Military Review

Australian beachhead USA. Part of 2

12
Modernization of the armed forces


A rather ambitious program to ensure the national security of the nuclear power plant has faced the problem of a lack of combat capabilities in a number of key areas. First of all, these are the underwater opportunities fleet, the ability of the surface fleet to conduct landing operations and the need to strengthen the Air Force. All this forced the Australian government in the 2000s to begin implementing a large-scale long-term program. It provides for the modernization of the aircraft already in service. weaponsand the purchase of a wide range of advanced weapons and equipment.

John Howard, Australian Prime Minister in 1996-2007, made the increase in defense spending one of his main policies. During his reign, military spending grew by about 47% in real terms and amounted to about 1,8% of GDP. However, then, due to the global financial crisis and the internal political struggle, the military budget was reduced to about 1,6% of GDP. The White Paper for 2013 year fixed the commitment of the previous government to increase defense spending to 2% of the country's GDP. The new government of the liberal-national coalition led by Premier Tony Abbott, who came to power in September 2013, also supports these plans. Declared inadmissibility of reducing military spending.

Summer 2013 of the year appeared newsthat the AU government plans to move the country's main naval bases to the northern strategic direction. According to Canberra’s military experts, it is from there that the main threat to the continent will come in the future. Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd (until September 2013) said: “All possible threats to our national security in the future will come from the northeast, north, and northwest. This logic has worked to shape our country's defense policy over the past 30 years. It will remain valid in the future. ” Placing the main forces of the Navy in the north will make it possible to respond faster and more efficiently to all possible AU challenges, as well as all sorts of crises in the APR. Thus, Canberra acknowledged that in the future the region will face serious military-political crises. The politician said that all or the bulk of the Australian defense infrastructure and the Navy will be transferred from the vicinity of Sydney on the southeast coast to Queensland - the northeast of the green continent and to the Perth area - southwest Australia, the Indian Ocean coast.

The current base system was created during the two world wars, when the main military bases were concentrated in the south and southeast of the continent. These were the most populated and developed territories, so this decision was quite reasonable. At the same time, modern threats emanate precisely from the north, and the north and north-west coasts are now much better mastered than before. At the same time, bases and defense infrastructure in the north are not considered as a kind of “defense line”, but as strong points for the echeloned deployment to the north of the Green Continent, for conducting active operations in the southern part of the APR. It is planned to modernize the airfield network in order to enhance the operational capabilities of the Royal Australian Air Force in the northern direction. At the same time, exercises will be intensified, including with the US Armed Forces, to conduct air, sea and ground operations to the north.

It should be noted that the Australian Armed Forces have a rich combat experience: Australian troops participated in the First and Second World Wars, in the Korean War and the Vietnam War, in the Iraqi and Afghan campaigns, in peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands. Since 1999, the Australian military has taken part in 100 overseas missions. Currently, about 3 Thousands of Australian troops continue to participate in 14 operations.

Canberra plans to roll out the main foreign operations of the Australian Armed Forces. So, during the year the Australian contingent will withdraw from Afghanistan. Operations of Astute and Tower will be curtailed - joint actions of Australian and New Zealand troops to maintain stability in East Timor. The White Paper notes an obvious improvement in the situation in East Timor, which makes it possible to transfer the mission of maintaining order to local forces. The same thing happened in Solomon Islands - operation Anode. There, with the help of Australians, local police were formed. The Australian Defense Forces will be reoriented towards the priority tasks of protecting their own territory and maintaining stability in the South Pacific. This should increase the ability of the Australian Armed Forces to provide security for the Green Continent and adjacent areas.

Royal Australian Navy

The Royal Navy plays a key role in ensuring the security of the Green Continent. Australia is actively preparing the fleet for landing operations. In 2007, the Canal Royal Australian Navy ordered two Canberra-class universal landing ships from the Spanish shipbuilding company Navantia. The basis of the project is a Spanish ship with a displacement of 27 thousand tons of the Juan Carlos I type. This is a strategic force projection ship. Each ship can carry about 1,1 thousand fully equipped paratroopers (according to other sources, the full load is up to 2 thousand soldiers), the air group can count up to 24 multi-purpose helicopters. On the ship for landing, an inclined internal dock is designed, which can accommodate 4 landing boats. In addition, the ship can carry up to 150 combat vehicles, including main combat vehicles tanks Type M1A1 Abrams. Each Canberra Trampoline class ship on deck can also be used to launch drones, and is considered suitable for short take-offs and vertical landings of aircraft such as Harrier and F-35B. In fact, it can be used as a light aircraft carrier. The ship has a developed medical system, which allows them to be used as hospitals during military operations and natural disasters. The ships have two operating rooms, a hospital room, equipped with everything necessary for intensive care, a dental office and a laboratory.

In the summer of 2012, the second UDC for the Australian Navy, Adelaide, was launched in Spain. The ship will be given to Australians in 2014. The first ship is already in Australia and will be put into service in the first quarter of the year 2014. The adoption of these powerful ships is a major leap for the Navy and the Australian Defense Forces as a whole.

In addition, the expeditionary capabilities of the Royal Navy and its ability to conduct expeditionary, peacekeeping operations, have been greatly enhanced by the purchase of the ship "Shulz". This is the former British Larks Bay UDC. The length of the ship 176 m, width - 26,5 m, draft - 5,8 m. The displacement of the ship dock is 16200 tons. The ship has a cruising range of 8000 miles. On the flight deck you can immediately place two medium helicopters. Landing capacity of the ship: 350 soldiers (700 when overloaded), 24 main tank or 150 light trucks. Landing vehicles became part of the Australian fleet in 2011 year. Another assault landing craft was received in 2012 year. The fleet received the ship Ocean Shield. The length of the ship Ocean Shield is 105 m, width - 21 m, displacement - 6500 tons. Ocean Shield is capable of military service in sub-Antarctic latitudes and can carry out peacekeeping, patrol and reconnaissance missions. A similar ship, Ocean Protector, is currently part of the customs and border guard forces and performing patrol operations.

The second key project of the Australian Navy is the construction of destroyers of the new generation of air defense type AWD (Air Warfare Destroyer) "Hobart." While in the series of three ships. These ships are to replace outdated Adelaide type frigates built by 2016's (2020 ships) in the 1980-4 year. The new destroyer project was unveiled in 2006 year. The destroyer must solve the problems of air and missile defense. The project is based on the design of the ship of the Spanish Navy. It is believed that this destroyer will be one of the most advanced warships in the world. The total cost of the construction of the first batch of destroyers AWD will be 8 billion US dollars. The lead air destroyer was laid in the fall of 2012 of the year. The destroyer is to join the fleet in 2016 of the year. In October, 2013, the Australian air defense destroyer, was installed on the Aegis radar mast for the weapon control system (SLA). It will have four octagonal phased antenna arrays of the Aegis AN / SPY-1D marine defense system (V). Aegis system allows you to search and track hundreds of targets. The destroyer will have a vertical launcher on 64 missiles, 2 universal 76,2-millimeter gun mounts and 4 anti-aircraft gunships. The ship will have Harpoon anti-ship missiles and Standard Missile (SM) anti-aircraft missiles of various modifications, as well as anti-submarine weapons - two torpedo tubes. The displacement of the destroyer 7 thousand tons. In addition, the ships will receive a hangar for one helicopter.

At the same time, the combat effectiveness of ships already in service increases. In particular, the Anzac-type frigates are being upgraded. Modernization of the frigates comes from 2004 year: they received torpedo tubes MU90 Impact caliber 324 mm, new machine guns, launchers on 32 anti-aircraft missiles RIM-162 ESSM, false targets for removing the Nulka missiles and a system for detecting and bypassing mines. In addition, the modernization of the frigates SAM systems has begun, they will receive the CEAPAR radar with PAR, the Vampire NG infrared search and tracking system, the Sharpeye navigation radar system and the Saab CMS advanced fire control system. The anti-ship power of frigates will be enhanced. In 2020-e years, plan to begin replacing these frigates with destroyers of the type "Hobart." The Navy is also conducting a program to upgrade the Collins-type submarines (6 units). In 2012, the 12 submarine construction project was approved, 41 billion dollars would be allocated for them. Promising ships - "Submarines of the Future", will be built in Australia. New submarines will have a conventional air-independent power plant. The Royal Navy will also receive deck-mounted helicopters of the new construction, while plans are to buy 24 US anti-submarine helicopters MH-60R. They should replace the 15 of old PLO S-70B helicopters. In addition, the fleet received 6 multipurpose helicopters MRH90. They were commissioned in the summer of 2013. In total, the Australian Armed Forces ordered 46 of such helicopters: 40 for the army and 6 for the Navy.



Bookmark lead destroyer Hobart project AWD.

Ground troops

In the framework of the re-equipment and re-equipment of the Australian ground forces, the ground forces will be based on three mixed combat brigades of the 1 division. The 1 Brigade is mechanized deployed in Darwin, the 3 Infantry is in Townsville, the 7 is motorized in Brisbane. The staff of the brigades will include both military personnel, re-training or part-time reservists. As a result, for each combat brigade there will be two reserve ones that can be deployed, if necessary, with already trained personnel. The headquarters of the 2 Division is located in Sydney. In addition, there are special forces: air force special regiment, 2 commando regiment and incident response regiment.

The Australian White Paper provides for the modernization and replacement of existing weapons and vehicle fleets. According to the plan for 2013-2016. Australian Defense Ministry plans to upgrade for 1 billion dollars 59 tanks M1A1 Abrams and a total of half a billion - a billion dollars ground-based air defense. Other programs include the mass production of Bushmaster Australian BRTs; in 2012, the government ordered 214 additional vehicles (more than 800 BTRs were already in service); the contract for the supply of 2014 SUVs will be implemented by 1200; in 2009, 4 155 mm howitzer M777A2 (35 howitzer) was purchased, in 2012, another two additional batteries (19 howitzer explorations) were also updated; Eurocopter Tiger ARH; in 2011, Australia bought the US military transport helicopters CH-22F Chinook, they will go into service in the 2010 year and replace the outdated versions of these helicopters - CH-47D; the army will receive an 2014 MRH47 multipurpose helicopter. At the same time, work is underway on the transition to digital communication and control systems, the modernization in this area should be completed by 40 year.

Royal Australian Air Force

Australian Air Forces will have to be based on up to 100 advanced F-35 Lightning II fighter jets, the cost of the contract is estimated at almost 10 billion dollars. They should replace a fleet of approximately 70 fighter-bomber and combat training F / A-18 Hornet variants A and B. The aircraft were delivered in 1986-1990. and are in poor condition. In October, 2013 launched the first F-35 Lightning II for the Australian Air Force. The first two subtle fifth-generation fighter-bomber will be given to Australia in 2014 year.

In the period from 2010 to 2012, the X / NUMX F / A-24F Super Hornet multi-role fighter was delivered. The contract amount was about 18 billion US dollars. Of these, 3 machines by the 12 year will be converted into E-A-2020G Growler electronic warfare aircraft. Due to the delay in the implementation of the contract for the supply of promising F-18, in the spring of 35, the Australian Defense Ministry placed in the US an order for the delivery of a second batch of F / A-2013 Super Hornet fighters from 18 aircraft, half of the machines will also be in the version of the E-E -24G Growler. In addition to aircraft, the Australian Department of Defense ordered General Electric's 18 F54-GE-414 engine and X / NUMX AN / APG-402 radar.

In 2006-2008 4 strategic military transport aircraft Boeing C-17 Globemaster III were received. In 2011-2012. two more MTC were ordered and received. Transport Aviation will also reinforce 10 Alenia C-27 Spartan tactical military transport aircraft. They were ordered in 2012, the amount of the contract was $ 1,4 billion. In the summer of 2012, the sixth and last AWACS aircraft Boeing 737 AEW & C was adopted. The aircraft for early warning and control was created on the basis of the Boeing-737-700ER passenger aircraft. In the summer of 2013, the Australian Ministry of Defense signed a contract to upgrade 33 Hawk Mk.127 combat trainers. Air refueling is provided by 5 Airbus A330 MRTTs. The capabilities of naval patrol aircraft will be strengthened by ordered from the United States 8 Boeing P-8 Poseidon anti-submarine patrol aircraft. In addition, patrolling and reconnaissance capabilities are enhanced by the purchase of drones. Australia plans to receive 2019 MQ-7C Triton marine patrol drones by 4. The cost of this contract is estimated at up to $ 3 billion.

Results

Thus, Australia does not officially name its adversary, but it is obvious that this is China. Canberra seeks to develop its military-political potential, increasing its influence in the APR, primarily in the South Pacific and South-East Asia. The focus is on the north and north-west direction. The Australian government is implementing a large-scale program of modernization and rearmament of the armed forces, seriously increasing their capabilities. Particular attention is paid to the naval forces as key to the defense of the Green continent, as well as to the modernization and rearmament of the Air Force. Canberra is ready not only to repel an external threat, but also to take part in operations in the Asia-Pacific Region, Southeast Asia and even at the global level. With the aim of deterring China and securing the status of an independent regional power for the Australian Union, Canberra is actively developing military-political relations with many countries in the region, with one as a patron (island states of the South Pacific), with others as an equal partner.
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Australian Beachhead USA
Australian beachhead USA. Part of 2
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  1. Per se.
    Per se. 25 November 2013 08: 25 New
    +3
    From the first part of the article - "Moreover, for the Chinese phobes and supporters of the Chinese threat to the Russian Federation, the APR is the main priority for China. And Australia is China's main prize in the struggle for the APR. Two continents with untapped resources are Australia and Africa." In the second part, the author summed up - "Thus, Australia does not name its opponent officially, but it is obvious that it is China." Great, we have nothing to fear from our Chinese neighbors, they do not need "plundered" Siberia and the Far East, on a half-empty border, give them Africa and Australia! Thank you for opening your eyes! For this and all the fuss? It is clear that Australia is a key ally for the United States, as well as for Great Britain, in case of encroachments in the Pacific Ocean, China needs to have a powerful fleet opposing the fleets of South Korea, Japan, Great Britain and the United States, and this is not realistic for the foreseeable future. China will not repeat the path of Japan in World War II, which scattered power over the vastness of the Pacific Ocean. The Japanese then had only one chance to win - after the strike on Pearl Harbor, to begin landing on the Aleutian Islands and Alaska, followed by movement along the coast, with the support of the fleet, through Canada to the West of the United States. However, the Japanese remembered about the Aleutian Islands only in the summer of 1942, and then, as a diversionary blow, in the dubious attack on Midway. If China will fight the United States, it will be after the war with Russia, and not from an attack on Australia, but from an invasion of Alaska.
    1. Odysseus
      Odysseus 25 November 2013 21: 38 New
      +2
      Quote: Per se.
      If China will fight the United States, then after the war with Russia

      The control of the world is control of the sea, Russia for China, just like Mongolia and Kazakhstan, is a strategic rear and a reserve source of hydrocarbons.
      Who attacks their own rear? And most importantly, how will this help in overcoming the naval blockade of the PRC?
      Even if we assume that in China they will go crazy and begin to attack their own rear, then the idea of ​​attacking a country full of nuclear weapons is completely absurd. Why fight with Russia if there is Kazakhstan?
      Quote: Per se.
      The Japanese then had only one chance to win - after hitting Pearl Harbor, to begin landing on the Aleutian Islands and Alaska,

      Japan could not attack the Aleuts after Pearl Harbor, even technically. And most importantly, it was completely unnecessary. For Japan, it was vitally important to capture the oil-bearing Borneo and Southeast Asia as a whole, which they did.
      As for the chances of winning the entire war, they simply did not exist.
      Quote: Per se.
      However, the Japanese only remembered the Aleutian Islands in the summer of 1942, and how a distracting blow was in the dubious importance of the attack on Midway

      The idea to destroy the main forces of the US aircraft carrier fleet at Midway was correct, but overly risky. But there were no other reasonable alternatives. The "southern option" (Australia) was also possible, but it did not solve the main problems.
      Quote: Per se.
      . If China will fight the United States, then after the war with Russia, and not from an attack on Australia, but from the invasion of Alaska.

      In order to invade Alaska, you need to control the western part of the Pacific Ocean, that is, the PRC fleet must be stronger than the fleet of the United States and Japan combined — and this is unrealistic.
      And most importantly, why? Even assuming a nuclear-free war between the PRC and the USA, then why invade Alaska? How to supply this grouping? It is possible to capture Alaska, but it’s an impossible task even for the PLA to make its way through Canada to the United States (despite the fact that the United States through internal communications can transfer as many troops to the north of Canada).
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 26 November 2013 00: 43 New
        0
        Quote: Odyssey
        Control of the world is control of the sea,
        Looking for whom, Genghis Khan dispensed with this.
        Quote: Odyssey
        Who attacks their own rear?
        Indeed, we can become the Chinese rear, only it will no longer be Russia.
        Quote: Odyssey
        the idea of ​​attacking a country full of nuclear weapons is absurd.
        And if there is a variant of Kosovo, where will China be instead of "great" Albania? Finally, with nuclear weapons, for some reason, we are giving the Chinese our territory with this "demarcation", we are making concessions. Is there Kazakhstan for China? So Hitler started small, but his appetites grew. If the United States does not mind here too, turning China "back to the forest", to Russia in front, then who knows what will happen again.
        Quote: Odyssey
        Japan could not attack the Aleuts after Pearl Harbor, even technically.
        Why? As a distraction, in the summer of 1942 of the year she could, but in December 1941, having no losses, having gained supremacy at sea under dumbfounded America, not?
        Quote: Odyssey
        It was vital for Japan to capture the oil-bearing Borneo and Southeast Asia as a whole, which they did.
        Japan, by the way, at that time had the southern part of Sakhalin, where coal, and very nearby, in the northern part of the island, was oil. The capture of the Philippines and Borneo did not rule out the possibility of a large-scale landing operation in Alaska and Canada. Simply, it was not even planned originally. America itself provoked the Pearl Harbor of the Japanese, for popular anger and entry into the war, but the Americans did not expect such damage, and the Japanese such success, which had to be developed immediately. Without the blitzkrieg, indeed, Japan had no chance, time worked against them. As for Australia, its capture will not solve the problems of China, but China can solve its problems much better and closer, at the expense of Russia. Only after that will he be ready to challenge leadership with the United States. Alaska and Canada, the most vulnerable destinations for the United States, and if China thinks of the Far East, will reach Alaska too.
        1. Odysseus
          Odysseus 26 November 2013 21: 33 New
          0
          Quote: Per se.
          Looking for whom, Genghis Khan dispensed with this.

          Yes, but it was in the 13th century smile
          Quote: Per se.
          Indeed, we can become the Chinese rear, only it will no longer be Russia.

          We are considering here the Chinese plans, which means we need to “look at the world through the eyes of a Chinese.” Given the current geopolitical situation and the current balance of forces, Russia is a strategic rear for the PRC and a source of hydrocarbons. It may be liked or not, but such is the reality.
          Quote: Per se.
          And if there is a variant of Kosovo, where will China be instead of "great" Albania?

          It all depends on our authorities. If they continue to destroy their own country, then, of course, the PRC will take parts of the territory of the Russian Federation. Moreover, without any war.
          Quote: Per se.
          If here, too, the United States will not mind,

          They will be against. In Kazakhstan, oil, gas, and uranium. The predictable reaction of the USA is the naval blockade of the PRC, a boycott of Chinese goods and non-payment of debts.
          Quote: Per se.
          Why? As a distraction, in the summer of 1942 of the year she could, but in December 1941, having no losses, having gained supremacy at sea under dumbfounded America, not?

          Immediately after Pearl Harbor, they turned back, because they had little fuel, and they didn’t destroy the American aircraft carriers. In general, conducting a large landing operation without creating fuel reserves (taking Borneo) and not liquidating the Anglo-Dutch-American fleet is rather dubious idea. And most importantly, why? From Japan to Aleut, 4000 km. From the coast of Alaska to the rest of the United States, 2000 km along the tundra and taiga. Then there were no roads.
          Quote: Per se.
          Indeed, without a blitzkrieg, Japan had no chance, time worked against them

          But I agree with you that Japan needed risky decisions. Perhaps after the capture of Indonesia and Burma, it was necessary to attack British India and go to the Middle East to join Rommel’s Germans. Communications, of course, were stretched to indecent, but maybe there there would be some chances ...
          PS I also think that it is extremely important for Russia to develop the Far East and strengthen there primarily aviation and fleet.
  2. aszzz888
    aszzz888 25 November 2013 09: 12 New
    0
    The fact that the mericatos turned their snout towards the APR is not visible with the naked eye. They will now spoil in this part of the world.
  3. Orel
    Orel 25 November 2013 13: 29 New
    +2
    America is diligently shifting its confrontation with China in the Asia-Pacific region, to its allies in the person of South Korea, the Philippines, Japan and Australia. In the context of a reduction in the Pentagon’s military budget, the United States decided that it was enough for the Allies to cool off and it was time to do their part to contain China, and not just hide behind the American skirt ...
    1. Army1
      Army1 25 November 2013 19: 38 New
      0
      Quote: Orel
      America is diligently shifting its confrontation with China in the Asia-Pacific region, to its allies in the person of South Korea, the Philippines, Japan and Australia. In the context of a reduction in the Pentagon’s military budget, the United States decided that it was enough for the Allies to cool off and it was time to do their part to contain China, and not just hide behind the American skirt ...

      I agree, they love with the wrong hands ...
  4. Megatron
    Megatron 25 November 2013 17: 48 New
    +1
    Let them fight with China, this is only to our advantage!
  5. alone
    alone 25 November 2013 20: 08 New
    0
    the number of science fiction writers increased by another surname .-- Samsonov, who claimed that American bases in Australia were needed to fight Russia laughing
  6. Cedar
    Cedar 25 November 2013 21: 12 New
    +1
    I think Australia is more likely a springboard for the capture of Antarctica, China - they don’t want to go to Antarctica!
  7. FlyEngine
    FlyEngine 25 November 2013 23: 18 New
    0
    But what about Indonesia? It is closer than China, and even later.
  8. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 25 November 2013 23: 47 New
    0
    Australia say?
    Some ten years ago, there were anti-terrorism exercises. Legend: The hotel was captured by terrorists. Special forces arrived, mask shows with single shooting, knitting people, laying their faces on asphalt and more. By the end of the release, it turned out that they had mixed up the hotel. drinks drinks
    Australopithecus told: Japan entered into a mutual assistance agreement with Australia - in the event of a fatal earthquake in Japan, the remnants of the Japs move to Australia, a previously unpopulated part of it. The area allocated is very large, it seems in the north of Australia. Japan is investing money there - infrastructure and more. Invested more than 2 billion green.
    But just do the people there are cheerful, those con men are still affected by the roots. bully