, according to specialists, weighs about 350 kg. Hence, its replacement is possible only in the factory! Wiper blades with top mount are bad in winter operation: they will shovel snow under the visor.
The front panel in the cockpit - plastic, original, like Uralov Typhoon. And on the front doors plastic trim
Loopholes - behind the heads of riders: to open them, you need to lift the head restraints
The fact that the entrance to the cabin is extremely inconvenient (I had to get so hot!) Is half the trouble. But since the side door of the cabin opens "against the course", there is a danger that when firing from the front, being even ajar, it will serve as a "bullet trap". And if the bullet flies into the salon, it will begin to “walk” there: although representatives of UralAZ insist that anti-shielding protection is laid under the decorative upholstery (and not everywhere), we doubt it. This protection should be covered with the entire cabin, and it should be separated from the walls by the distance of the bullet core. According to the armored specialists, the plastic lining of the cabin doors is completely unacceptable: with a possible penetration of the armor, plastic is prickled into small sharp fragments that pierce the face and eyes.
Hood - fiberglass, decorative ...
... and under it - the motor in the "sarcophagus" of armor
Ladder flips-raises the pneumatic cylinder, although this can be done manually. Will the fighters open the doors from the inside if the pneumatic cylinder refuses?
A vertical stand in the rear doorway will interfere with the entrance-exit (and stretchers through it cannot be brought in), and most importantly, it weakens the anti-mine properties of the body, which must “play” during the explosion.
Chairs in the cabin - not "anti-overload": they have at least no steps. And although access to the loopholes is more convenient here than from Fedla-M (there it is necessary to remove the back with velcro, and here it is enough to fold the headrest), the loopholes in the cabin are only nine, although there are 13 seats. Four fighters will sit "in stock"?
By the way, the creators of Ural-VV set part of the seats “back to back”, demonstrating the possibilities of alternative landing - that's just, according to experts, this is acceptable only for “patrol-patrol” cars, and those who are not explosion-proof.
And for transport “armored vehicles”, the crew must sit back to the walls - this is psychologically convenient (the fighters talk), makes the cabin spacious (allows putting the wounded, cargo, etc.) and, again, gives the body “play” when undermined (since there are no vertical struts). Finally, the reserve on the right behind the cab is inconvenient when replacing (it will have to be removed from the side of the road) and vulnerable when the car is fired.
And we also got the impression that the Ural residents themselves do not really know the mass of the Ural-VV! On the nameplate, welded to the body, “17500 kg” was stamped, on the accompanying plate that stood in front of the car, it read “curb weight 15300 kg, gross weight 18300 kg”, in the leaflet - “total weight 16500 kg”. So how much is it really?
So, although UralAZ intends to release ten such machines for internal troops next year, the design still needs to be brought to mind, tested, certified ...
And win the tender MIA, which is true for the Federal-M. By the way, it costs from 8 to 8,6 million rubles, but the Ural-BB is more expensive - 10 million rubles.
Rear view with a tilted ladder
"Polis du France"
Iveco defense unit ingloriously missed the Russian market: too scandalous история with Iveco Lynx armored cars (by the way, already decommissioned).
But now the French company Renault Trucks Defense came on the scene: however, at first the French had little idea what our security structures needed, and an open pick-up truck and an ordinary SUV were brought to last year’s Moscow exhibition of Interpolitech-2012 police equipment. In response to the question: “Why are they unarmored?” - representatives of the company threw up their hands: “So this is not an army, but a police exhibition!”
Renault MIDS - armored "van" for the delivery of police to places of unrest
But now three French armored cars stood at the Interpolitech-2013 exposition. Large - Renault MIDS (Midlum Security) for transportation of police attire, similar to our riot police Uralov and KAMAZ. Unlike them, MIDS is armored: around the perimeter - protection of the B6 level (from the bullets of NATO rifles and machine guns), front - blade for pushing away the crowd or raking debris, armor-cassette with slots is lowered onto the windshield by means of hydraulic cylinders. The police sit back to back in a spacious van, combined with the body. Competently!
But why such an armored van of our police? At our football matches and rallies, the crowd does not shoot, but throws sticks and bottles. In the Caucasus, on the contrary, they fire Kalashnikov bullets with a heat-strengthened core, which are not designed for MIDS, and the clearance is parquet.
In the MIDS armored van (above), the police are sitting back-to-back
The interior of the Pahnard PVP armored car (below) is poor, and the visibility is terrible
The second car is a compact and angular Panhard PVP. It is shorter than our Tiger by about a meter, but it’s as much as two tons, under the hood, the 160-strong Iveco turbo diesel. The French clearly overestimate the capabilities of the machine: we are still ready to believe that it is able to protect Kalash (the second level of STANAG) from armor-piercing incendiary bullets, but the fact that this armored vehicle can withstand an explosion with six kilograms of explosives is unreal! Such a charge will at least throw away and turn over the car ... The design is clumsy, and the cabin is cramped and "naked", without any upholstery at all (what is it like in winter?). And the visibility through the mirrors is terrible (I checked it, sitting down on the driver's seat): it looks like Panhard simply will not pass certification with us, and our Tiger compared to it is the top of spaciousness and comfort!
The bronze engineer Asteys from Naberezhnye Chelny is going to start production of triple amphibians Pahnard VBL
Prototype model of BMP Atom of a joint project of Renault Trucks Defense Uralvagonzavod
And what did the Panhard VBL little armored vehicles do on the stand of the Interior Ministry troops? A year ago we told about this triple amphibian, and weakly armored: with the first class of protection according to the European standard STANAG, its armor can be shot through from Kalash.
However, now VBL decided to take up production (namely production, not assembly), Asteys, the “court” armor of KAMAZ from Naberezhnye Chelny. There they want to localize the design as much as 70%! The engine is an ancient Steyr M1, which was once equipped with Gazelles (now the Chinese have bought Steyr company), the gearbox is an automatic Mercedes. At the same time, representatives of Asteys say that the Russian version will cost “no more than” 10 — 12 million rubles. That is, the three-seat “armored fag” will cost the same money as the hefty 15-local Ural-BB!
Angle armored Panhard PVP - something like "Tiger in French"
However, all this is the tip of the iceberg, as Renault Trucks Defense began implementation together with Uralvagonzavod (which makes Tanks) a much more serious army project. We are talking about the Atom BMP: on the chassis of the French progenitor VBCI, the Urals installed a Russian combat module, in other words, a turret with a 57-mm cannon. And the protection is powerful, with armored ceramics. But one of the drawbacks is visible to the naked eye: in a battle with such dimensions, the Atom is an excellent target for a grenade launcher. Do you know how much VBCI costs in France? Almost 3,5 million euros!
What we didn’t expect was that the Chinese would bring their own armored cars on Interpolitech-2013! True, both cars were locked, and all day, while I was walking around the exhibition, there was not a single representative on the stand. Only multi-colored plastic plates on an empty table. Maybe this is Feng Shui to attract customers?
Judging by the accompanying plates (well, although they were), the armored cars are called Dongfeng Mengshi, and this is something like “Chinese Hummers”. The length is about six meters, the height is only about two meters, the maximum speed is 120 — 130 km / h. The claimed curb weight is embarrassing: in a two-axle machine - “less than 6,1 t”, in a three-axle vehicle - and at all 5,5 t. Our Tiger, protected from “Kalash”, is heavier! And from what weapons protected by dongfeng?
This Dongfeng Mengshi armored vehicle has three axles. But the last axis is unknowing.
The length of the Chinese "armored” Dongfeng Mengshi - 5,8 m, wheelbase - exactly four meters, height - less than two meters
We guess about the reasons for the appearance of these cars in Moscow: recently, the Ministry of Defense of Belarus bought the 22 SUV Dongfeng Mengshi (but unarmored) and even participate in parades. But at the Russian parades "Chinese" will not. Never!
Typhoon and Typhoonish
If we are talking about the army, let's move on to the project of the Russian Ministry of Defense Typhoon: now, two years after the demonstration of experienced Urals and KAMAZ Typhoon, the military ordered each of the 30 vehicle plants to be used - apparently that was not insulting to anyone. The Urals makes them together with the Steel Research Institute, KAMAZ - with Astais.
New Typhoon KAMAZ-63969. On the roof - a machine gun with a remote control. But why does the car need such a glass armored cap?
In the serial KAMAZ-63968 Typhoon - a shortened body and armored cars in it
At the exhibition Interpolitech from those who want to sit in the booth of KAMAZ Typhoon (still the first, experienced) did not end up! It's funny, of course, to see the contrast between “high technologies” like LCD screens and ancient KAMAZ devices in front of the driver ... The thickness of the armor plate on the end of the door is already 2,4 cm, armored glass is almost 13 cm, on the threshold, on the plate with VIN, the curb weight (23000 kg) and full (35000 kg). Wow!
An experienced Lockheed Martin AVA-1 English armored car in 2008 was created along with the Israeli Plasan Sasa. Do you recognize the glass "cap"?
But a shortened and lighter version will go into the series (apparently designed for fewer fighters): its curb weight is equal to 18550 kg, full - 22550 kg. And since the power of the KAMAZ engine remains the same, 450 hp, the dynamics should improve significantly. True, experts are confused by such a triaxial arrangement: in overcoming an obstacle, the entire load will fall on the middle bridge.
In the meantime, two more compact machines from the same family were created in Chelny. One, similar to the armored personnel carrier (especially as a remotely controlled machine gun stands on the Electromachine turret), is called KAMAZ-63969: it is designed for an 12 man and, like the "big brother", is protected from shelling from a large-caliber machine gun and undermining eight kilograms of TNT.
According to unofficial sources, this is a joint development with the Israeli “armor” Plasan Sasa: ceramic armor, and the cost of the armor set, which the Israelis are ready to supply to KAMAZ, is about half a million euros.
Oh, the Typhoon cabin door is heavy!
Bronelista Thickness on Typhoon Door - mm 24
An unusual glass “cap” has already been demonstrated on the Lockheed Martin’s experienced English armored vehicle, but why should it be used in a combat vehicle that will be beaten out of all types of weapons? A few hits in this "lantern" - and if not a break through, then the lack of review provided! And if a bullet or a fragment gets into a steel armor, it causes a dent, then a ceramic - destruction of the ceramic element with its subsequent replacement. After each battle the car will have to be sent to expensive repairs?
And, finally, the newest car nicknamed Typhoon - the KAMAZ-53949 with the wheel formula 4х4: this is something like a very large commander jeep. According to our information, the Typhoonian is equipped with a Cummins engine, the total mass is 14 tons. But the car is very similar to the Italian Iveco LMV, which was increased in size, which was assembled at KAMAZ: the designers clearly did not have enough imagination ...
The interior of the cabin of the "big" Typhoon (prototype) with LCD monitors. To the right of the driver's seat, you can see the Allison automatic transmission selector.
A few years ago, when the United States fought in Iraq and Afghanistan, NATO countries were actively creating MRAP “armored cars” - and released them so much that they recently had to order covers for 8,3 million dollars to hide the preserved 4500 vehicles.
And now the development center of the newest armored models can rightfully be called Russia! And this is right: our Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Internal Affairs should be perfectly equipped with domestic equipment. We, in turn, will follow the news - and developments.
The smallest of the new Typhoon range, KAMAZ-53949, is called Typhoonian