Military Review

In Russia, for the first time disposed of ships atomic technology services

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The state corporation Rosatom decided to dispose of four nuclear maintenance ships that had previously been decommissioned fleet. It is worth noting that earlier in our country, such ships after the end of their life simply flooded. In the days of the USSR, the Russian Navy did not deal with the complex procedure for the safe disposal of such vessels. And soon (for the first time in the post-Soviet years), Rosatom is going to dispose of the four ships transferred to it in a safe manner. Disposal has already begun for civilian vessels, and for four ships from the Northern Fleet it will begin after 2017.


For military ships, safe disposal will be applied for the first time in Russia stories, for civilian ships, the operation has already begun - in 2014, Rosatom began to dispose of the Volodarsky mother ship (from 1991, solid radioactive waste was stored on the ship). For the elaboration of the necessary technical documentation for the disposal of 4-x ships of the Rosatom Navy for 3-x years is ready to allocate up to 25,8 million rubles.

The problem for Russia is more than urgent, since the fleet of the USSR surpassed the fleets of all countries, including the USA, in the number of built atomic ships. Only in the period from 1955 to 2000 years in the USSR and Russia was launched 5 ANK - nuclear surface ships, 260 nuclear submarines - nuclear submarines, 8 nuclear icebreakers, 1 nuclear light carrier (container). All of these ships were built either in a single copy or in small batches. The Russian nuclear fleet consisted of more than 30 various types of ships and vessels of major projects. To service this nuclear fleet in the USSR, an auxiliary fleet or vessels of the anti-terrorist operation — the vessels of atomic-technological services — was created. This fleet was represented by both specialized vessels, which are intended for direct servicing of nuclear vessels, and ships re-equipped for this purpose (from serial dry-cargo ships, tankers, timber carrying vessels and barges).

In Russia, for the first time disposed of ships atomic technology services

Currently, the number of ATO ships in Russia (including also floating tanks) is more than 90 units. And these are ships of various purposes and classes. By the number of such vessels, Russia occupies a leading position in the world. The reason for this mass character is the numerous points of deployment and repair of atomic ships scattered throughout the vast territory of the country. Most of them are not well developed in terms of transport communications (in some places they are absent altogether) in the form of railways and highways. To this can also be added an under-developed coastal infrastructure for the management of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF).

Until recently, nuclear technology service (ATO) vessels, which served their time, were simply flooded in the world ocean. The burial of such ships was carried out in the 6 areas of the northern and 4 areas of the Far Eastern seas. According to information from environmental experts from the Bellona association, about 60 vessels, which present a radiation hazard, were flooded in the waters of the Russian seas. Most of them belonged to the Navy.

The Pinega and Amur technical vessels that left the Navy (were engaged in transporting and cleaning nuclear fuel from nuclear submarines and ships), as well as PKDS-14 and PKDS-9 (were engaged in measuring radiation levels) are going to be disposed of after 2017. This information is in the documents of "Rosatom", which hit the Russian media. Alexander Nikitin, chairman of the board of the non-profit environmental organization Bellona, ​​told reporters about the possible difficulties with the disposal of such ships using the example of the civilian vessel Lepse, which Rosatom intends to dispose of in the near future. Onboard the Lepse is spent nuclear fuel, but it is impossible to unload it with regular means. Therefore, it is planned to cut the hull of the vessel and gradually extract fuel from it, which, being packed in special containers, will be sent to the Chelyabinsk Region to the Mayak plant.


According to Alexander Nikitin, after the disposal of the Lepse, the function of the transportation and unloading of spent nuclear fuel will be taken over by the modern ship Rossita, which was commissioned in the 2011 year. The ship was specially designed for this purpose and was built by the Italians. Currently, Rossita is based in Murmansk. According to the ecologist, the capacity of this ship is enough to transport spent nuclear fuel in the deployment areas of the Russian Northern Fleet. At the same time, according to Nikitin, in the Far East for the same purpose the Soviet unique specialized vessel can be successfully used. This ship is quite enough, since the volume of SNF in the Far East is small.

Vladimir Zakharov (rear admiral in retirement) believes that the transfer of tasks for the disposal of technical vessels to the specialized structures of Rosatom will allow the Russian military fleet to focus on the performance of its main combat functions. The Russian Defense Ministry cannot do everything at once, the retired admiral stressed.

Safe disposal

The first ships of the storage of spent nuclear fuel in the Soviet fleet appeared in the 1960-s. At that time, the first Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker "Lenin" and the first nuclear-powered submarines began work on the replacement of reactor cores, which by that time had developed their passport resources. The main location of such ships was the Russian North, where most of the submarines and surface ships with nuclear power plants on board carried their watch. Ultimately, floating storage facilities, which played a role, themselves began to pose one of the main threats to the ecological situation in the Arctic.


One of the most famous examples of the history of such vessels can be considered the floating base "Lepse". The dry-cargo ship built back in 1941 was the first ship in the Soviet history to support the nuclear fleet. In the 1961, the cargo ship was converted into a reactor core recharging vessel. Over the next twenty years, this ship made 14 operations to recharge the cores of nuclear power plants, including the nuclear-powered icebreakers Lenin, Sibir, and Arktika. At the same time, in the 60 of the last century, an accident occurred aboard the Lepse, as a result of which the fuel assemblies were partially destroyed. These assemblies were previously unloaded from the onboard icebreaker "Lenin". The consequence of the accident was the increase in radiation levels in the compartment where the unloaded assemblies were located, as well as in the adjacent compartments of the vessel. It was not possible to unload these rods from the ship, therefore in 1981, the ship was finally converted into a vessel for storage of liquid radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF).

In 1984, a second accident occurred on board the vessel. During the storm, liquid radioactive waste was released, which infected the vast majority of compartments on the ship. After that, it was decided to decommission the ship, but the withdrawal process was delayed for almost three decades: in those years there was simply no technology for safe disposal of such objects. Currently, 639 fuel assemblies with spent nuclear fuel are stored onboard the vessel, a total of 8 kg of Pu-239 plutonium, more than 260 kg of U-235 uranium and 156 kg of fission products. To get the listed emergency assembly in a regular way is not possible. That is why the ship "Lepse" as the most complex object had to play the role of the firstborn when disposing of afloat nuclear burial grounds.

In December 2013, after carrying out the preparatory work, the ship was moored to the pier of the Nerpa shipyard. At the factory, from the ship they will have to cut off all the superstructures, as well as prepare Lepse for installation on the slipway for the final breakdown. It was decided to isolate the infected compartments of the ship with a special coating, and then cut them into blocks of transported size. These blocks are planned to be placed in sarcophagus containers, in which they will be sent to the Mayak plant for long-term storage.


In general, the operation for the disposal of nuclear waste today does not seem to be any difficult task. The delay in the work on the Lepse, as well as other similar ships, was largely due to the lack of necessary funding, as well as related personnel and infrastructure problems of the 1990-2000 years. However, at present, the situation has changed dramatically: the timeframe for disposing of the spent SNF storage facilities was determined and the necessary funding for these activities was provided.

In the near future, Rosatom will deal with the unloading and storage of SNF from both the civil fleet and warships. It should be noted that in the next decades the volume of work on these programs will only decrease. This is due to the fact that most of the Soviet nuclear submarines and ships have already been disposed of. A new generation of nuclear submarines will be, firstly, not so much, and secondly, the reactors installed on them have a significantly longer service life - up to 25 years instead of 10 years earlier. All this, combined with the creation of new technologies for the safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel, suggests the resolution of the “atomic ecological crisis”.

Information sources:
http://www.bellona.ru/positionpapers/nukeserviceships
http://rus.ruvr.ru/2014_01_13/Atom-na-pensii-bezopasnaja-utilizacija-2804
http://izvestia.ru/news/563401
http://www.b-port.com/news/item/121667.html
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  1. NOMADE
    NOMADE 16 January 2014 08: 57
    +8
    Wow !! wassat
    This is the term: "One of the most famous examples of the history of this kind of ships can be considered the floating base Lepse. Built in 1941, the dry cargo ship became the first ship supporting the nuclear fleet in Soviet history." From 41 years old! And you can't say from the photo that he is over 70 years old!
    1. Zheka Varangian
      Zheka Varangian 16 January 2014 09: 37
      +1
      "From 41 years old! And from the photo you can't say that he is over 70 years old! [/ Quote]
      I agree, it looks cheerful!
    2. kirgudu
      kirgudu 16 January 2014 10: 11
      +1
      It seems that the superstructure is redone and in appearance it looks like the icebreaker Lenin. Apparently rebuilt it.
    3. AVV
      AVV 16 January 2014 11: 23
      +1
      We need to keep our Arctic clean, because there they catch fish, and then they sell it to us !!!
    4. Geisenberg
      Geisenberg 17 January 2014 00: 19
      0
      Quote: NOMADE
      Wow !! wassat
      This is the term: "One of the most famous examples of the history of this kind of ships can be considered the floating base Lepse. Built in 1941, the dry cargo ship became the first ship supporting the nuclear fleet in Soviet history." From 41 years old! And you can't say from the photo that he is over 70 years old!


      He was in thrifty hands, and now he kept his head. In general, the trough itself can serve 100 years, it all depends on the quality of scheduled repairs.
  2. avt
    avt 16 January 2014 10: 29
    +2
    Here infa slipped into parallel - the nuclear-powered lighter carrier Sevmorput will not be utilized! A unique vessel. Practically an arctic supplier for a poorly equipped coast.
    1. NOMADE
      NOMADE 16 January 2014 10: 45
      0
      Yes, they showed on the news of the first channel. Looks on time (I almost had time) realized that this ship, oh how soon it will be needed, when developing the Arctic and building bases. smile
      1. Russ69
        Russ69 16 January 2014 10: 58
        +1
        Quote: NOMADE
        Looks on time (I almost had time) realized that this ship, oh how soon it will be needed, when developing the Arctic and building bases

        MO, not the last role played in this matter. Since the use will be shared. The Moscow Region has already said that they are interested in this ship.
        1. NOMADE
          NOMADE 16 January 2014 13: 54
          +2
          Well, there was no doubt about that.) The rest of the effective managers from Gazprom and Rosatom ..., he was not needed for a long time .. (
          1. dmitrij.blyuz
            dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 14: 59
            +1
            Yes, no, Vladimir. It was just that Rosatom was fighting for the modernization of this lighter. The case seems to have moved with the arrival of Shoigu.
            1. NOMADE
              NOMADE 16 January 2014 15: 19
              +1
              Dmitry, maybe not quite correctly put it, but as far as I know, Rosatom is an interested person .., since they will essentially repair it, etc. But in fact, from part Gazprom and other oil giant are in the hands of construction and modernization of the Arctic fleet, and for federal money ... In fact, this fleet will serve the interests of the Ministry of Defense, oil workers. So let corporations invest directly in this fleet! For some reason, such "body movements" are not yet visible. This is what I wanted to convey, although I exaggerated.
              1. dmitrij.blyuz
                dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 16: 23
                0
                Vladimir! hi Rosatom is a powerful structure. It has not only the technology of building and operating reactors. It owns the entire Atomflot. Thanks to Rosatom, construction of a new generation of nuclear powered ships has started. Rosatom has money. Modernization of the lighter is just another victory of Rosatom and Moscow Region. You are a little wrong in what will be served in the interests of the Moscow Region and oil industry workers. Today, we are starting to look at the Arctic region seriously. And, by the way, corporations are also pumping a pretty penny in the construction of icebreakers. They know where the benefits are.
    2. Russ69
      Russ69 16 January 2014 10: 55
      +2
      Quote: avt
      Here infa slipped into parallel - the nuclear-powered lighter carrier Sevmorput will not be utilized! A unique vessel. Nearly arctic supply for a poorly equipped coast

      He, on December 26, was already driven into a dry dock. Contract repair deadline February 2016.
      1. NOMADE
        NOMADE 16 January 2014 13: 56
        +1
        I didn’t know, thanks! Great news! )) Damn, why is everything like in a saying, about the fact that until the cock in the ass bites ... (
      2. dmitrij.blyuz
        dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 15: 03
        +1
        Wow, good! Oh, great. I'm running after the "scoundrel" - such news is not a sin to aggravate! good
  3. avt
    avt 16 January 2014 11: 47
    +1
    Quote: Russ69
    He, on December 26, was already driven into a dry dock.

    good Especially that he has ice class LU. And his predecessor, "Alexei Kosygin" -L1. The necessary boat.
  4. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 16 January 2014 13: 13
    0
    For some reason there are no indignant posts about the construction of a ship in Italy. What's the matter.
    1. dmitrij.blyuz
      dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 16: 13
      0
      Do not be afraid. It may be drawn!
    2. clidon
      clidon 16 January 2014 16: 52
      0
      Is he of Italian construction?

      PS Just not to splash the "kakakhi" that have accumulated in it. All the same, the operation is unique.
    3. dmitrij.blyuz
      dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 18: 04
      0
      A SEVORMUT and not built in Italy!
      1. chunga-changa
        chunga-changa 16 January 2014 19: 42
        0
        And this is not about the Northern Sea Route!
        the modern vessel Rossita, which was commissioned in 2011. The ship was specially designed for these purposes and was built by Italians.
  5. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 14: 55
    +1
    Quote: avt
    Here infa slipped into parallel - the nuclear-powered lighter carrier Sevmorput will not be utilized! A unique vessel. Practically an arctic supplier for a poorly equipped coast.

    If the truth is even more than excellent! Fantastic lighter! My uncle in Tiksi moormanil, so he almost sang about this lighter! A beautiful ship. Still, if only a couple of such then the song!
  6. Russ69
    Russ69 16 January 2014 15: 03
    +6
    Quote: dmitrij.blyuz
    If true, then this is even more than excellent!

    Video from the dock, well, news about the restoration ...
    1. dmitrij.blyuz
      dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 15: 10
      +1
      A huge "THANKS"! Finally! I already said goodbye to him.
  7. moremansf
    moremansf 16 January 2014 15: 32
    +1
    The beginning of the general cleaning has been laid !!!!
  8. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 17: 46
    +1
    The lighter carrier "SEVMORPUT" was built in Kerch. The plant "Zaliv". Laid down 02.11.84. On the water - 20.02.86. In service since 1988. The repair order was signed in December 2013 by the head of Rosatom S.A. Kirienko. in operation after renovation-2016.
  9. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 18: 01
    0
    It is long-260.1m. Width-32.2 m. Draft: summer-11,8. in the ice-10,6. Displacement-61880! Deadweight-33980! Capacity-44000 l / s. Speed-20,8 knots. Capacity-75 containers such as LESH, OR 1324 20-foot.
  10. T-12
    T-12 16 January 2014 18: 50
    +1
    ..... In general, the operation for the disposal of nuclear waste today does not seem to be any difficult task .... From the author.
    A strange conclusion from the author. In the beginning, the country is absolutely unprepared for the operation of ships with nuclear launchers, and as a result, everything is at sea (radioactive liquids) and to the bottom (like reactors in the Kara Sea at 40 meters depth and 60 sunken ships). Such a barbaric attitude to the environment as the Soviet military in the world does not.
    It’s good for freeloaders in the late 90s that the former opponents began financing and cutting the nuclear submarines, and starting today all the water areas on the Kola Peninsula and the Far East would be great Chernobyl. Pity you, however, but you yourself are not!
    1. dmitrij.blyuz
      dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 19: 08
      +2
      Do you even understand why they began to finance the murder of our fleet? There’s no point in going into details. This is the past. Rosatom knows how to handle it. The concept is nuclear waste, it’s thought up in green. Waste can be everywhere, but not in the nuclear industry. Go to the sites of Rosatom, you will learn a lot for yourself.
  11. not good
    not good 16 January 2014 19: 37
    0
    The transfer of maintenance functions for nuclear power plants from the Navy to Rosatom looks logical. All the same, in the event of a war, everything is "under the gun." And after the Serdyukov reforms, when the harmfulness for working with radiation to the crews was cut (for example, only 3 people remained on the Amur. Stouretkin's vision was irradiated, the rest went out for a walk under sail), civilians are still more interested.
    1. dmitrij.blyuz
      dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 20: 51
      +1
      I absolutely agree. The nuclear power plants should be serviced by a structure that knows what it is. In this case, Rosatom.
  12. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 16 January 2014 19: 42
    0
    ..... In general, the operation for the disposal of nuclear waste today does not seem to be any difficult task .... Are you an expert in the disposal of nuclear waste? If the task is not difficult, skinte how to agree with them correctly.
    1. T-12
      T-12 16 January 2014 22: 11
      -1
      You did not carefully read the article. This is not my statement, but the author.
      Dmitry ...
      I also don’t understand why the Westerners financed your radioactive death? You are not grateful guys, you were saved from yours, but you still have the impudence to accuse them of undermining the defenses ?! To rivet a lot of nuclear submarines and not provide for the utelization procedure, this is something like being a commander of a nuclear submarine and living in a Bichevskaya 3-room apartment. This was shown during a visit to the VVP to the widow of Lyachin G.P., the commander of the Kursk nuclear submarine. The front door is torn off, the walls are torn, tel. crates are broken open, and inside like a truck driver. Shame on the whole ball!
      1. Pilat2009
        Pilat2009 16 January 2014 23: 56
        0
        Quote: T-12
        Stick up the mass of the nuclear submarine and not foresee the disposal procedure

        When riveted, they still did not know much about the consequences. Spent fuel must lie for a certain time to become safe. Go to Japan, give advice on Fukushima, otherwise they can barely move there
      2. dmitrij.blyuz
        dmitrij.blyuz 17 January 2014 07: 00
        0
        Exactly. fool I’ll take a closer look. Only they did not save us, but helped to cut the fleet. For yourself to please. Was it grateful? There was a time, I was poor ... Here we’re still raking the consequences of perestroika and some hangovers.
      3. avt
        avt 17 January 2014 09: 58
        0
        Quote: T-12
        You are not grateful guys, they saved you from yours, but you still have the impudence to accuse them of undermining defense?

        Why are you not helping the Japanese in Fukushima so zealously in the west ?? This is happening there - our old nuclear submarines are resting, besides, since the K19 we had no problems with the reactors, like the Angles, who write off the boats because of cracks in the reactor. Can you help them? that 1812 m, that 1941 m, they were tortured to fight back in 1991, and then there are European fighters for homosexuals in Russia and their parades. Maybe Luzhkov wasn’t invited to a gay parade somewhere in Cologne and you can calm down with “help”? Although probably they’re not. The campaign will have to take Berlin again ...
  13. T-12
    T-12 17 January 2014 10: 53
    -1
    avt.
    In the course you need to learn Chinese! Russia has the same story as others and doesn’t dress up as true or white and fluffy.
    Where is historical Russia and what has been augmented? And everything is not voluntary, I want to remind you. A good example with the Tatars, Bashkirs, the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Baltic States and the Siberian space. Aggression under Stalin from the Finns in the north to Galicia in the south - this was called "liberation campaigns" with the Soviets' RAEM for the liberated.
    You need to worry more about preservation and integrity, not new "campaigns"! And homosexuals were everywhere and always in history and this is not an indicator of development (my attitude towards them is sharply negative), but from life.
    1. avt
      avt 17 January 2014 11: 19
      +1
      Quote: T-12
      (my attitude towards them is sharply negative)

      laughing ,, Oh, you're lying! You're lying to the Tsar! "
    2. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 17 January 2014 12: 20
      +2
      Quote: T-12
      And everything is not voluntary, I want to remind.

      The stump is voluntarily rare rarely anyone refuses power, especially the Tatar khans, accustomed to living as robbery. The Finns also dreamed of Great Finland, although they were part of Russia since the time of Peter. And the Great Rzeczpospolita is generally something — they came to the land that was empty after the Mongol invasion .And also after the war, they wanted to swallow a piece fatter. Correctly Catherine grabbed them, there is nothing good to disappear. The Romanians also chopped Bessarabia and Moldova.
      These are the bad Russians who did not allow the British and Turks to turn around in Asia. I can’t understand you — are you Russian or already Bosch?
    3. dmitrij.blyuz
      dmitrij.blyuz 17 January 2014 13: 41
      +1
      T-12 How would you not have to learn Chinese. Have you been beaten a little? There are many good friends in Germany whose fathers fought in Russia. They will not agree with you. And what we need to worry about is not your business. Look at yourself. And not for you to judge Stalin.
  14. dmitrij.blyuz
    dmitrij.blyuz 17 January 2014 13: 43
    +1
    good good
    Quote: avt
    Quote: T-12
    (my attitude towards them is sharply negative)

    laughing ,, Oh, you're lying! You're lying to the Tsar! "
  15. gunnerminer
    gunnerminer 19 January 2014 10: 05
    0
    The work is still.