Military Review

Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star - the first American serial jet fighter

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Similar to the Soviet MiG-9 jet fighter, the American Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star (translated from English as “shooting star” or “meteor”) became the first truly combat-capable aircraft of this class in the United States. The aircraft was able to reach speeds at 800 km / h. Also, this machine was the first American jet aircraft, which took part in air battles and won them. Also for the first time it was with this machine that the procedure of refueling the aircraft in the air was carried out in combat conditions. For some time (rather short), this aircraft also belonged to the world record for flight speed.


Today we can say with confidence that, as a combat fighter, the Shooting Star was not like a more successful machine than the world's first jet fighter - the German Me 262. However, perhaps it was not he who gained the greatest fame, but the two-seat combat training aircraft based on it, which received the designation T-33. This machine is considered to be one of the most successful post-war aircraft. It was through the combat training option that a kind of reincarnation of the F-80 aircraft occurred. The combat version of the training aircraft AT-33 is still in service with some states.

It is worth noting that the United States joined the race to create a jet rather late. aviation. Significantly accelerated the fact that in 1943 the command of the U.S. Air Force was seriously concerned about the emergence in service of the Germans new jet fighters Me.163 and Me.262. At the same time, the U.S. Air Force made Lockheed an order for the design of a jet fighter, which was supposed to receive a British engine. Work on the design of the machine began in July 1943, after the latest Havilland H-1 turbojet engine (Havilland H-1) was delivered to the United States from the United Kingdom. The creation of the aircraft command of the US Air Force took an unusually short time - only 140 days.

Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star - the first American serial jet fighter

Despite such a short time, Lockheed was able to successfully cope with the task, the XP-80 aircraft project was created only a day later than the military’s deadline for 2. At the same time, the plane experienced problems with the turbojet engine, for this reason, the first flight of the novelty took place only on 9 in January of 1944 of the year. In February, Lockheed specialists prepared a new prototype XP-80A, which was equipped with an American-made TRD. This is a General Electric I-40 engine.

F-80 fighter was the first truly jet combat aircraft, entered service with the US Air Force. This aircraft, like its British counterpart of those years, had a quite traditional appearance for its time and a rather simple design, which allowed the car to become a real workhorse of tactical aviation of the US Air Force. For 5 years after the end of World War II, he served as the main American fighter-bomber.

At the very end of the war, in April 1945, two F-80 aircraft were sent to the UK, where they were incorporated into the 8 Air Force, and two more fighters were sent to Italy. In this case, none of the 4-x aircraft did not participate in the active phase of hostilities in Europe. The first serial fighter aircraft, which received the official designation P-80A Shooting Star, entered service with the US Air Force at the end of 1945 year. They were sent to the 412 fighter group, which was quickly renamed the 1 fighter air group, which included 3 squadrons: 27, 71 and 94. Already 12 June 1946, the 16 of the new American aircraft was aimed at strengthening the European grouping, which was caused by the blockade by the Soviet troops of West Berlin. Production of aircraft Shooting Star was carried out before the 1953 year. After the end of the Korean War, all aircraft were transferred to the National Guard Air Force.


For the version of the fighter F-80A followed by two more - F-80B and F-80C. It was the last version of the aircraft became the most common in the American army. The F-80C was actively and widely used as a fighter-bomber during the Korean War. Only for 4 the first months of the conflict, these aircraft were able to perform 15 thousands of combat missions. American pilots believed this machine is ideal for carrying out attacks with a strafing flight. At the same time, the F-80 was ill-equipped to fight the piston North Korean Yaks, it could not withstand them on an equal footing due to the rather limited maneuverability.

Description of construction

The American F-80C Shooting Star fighter was a classic monoplane with a low-lying straight wing and a single-fin tail. Structurally, the fighter fuselage included 3 parts. Arms, pressurized cockpit and equipment were located in the forward part. On the first modification in the nose, a landing-taxiing light was installed, and on versions of the B and C fighter, a radar range finder AN / ARN-6. The middle part of the fighter fuselage was occupied by fuel tanks and air intake ducts. At the rear of the fuselage was a turbojet engine. Bottom under the cockpit were installed brake flaps with hydraulic drive. The design overload for the airframe was 11g.

The air intakes were located on the sides of the fuselage and had vertical cut-offs of the boundary layer of air. The fighter wing possessed a NACA 65213 profile. The internal volume of the wing occupied the fuel tank. The wing mechanization included ailerons and landing plates (the maximum deviation angle was 60 degrees). The landing gear was made tricycle with a nose wheel. The main landing gear was retracted to the fuselage, the landing gear was hydraulic. On the aircraft of the latest series was installed turbojet J33-A-35 company Allison, which was equipped with a centrifugal compressor. When water was injected into the compressor, the power unit reached 2450 kgf. The maximum supply of fuel located inside the fuselage of the fighter, was 2487 liters.


The built-in armament of the F-80 Shooting Star fighter included 6 large-caliber 12,7-mm M-3 machine guns, which have a rate of fire in 1200 fps / min. Ammunition was 297 ammunition per barrel. To ensure aiming in the cockpit mounted optical sight K-14. Also in the F-80B version, the aircraft had 2 underwing pylons, on which 8 NUR HVAR caliber 127 mm, 2 bombs 454 kg or 2 incendiary tanks with napalm with a capacity of 418 liters each were suspended. The F-80C version of the aircraft received another 2 additional pylon. The maximum payload of the F-80C version has reached 1850 kg. To record the effects of air strikes and firing at targets on the aircraft, the N-6 photo-pistol was installed.

The main problem faced by the first American fighter jets was the relatively short duration and range. In order to improve these indicators, American designers experimented with aircraft refueling in the air. So, in the center for the development of aviation technology, located on the Wright aviation base, several F-80C fighters were equipped with wing tanks, which had a receiving bar for refueling vehicles in the air. The project was recognized successful, and the Americans even managed to carry out the first refueling of the fighter in the air in the process of warfare, but ultimately, the refueling in the air for the F-80C fighters Shooting Star did not take root.

According to official American information, during operation, F-80 fighters managed to win 18 victories over enemy aircraft. All victories in the air were won during the Korean War from 1950 to 1953. In total, over the years of production, the American industry handed over to the 1718 military fighter aircraft of all modifications. Many of them after the end of active service were converted into target aircraft.


Flight specifications F-80С:

Dimensions: wingspan - 11,85 m; wing area - 22,07 m., aircraft length - 10,52 m, height - 3,45 m.
Maximum take-off weight - 7 646 kg, empty aircraft - 3 819 kg.
Powerplant: 1 TRD Allison J33-A-35, unforced 2402 thrust kgf.
Maximum speed at altitude - 933 km / h, on the ground - 956 km / h.
Cruising speed - 800 km / h.
Practical range without PTB - 1328 km., With PTB - 2221 km.
Practical ceiling - 14 265 m.
Crew - 1 people.
Armament: 6X12,7-mm M3 machine guns, combat load up to 1850 kg on 4's suspension nodes.

Information sources:
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fighter/f80.html
http://www.dogswar.ru/voennaia-aviaciia/samolety/5505-istrebitel-f-80-shoo.html
http://airspot.ru/catalogue/item/lockheed-f-80c-5-shooting-star
http://www.tinlib.ru/transport_i_aviacija/aviacija_i_kosmonavtika_2001_12/p5.php
http://techno-story.ru/articles/aircrafts/461-kak-padayut-zvjozdy-istrebitel-f-80-shooting-star
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  1. Denis
    Denis 28 November 2013 07: 55
    +2
    Armament: 6X12,7-mm machine guns M3
    They would have put 20
    And so, three MIG-15 guns lost in volley weight
    Yes and slaughter with such a caliber
    Although it could be more in the air, it exceeded the fuel supply
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 28 November 2013 09: 35
      +7
      Quote: Denis
      They would have put 20


      They put 12 mm Colt on Saber, the Japanese at the Pacific Theater and this was enough, that’s not bother. They probably only had a Cobra with its 37 mm dope machine was a ballet star, and if she shot with a cannon and machine guns there was no chance
      1. Denis
        Denis 28 November 2013 10: 28
        0
        Quote: Vadivak
        Cobra with her dope machine 37 mm was a ballet star
        Then yes! So it was not supposed to install a cannon on a plane, but a plane was designed around the cannon. Even the engine was placed behind the pilot, the cannon’s nose
        And in the development of King Cobra and the Soviet took part, sent them there
      2. Revolver
        Revolver 28 November 2013 10: 38
        +7
        Quote: Vadivak
        They probably only had a Cobra with its 37 mm dope machine was a ballet star, and if she shot with a cannon and machine guns there was no chance

        Pokryshkin demonstrated more than once.
        1. samoletil18
          samoletil18 29 November 2013 22: 18
          0
          Quote: Nagan
          Quote: Vadivak
          They probably only had a Cobra with its 37 mm dope machine was a ballet star, and if she shot with a cannon and machine guns there was no chance

          Pokryshkin demonstrated more than once.

          And according to the hero of the article, subordinates of Kozhedub.
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 28 November 2013 10: 00
      +4
      Quote: Denis
      Armament: 6X12,7-mm machine guns M3
      They would have put 20
      And so, three MIG-15 guns lost in volley weight
      Yes and slaughter with such a caliber
      Although it could be more in the air, it exceeded the fuel supply
      The tasks are different. The MiG was imprisoned for intercepting strategic bombers, in particular the B-29, and you won’t immediately bombard such an animal with a machine gun, hence the large caliber. On the other hand, it’s difficult to miss on this, it’s too large, so the relatively low rate of fire did not affect much.
      F-80, and F-86 Saber were originally made as Air Superiority Fighter, i.e. sharpened by dog ​​fight. In this case, the enemy fighter is more important than at least hooking, so the density of fire is more important than the caliber. There were cases when the F-86 slipped between MiG shells. But the truth was, if the MiG hit, it didn't seem enough, and the MiGs themselves often brought a few bullet holes, and nothing - they put a patch on it and again into the case.
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 28 November 2013 10: 45
        +4
        Quote: Nagan
        The MiG was imprisoned for intercepting strategic bombers, in particular the B-29, and you won’t immediately bombard such an animal with a machine gun, hence the large caliber.


        Right. That is why they put the ns-37 on it, for the Sabers the HP-23 set would have been quite enough, in the picture the 37 mm projectile hit the Saber keel
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 28 November 2013 11: 09
          +4
          Quote: ...
          during operation, F-80 fighters managed to gain 18 victories over enemy aircraft. All victories in the air were won during the war in Korea from 1950 to 1953.


          And they even shot down what did not fly in Korea. La 7 for example. As for themselves, for 34 months of hostilities the F-80C suffered very heavy losses - up to 35% of the total production of this model. 14 aircraft were shot down by enemy fighters, 113 by anti-aircraft fire and 150 were lost from other causes.


          Other reasons are probably the T-34. Even he became a thunderstorm. Shutting is old.



          On July 3, 1950, four F-80C Shooting Star fighter-bomber pilots led by the commander of the 80th fighter-bomber squadron, Major Amos Sluder, went to the Pyeongyo-Ri area to attack the North Korean technology moving to the front line.

          Shuting Stari was considered the aircraft ideal for attacks from a low-flying flight, but due to its limited maneuverability and weak weapons, the F-80 was not able to fight on equal terms even with piston Yak-9Ps.

          Having discovered a convoy of about 90 vehicles, accompanied by four tanks, the Americans went on the attack, using unguided rockets from a low height and firing from 12,7 mm machine guns from the wings.
          However, an unexpected response came from the North Koreans: T-34-85 opened fire from 85-mm guns on low-flying aircraft.

          A successfully fired shell exploded in front of the lead aircraft and damaged fuel tanks with fragments. A fire broke out on board. Captain Verne Peterson, who went as a follower, told Major Sluder on the radio: “Boss, you are burning! You better jump. ” In response, the commander asked for a direction to the South, where he was obviously about to turn, but at that moment the plane collapsed and burning debris crashed to the ground. Major Amos Sluder became the first pilot of the 5th Air Fleet to die in hostilities on the Korean Peninsula.
          1. Bongo
            Bongo 28 November 2013 12: 23
            +4
            I wonder what shells fired T-34-85. Normally, the anti-aircraft projectiles with a remote tube are not included in the tank ammunition kit, and if so why should the high-explosive fragmentation shells with a contact fuse have to explode in the air?
            1. Vadivak
              Vadivak 28 November 2013 14: 14
              +3
              Quote: Bongo
              I wonder what shells fired T-34-85. Normally, the anti-aircraft projectiles with a remote tube are not included in the tank ammunition kit, and if so why should the high-explosive fragmentation shells with a contact fuse have to explode in the air?


              Dead from the fire of the T-34 pilot Shutting Stara Major Amos Sluder. Most likely the shell did not explode but caught the car.
              1. Bongo
                Bongo 28 November 2013 14: 33
                +4
                Quote: Vadivak
                Successfully fired a projectile exploded in front of the leading aircraft and damaged fuel tanks with shrapnel. On board there was a fire.

                Or is it not you wrote?
                1. Vadivak
                  Vadivak 28 November 2013 15: 10
                  +6
                  Quote: Bongo
                  Or is it not you wrote?


                  Not me. I copied the article, and you found a dubious place in it.
            2. Nayhas
              Nayhas 28 November 2013 14: 50
              +6
              Quote: Bongo
              I wonder what shells fired T-34-85. Normally, the anti-aircraft projectiles with a remote tube are not included in the tank ammunition kit, and if so why should the high-explosive fragmentation shells with a contact fuse have to explode in the air?

              This is a bike. There were no remote-tube shells on the T-34.
              1. Bongo
                Bongo 28 November 2013 14: 57
                +3
                Even if they were used as intended, there is no possibility. How to measure the distance and where to place in the tower installer tube?
                1. Vadivak
                  Vadivak 28 November 2013 15: 19
                  +4
                  Quote: Bongo
                  Even if they were used as intended, there is no possibility. How to measure the distance and where to place in the tower installer tube?


                  For Koreans, it’s not at all a question of which Pribluda to stick in the T-34.

                  The topic of work is how else you can torture the T-34.
                  1. Bongo
                    Bongo 29 November 2013 04: 01
                    +3
                    The T-34-85 tower is quite tight and there is no free space. In the photo flamethrower version of the tank, massively unreleased.
            3. Zymran
              Zymran 28 November 2013 20: 03
              +4
              Talgat Begeldinov, a pilot of an attack aircraft, twice a GSS, wrote that when attacking ground targets, tank gun fire was a rather unpleasant and even dangerous thing. So that the F-80 could be shot down by tank fire.
              1. Bongo
                Bongo 29 November 2013 03: 59
                +3
                Maybe, but by probability?
          2. Argon
            Argon 28 November 2013 13: 18
            +7
            The content of the article, in my opinion, is quite worthy, besides mentioning piston Yaks, this shows that the roots of the text come from the USSR (with the same success one can "state" that the FW-190D was inferior in maneuverability, and therefore could not fight the I-15 Complaints about the design, once again, dear authors and administration of the site, a huge request, pay attention to the illustrations (the green plane in the photo is SAAB). Such "typos" greatly reduce the credibility of the facts in the text. Yes, and the status of the site does not increase. From viewing the comments, I realized that the most interesting is the issue of armament. Yes, they simply did not have their own air cannon, and the main experience of their development (37mm M-4; M-6 and the last M-10) is lightweight anti-aircraft guns "legs" which grew from the 19th century. The licensed "Hispano" did not suit in terms of weight, the effectiveness of the projectile, and most importantly, in terms of reliability. I would like to clarify some facts from the comments, "Airacobra" is an airplane around the gun, I do not think, at the time of creation it was not clear who would take Air Force car, fleet \ KMP, "commissi I am "on arms trade. Accordingly, it is not clear what the requirements will be for armament. The transfer of the engine to the center section was an end in itself aimed at increasing maneuverability while maintaining sufficient static stability and the possibility of using a" high-speed "wing profile. As part of the understanding, that time. Falling 37mm cannon projectile NS-37, in spatial structures made of alloyed aluminum alloys, cause the formation of holes with an area of ​​up to 1,5 square meters with the loss of the overall strength of the structure, and its subsequent self-destruction. Hence, one can hardly talk about photographing a fighter (as such) that received a hit from such a projectile. In the army, the La-9 index "did not take root"; it was called the "iron La-7", the main information by the amers was obtained from radio interception, taking into account some tautological interweaving and the peculiarities of the Russian language, one can understand where the La-7 came from in Korea. About the machine itself, I will say that it was the most "calculated" jet fighter of the first generation, the issue of creating side air intakes, which ensured the linkage of the engine on the machine, is generally the topic of a separate article (we solved this issue only on the Su-15, though at a higher level), Accordingly, the most advanced (like a jet aircraft), was highly maneuverable, and at the same time quite simple to fly machine. Comparing the F-80 with the MiG-15 is not quite correct, we do not have a machine that can objectively be called an analogue of the "Star" (unfortunately). The MiG-9 is the closest (2-engine), but in fact is an experimental machine, put into production.
            1. Su-9
              Su-9 28 November 2013 18: 48
              +4
              Yes, that’s it. Shooting Star was an excellent zero-generation fighter jet. Comparisons with the Mig-15 are inappropriate, due to different generations.
              Comparisons with piston fighters, too.
              Also, a request from the administration - follow the photo. Saab 32 Lansen doesn’t even look like Star.
            2. vinni
              vinni 28 November 2013 23: 33
              +4
              That's right, Argon! The first picture shows the Swedish Saab J-32 Lansen. The authors with the selection of illustrations should be more careful, especially since there are a lot of them now ...
  2. Bongo
    Bongo 28 November 2013 13: 37
    +4
    The F-80 found itself in the shadow of its training version of the T-33, which became a real "flying training desk". And the T-33 had a chance to fight much more. For example, the Cuban T-33s took part in repelling the aggression at Playa Giron.
    Article about T-33:
    http://topwar.ru/30273-dvuhmestnyy-uchebno-trenirovochnyy-samolet-t-33a-shooting
    -star.html
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 8 December 2013 12: 10
      +4
      Yes, his T-33 training modification has spread much more around the world. In some places, for example in Bolivia, its shock modification AT-33 is still chasing the drug mafia through the jungle.
  3. svp67
    svp67 28 November 2013 23: 48
    0
    Did the Americans conduct training battles between the F-80 Shooting Star and the Me262?

    And our MiG9 is interesting

    and Yak15

    How would you handle this "ball"?
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 28 November 2013 23: 59
      +1
      Hi Seryozha, here read http://www.airforce.ru/history/korea/chapter3.htm http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/kramarenko_sm/12.http://www.airforce.ru/ hist
      ory / korea / chapter1.htm
      1. svp67
        svp67 29 November 2013 00: 03
        0
        Hi Alex. I am glad to meet you and thank you, a little later, most likely in the morning, MANDATORY look, I like to get acquainted with the new info. Aviation is the second childhood dream, after the tanks, my grandfather greatly influenced ... winked
  4. mvg
    mvg 29 November 2013 00: 04
    0
    regarding weapons, the United States had the opportunity to buy Swedish "Erlikons", but "loved" machine guns. just like England, it supplied us with "harikeins" with 12x7.62 machine guns, which we already converted for 3 cannons and a pc-82. By the way, for the Navy, they (the Americans) were not "shy" to buy from the Swedes, they could buy a license. that I read in the literature a "weak" aircraft (f-80), very large losses, especially from MiGs .. that 14 machines are clearly underestimated. that is why the newest F-86 was sent to the "rescue", despite the fact that there was a real chance that the new technology would fall into the hands of the "main" enemy, which is what happened .. the radio sight was interesting. but like a training plane, then yes, indeed a star, he flies himself ..
  5. Jedi
    Jedi 30 November 2013 00: 33
    0
    of course in comparison with the moment-15 "weak". in the second world was made ...
  6. Jedi
    Jedi 30 November 2013 00: 33
    0
    of course in comparison with the moment-15 "weak". in the second world was made ...
  7. samolet il-76
    samolet il-76 12 December 2013 11: 01
    0
    Guys, I don’t understand which plane is cooler than Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star or MiG-15?