Military Review

PPSH-2. Shpagin's little-known submachine gun

31
The Shpagin submachine gun (PPSH-41) became one of the symbols of the Red Army and the Great Patriotic War. For several years, the Soviet defense industry has manufactured over 6 million units of this weapons, which became the main submachine gun in the army. Despite widespread use, PPSH-41 had some drawbacks. He was considered too heavy (especially when using the drum shop) and uncomfortable for use by the crews of armored vehicles. In addition, the wooden bed was subject to unpleasant phenomena associated with exposure to moisture.


PPSH-2. Shpagin's little-known submachine gun


At the very beginning of 1942, taking into account all complaints from the front, G.S. Shpagin created an updated version of his submachine gun. The modified weapon had only one difference from the base model: instead of a lodge with a butt, a removable butt of wood was installed on it. Apparently, the PPSH-41 modernization project was created in a hurry, because of which the prototype of the updated weapon could not pass the tests. From 25 February to 5 March 1942, the Main Artillery Directorate (GAU) conducted a comparative test of several new submachine guns, represented by different design teams. In addition to Shpagin, V.A. Degtyarev, S.A. Korovin, A.I. Sudayev and others. PPSH-41 with a new butt failed the test. Fastening the butt was unreliable and did not suit the military.

After the February and March trials of G.S. Shpagin decided to conduct a more serious modernization of his submachine gun. The purpose of the second PPSH-41 update project was to simplify and simplify the design, completely eliminate or reduce the number of wooden parts, as well as optimize the technological aspects of production. The updated submachine gun was called PPSH-2.

The basis of the PPSH-2 design was a new rectangular receiver, which could be made by cold stamping. The general principles of operation of automation remained the same, but most of the elements of the weapon have undergone noticeable changes. At the bottom of the receiver was attached node, combining the fire control handle, the trigger guard and the receiving shaft shop. On the rear surface of the receiver was provided with a fastening mechanism of a wooden butt, which allowed to remove it. In the future, it was supposed to develop a folding metal butt. Inside the receiver was provided for the storage volume of the cleaning rod.



PPSH-2 lost its characteristic barrel casing of rectangular cross section. The new shortened casing closed only a part of the trunk near the receiver and served as a forearm. To compensate for the trunk toss, PPSH-2 received an original muzzle compensator, U-shaped. It was assumed that the new compensator, having a much simpler design, would not be inferior in its characteristics to the system used on the basic PCA-41.

PPSH-2, like PPSH-41, had automatics with a free gate. The design of the shutter and the principle of its work remained the same. The fire was supposed to be conducted from the rear whisper. While pressing the trigger, the bolt was in the rearmost position and, when released, was moved forward under the pressure of the recoil-combat spring. Moving, the bolt seized the cartridge from the store and sent it to the barrel. Drummer was rigidly fastened in the cup of the bolt and hit the cartridge primer when the bolt moved to the extreme front position. When moving back under the effect of recoil, the bolt was braked by a reciprocating-fighting spring and an additional damper made of fiber, after which it was again caught by the sear.



G.S. Shpagin redid the trigger mechanism of the weapon. To simplify the design, and also because of the peculiarities of the combat use of the PPSH-2 submachine guns, it was not possible to fire single shots. This, in particular, made it possible to completely remove several parts of the fire translator from the construction. Another way to simplify the design was the new fuse. Its functions were performed by a shield of a special form, located on the right side of the receiver. This shield could close the ejection window of the sleeves and the slit of the bolt handle, as well as block the latter in the front or rear position. There were two slots for locking in the shield.

The complaints of the front-line soldiers caused the rejection of the drum shop. PPSH-2 could only use boxed magazines with a capacity of 35 cartridges. The upgraded submachine gun had a receiving shaft shop that did not allow the use of stores designed for PPSH-41.

The PPSH-2 sights consisted of a fixed fly on the trunk, behind the compensator, and a spring-loaded rear sight. The latter allowed to conduct aimed fire at a distance of 100 and 200 meters.

The aim of the deep modernization of the Shpagin submachine gun was not only to improve the fighting qualities, but also to optimize the production technology. Compared with the base model, the new PPSH-2 was even easier to manufacture. All metal parts, with the exception of the barrel and bolt, could be stamped from steel sheets. Weapons were assembled by riveting and spot welding. Thus, the most time-consuming element of the design was a wooden butt of complex shape. However, plans for the further development of the project included the development of a folding mechanical butt, more simple to manufacture.

PPSh-2 and several other new submachine guns were tested by the GAU commission from April 26 to May 12, 1942. The technological side of the new project immediately received the approval of the commission. In addition, the weapon was praised for the rate of fire, which had decreased to an acceptable level. However, other features of the promising submachine gun did not suit specialists. So, accuracy in short bursts was considered insufficient, and when shooting without using a stock, this parameter went beyond reasonable limits. The reliability of the PPSh-2 was reduced due to thickening of the lubricant in the cold, as well as due to the ingress of sand into the receiver. The original muzzle compensator effectively performed its tasks, but at the same time gave too much flash. Because of this, PPSh-2 could not be used for firing from tank.

Despite the reduction in the number of parts used, PPSH-2 did not become lighter than the base model. The curb weight of the updated submachine gun remained at the same level. The weight of the weapon with the equipped magazine and the additional set did not fit the requirements of the customer.

As a result, the total number of shortcomings, for the correction of which there was no time, exceeded all the available advantages. G.S. Shpagin tried to correct some design flaws, but, as subsequent events showed, the PPSH-2 submachine gun did not suit the military in an updated form. In June, 1942, GAU conducted troop test submachine guns, which helped to make the final choice. The Commission recognized as the best submachine gun Sudayev PPP, which soon entered mass production.

According to the results of comparing several samples, G.Shpagin stopped work on the PPSH-2 project. Until the end of World War II, the PPSh-41 remained the main submachine gun of the Red Army.






On the materials of the sites:
http://ppsh41.com/
http://raigap.livejournal.com/
http://armyman.info/
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  1. shitovmg
    shitovmg 21 November 2013 09: 13
    15
    He was interested in weapons, was responsible for weapons, but for the first time he learned about PPSh-2. Article undoubted +! PPS became a classic, and PPSh-41 fought in Afghanistan and Angola in the 80s of the last century!
    1. Russ69
      Russ69 21 November 2013 11: 49
      +5
      Quote: shitovmg
      and PPSh-41 fought in Afghanistan and Angola in the 80s of the last century!

      They are now used somewhere where ....
    2. Sour
      Sour 21 November 2013 17: 38
      +3
      Quote: shitovmg
      but the first time I learned about PPSh-2.

      It’s strange. Everyone who was interested in small arms heard about this PP. They wrote about him back in Soviet times.
      Previously, I had to read that he was not accepted into service due to the greater mass compared to PPP-43. But it turns out there were other reasons.
  2. bunta
    bunta 21 November 2013 09: 21
    +1
    Author! Admit where the photo of this document comes from ?!
    1. Smirnov Vadim
      Smirnov Vadim 21 November 2013 09: 27
      0
      From the expanses of the Internet ...
    2. roma-belij
      roma-belij 21 November 2013 10: 41
      +4
      In 92-93, a lot of interesting things were declassified, if you rummage through the internet, you will learn a lot of new things, the author + for his work.
  3. bunta
    bunta 21 November 2013 09: 44
    +1
    And Yakovlev’s answer to this letter did not happen by chance on the Internet?
  4. mark1
    mark1 21 November 2013 10: 10
    +1
    The main disadvantage of PPSh-2 was instability during firing, which was caused by the poor location of the pistol grip, failure to work with heavy lubrication, and sensitivity to the ingress of sand into the receiver were also noted.
    1. Svyatoslavovich
      Svyatoslavovich 21 November 2013 11: 03
      +1
      Grease is generally contraindicated for any weapon, one of the rules is "grease and wipe dry."
    2. Hudo
      Hudo 21 November 2013 13: 32
      +1
      Quote: mark1
      The main disadvantage of PPSh-2 was instability during firing


      On the back surface of the receiver was provided a mechanism for attaching a wooden butt, which made it possible to remove it.

      A removable butt? Where to wear it (to store, besides, it is very likely to lose the butt ... Plus the fact that accuracy with an open butt is unacceptable. Georgy Semenych overdid it here, and greatly overdid it.
      1. verner1967
        verner1967 23 November 2017 11: 36
        0
        Quote: Hudo
        A removable butt? Where to wear it

        This is most likely to quickly replace a worn out one, with the butt removed, it was impossible to use it, more precisely, it was difficult
  5. AlexA
    AlexA 21 November 2013 11: 43
    +3
    A description of this submachine gun is available in the Beetle book.
  6. aszzz888
    aszzz888 21 November 2013 13: 05
    0
    A masterpiece he is a masterpiece.
  7. Black Colonel
    Black Colonel 21 November 2013 15: 40
    0
    I drew attention to the date of the Resolution on the release of experimental PPSh-2 and PPS signed by I.V. Stalin December 6, 1942, and the time by which these PP must be made - December 8, 1942 and December 10, 1942. Given the number of batches (1000 pieces each) PP is not entirely clear how such a quantity can be made. belay
    1. bazilio
      bazilio 22 November 2013 14: 25
      0
      Quote: Black Colonel
      it is not clear how such a quantity can be made

      Yeah. although it took 4.25 hours to build the teaching staff, but still the deadlines are unrealistic. Although, if you rivet in three shifts, and knowing what the consequences will be for failure to meet deadlines, they probably managed to do it on time
    2. bunta
      bunta 26 November 2013 09: 42
      +1
      And how did Izhmash produce only Mosin rifles a day before 10 000, apart from other weapons? If industrial equipment had already been manufactured by then, then this figure is quite real.
  8. amigo1969
    amigo1969 21 November 2013 16: 27
    +4
    Military documents are striking in their brevity, conciseness and ultimate specificity (there was no time for the bazaar). Amazing timing !! I am sure all points of the plan were completed on time. Despite the extremely difficult time, they found forces and means for field and military tests of prototypes. Weapon designers were constantly in creative search. And before us is another creation of our talented designers. And the fact that he did not pass the military tests is still a step forward for engineering.

    PS In today's nanotechnological times, for years they can not think of and produce anything sensible (in small arms so precisely).
  9. Crrusader40
    Crrusader40 21 November 2013 16: 30
    0
    It looks a bit like a stormtrooper
    1. kirpich
      kirpich 21 November 2013 17: 23
      +3
      Surely documentation was stolen from Shpagin and by the year 44 they began to stamp in Germany wink laughing
      1. Ch0sen1
        Ch0sen1 21 November 2013 17: 31
        +6
        Similar to Sturmgever winked
  10. Drosselmeyer
    Drosselmeyer 21 November 2013 16: 54
    +5
    Our military in the 30-40s had some kind of obsessive mania about firing from personal weapons through the embrasures of tanks.
    1. Ch0sen1
      Ch0sen1 21 November 2013 17: 29
      +4
      Even special curved nozzles were designed for shooting in dead zones smile
    2. Sour
      Sour 21 November 2013 17: 40
      +1
      Quote: Drosselmeyer
      Our military in the 30-40s

      Not only ours.
      German tanks of the prewar release and the outbreak of war also had special ports for firing pistols. Then on the T-4 they were abandoned, but only later.
  11. biznaw
    biznaw 21 November 2013 18: 16
    +6
    Quote: Black Colonel
    I drew attention to the date of the Resolution on the release of experimental PPSh-2 and PPS signed by I.V. Stalin December 6, 1942, and the time by which these PP must be made - December 8, 1942 and December 10, 1942. Given the number of batches (1000 pieces each) PP is not entirely clear how such a quantity can be made. belay

    This is not the only mystery of Stalin. The riddle as an agrarian country destroyed by the civil war, without money, in 20 years became the largest industrial country. The mystery of how they managed to defeat the invincible Hitler Wehrmacht and create an atomic bomb two years after the war. And the task of producing a couple of thousand automatic machines in four days for its production directors is not a task, but a task for schoolchildren.
    However, the Strugatskys seem to have explained this riddle and the wonders of that time by the "Magic of overstrain" Ie. people just worked very, very hard
  12. makarov
    makarov 21 November 2013 18: 17
    +1
    Oh ma !!! And no one paid attention to the difference in the graphic image and photographs. On the graph, the store is attached (or photoshop) that it has become somewhat wider, and captured the space of the trigger guard. It was from there that a certain resemblance to the stormtrooper appeared. There is an illusion that the store is loaded with an average cartridge.
    1. Mister X
      Mister X 21 November 2013 19: 33
      +2
      Quote: makarov
      There is an illusion that the store is loaded with an average cartridge.

      Intermediate cartridge wink
      1. makarov
        makarov 21 November 2013 20: 46
        0
        I repent. blurted out over the park
    2. Sour
      Sour 21 November 2013 19: 39
      0
      Quote: makarov
      On the graph, the store is attached (or photoshop) that it became somewhat wider, and captured the space of the trigger guard

      As I understand it, we are talking about the so-called neck of the store?
      This device is characteristic of many submachine guns. It is on both PPS-43, and on the German MP-38 and MP-40.
      The graphics are not very well made.
      1. makarov
        makarov 21 November 2013 20: 47
        0
        Yes, what does the neck. The store in the figure is behind PP. The neck is narrower than the store itself. Really not visible?
        1. Mister X
          Mister X 21 November 2013 23: 22
          +1
          Quote: makarov
          The store in the figure is behind PP. The neck is narrower than the store itself.

          I found a picture of a store that didn't go beyond the neck,
          but with a folding proklad.



          And this is a Bullpup fantasy.
          Explicit photo-toad, but curious.



          And since we are talking about Shpagin’s weapons, here’s a picture of PPSh with an IR sight.
          They write that they were adopted by the assault engineer-sapper brigades.
          I doubt it, of course ...

          1. Mister X
            Mister X 21 November 2013 23: 40
            0
            Someone from the forum users mentioned in the comments to this article
            about weapons with a curved barrel.
            As the saying goes "For what I bought" ...

          2. makarov
            makarov 22 November 2013 03: 21
            0
            "frogs" in both images where the butt is folded. Compare the two previous photos with "toads", and you will notice that in the area of ​​the USM there is a bright visible difference in the receiver. With regards to PNV in general insanity. Where could they have come from the Red Army ?. Although I do not exclude that the fraternal peoples could have been pissed off in 70-80.
            A "crooked wall" is not surprising at all. There was such a direction, it did not live long, it died.
            1. vanaheym
              vanaheym 22 November 2013 08: 03
              +1
              Quote: makarov
              With regards to PNV in general insanity. Where could they come from the Red Army ?. Although I do not rule out the possibility that the fraternal peoples in the years 70-80 could have burnt.

              This photo shows the sight, which was developed on the basis of the Gamma-VEI night binoculars of the 1943 model.
              1. Mister X
                Mister X 22 November 2013 13: 47
                +1
                Quote: vanaheym
                In this photo, the sight, which was developed on the basis of night binoculars
                "Gamma-VEI" sample 1943.

                In the fall of 43, employees of the All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute based on Gamma-VEI binoculars
                created a night sight for small arms.
                For obvious reasons, he could not be equipped with a searchlight.
                However, using an external IR source, the system worked well.
                Claims again caused a short range: even at the end of the war, the best prototypes
                this figure did not exceed 150-200 meters.

                An article by Kirill Ryabov about the first Soviet NVD
                http://topwar.ru/14990-pervye-sovetskie-pribory-nochnogo-videniya.html
          3. AK-47
            AK-47 24 November 2013 10: 19
            0
            Quote: Mister X
            I found a picture with a store that does not go beyond the neck ...

            This is the same photo montage, the handle and the magazine are clearly not in the same plane.
  13. Sour
    Sour 21 November 2013 20: 56
    0
    Quote: makarov
    Yes, what does the neck. The store in the figure is behind PP. The neck is narrower than the store itself. Really not visible?

    I clearly said that the graphics are not very well executed. The photo shows better.
    And there is no even remote resemblance to the "Sturmgever". I am surprised at those who saw it.
  14. Sour
    Sour 21 November 2013 20: 58
    0
    Quote: makarov
    It was from there that a certain resemblance to the stormtrooper appeared. There is an illusion that the store is loaded with an average cartridge.

    Yes, at least with any kind of cartridge, it does not look like "SHG" in any way.
    1. makarov
      makarov 22 November 2013 03: 30
      0
      Read carefully the comments about the similarities. The explanation did not apply to you, but to the nickname Crusader40. And the comparison in the width of the stores was precisely GRAPHICS and PHOTOS. Just need to read carefully.
  15. Mahamont
    Mahamont 21 November 2013 22: 30
    0
    You can blurt out that he and the Thompson PP is a bit like. Just a little bit.
    1. makarov
      makarov 22 November 2013 03: 36
      0
      You can speak without "blunders" - there is a similarity. Read Degtyarev's memoirs about how new samples were created in those days. Foreign counterparts were taken as a basis. And this applied not only to PP but also to PTR.
  16. xomaNN
    xomaNN 23 November 2013 17: 31
    0
    And this situation, when the Sudaevsky machine gun was preferred to the Shpaginsky one, despite the greater authority of the latter, impresses me. Especially comparing similar competitions in aviation, when Tupolev "pushed" his planes, even if they were worse than those of other aircraft designers.
  17. air wolf
    air wolf 4 September 2014 21: 10
    0
    It's a pity the PPSh-2 didn't go, but then there was no "Kalash"