Military Review

He-219 "Filin": night predator

15
Heinkel He-219 "Filin" (German designation Heinkel He-219 "Uhu") is a twin-engine piston night fighter from the Second World War. It is noteworthy that this car was the first specially designed in Germany aircraft of this class and the first combat vehicle in the world that received ejection seats. The He-219 was one of the most effective night fighters of the Second World War. However, the Germans managed to release all 268 production aircraft: in the 1943 year - 11 units, in 1944 - 195 and in 1945 - 62.


Creation of a new night fighter for the needs of the Luftwaffe, the firm Heinkel began in January 1942, it was then that the detailed study of the machine began. The aircraft was worked out in 2 variants: Not 219 - night fighter, Not 219, high-altitude fighter-bomber. Both versions had to be equipped with FuG 212 "Lichtenstein" C-1 radar and powerful cannon armament. The bomber was supposed to carry up to 2 tons of bombs. On the fighter, the landing gear was retracted with a turn of 90 degrees, while the bomber was equipped with twin wheels of the main landing gear, which were retracted forward. As a result, the non-219b version of the chassis was recognized as more successful and accepted for both versions of the aircraft, with all the developers' efforts being thrown onto the Non-219.

Already in February 1942, a full-size mock-up of the Eagle Owl was completely ready. To speed up work on the project, the development of the He-219 drawings was carried out in parallel with the production of equipment for the production of the first prototype fighter. By March 1942, German engineers managed to prepare about 80% of all the cripples, but most of them were destroyed as a result of the raid aviation UK to the factory in Marienech.

He-219 "Filin": night predator

11 March 1942, the director of Daimler Benz informed the Heinkel company that due to the difficulties that had arisen with the engine of the 603G DB engine, they would be replaced with more reliable DB 603С aircraft engines. 7 April 1942 held a meeting of the mockup commission, which approved the order for 8 experienced fighter jets. Prototyping plans, their development, refinement and implementation of the flight test program were fully consistent with the scope of the model contract. June 25 1943 program reduced to 4-x prototypes, at the same time increasing the number of pre-production fighters to 20 units.

In October, 1942 of the year at the Heinkel enterprises completed the assembly of the 1-th prototype of the Non-219. In the same October, due to the increased number of Allied air raids on the plants of Rostock-Marieneh, Heinkel decided to transfer the main production of the night fighter to Vienna-Schwechat. The prototype Non-219 had a single-spar one-piece wing, equipped with a working skin. Motor nacelles were located between Frieze's ailerons and powerful slit flaps. The fuselage of the aircraft had a quadrangular cross section and was also equipped with a working skin. 2 fighter crew members were located in the cockpit back to back. In the back of the cockpit on the movable turret mounted gun MG 131. Behind the cockpit were fuel tanks with a capacity of 1100, 500 and 1000 liters. Access to a rather high positioned cockpit was made using a sliding ladder.


Already 6 November, 1942, test pilot Peter Gotthold, for the first time raised the Non-219 fighter into the sky. The plane spent in the air 10 minutes, the first flight passed without any incidents. However, due to bad weather conditions, the declared technical characteristics of the machine could not be achieved on this day. But even with this, the aircraft showed very good characteristics - the climb rate of 8,2 m / s, the maximum speed of 610 km / h. No complaints about the operation of the aircraft engines were noted. At the same time, a number of flaws were recorded by the test pilot: sufficiently large efforts on the steering wheel, the occurrence of minor aileron vibrations at flight speeds of 500 km / h, a too slow landing gear process, and insufficient fighter maneuverability in the vertical plane. In a summary of the flight, Peter Gotthold indicated that the plane was not yet sufficiently ready, but at the same time any German pilot with an average level of training was able to fly it. The program of the first stage of testing was completed on 9 on December 1942 of the year, after which the “Filin” was prepared for the flight to Peenemünde, where it was planned to test the vehicle’s weapon system.

Identified in the first flights deficiencies were eliminated by lengthening the fuselage and increasing the area of ​​the tail. Arms tests have also been completed successfully. After 25 March 1943, the He-219 Filin successfully conducted demonstration battles with the Ju 88S and Do 217N aircraft, the military decided to increase the order for this aircraft to 300 copies. After that, the car was sent to mass production. The first serial fighter Luftwaffe was adopted in October 1943 year.

Major modifications of the machine

He-219A-0 - fighters of the pre-production lot, produced from August 1943. The first 22 aircraft used as prototypes, received the designation He-219 from V13 to V32. These aircraft were tested a variety of engine modifications, combinations of electronic equipment and weapons. The remaining fighters were supplied in parts with DB 603А motors (44 units) or DB 603АА (1670 hp) engines, which were distinguished by the presence of more powerful compressors. The aircraft of this series were equipped with two types of radar - FuG 220 and FuG 212, while FuG 212 was often shot. These fighters also had one of the 3-x weapon options: М1 (2х20-mm guns in the wing and 4-X30-mm MK-108 under the fuselage); M2 (4х30-mm gun MK-103 under the fuselage); The M3 is the same configuration as the M1, but with the replacement of the MK-108 with the MK-103. A total of X-NUMX fighters were released in the He-104-219 version, including the Schwechat 0 and 95 at the Marien Aviation Plant.


The He-219-2 is a production version of the filin night fighter, which was slightly different from the later versions of the He-219-0. Its Variation He-219A-2 / R1 was armed 2h20-mm cannon MG 151 / 20 wing, 2h30 mm MK 103 under the fuselage and 2h30 mm MK 108 special installation "Wrong Music", which was intended to shoot forward and upward . A total of 85 fighters were assembled in the He-219-2 version.

The He-219A-5 was distinguished by the installation of new DB 603E, DB 603AA or DB 603G engines, as well as increased fuel capacity. This was achieved by installing additional fuel tanks on the aircraft, which were located in the tail parts of the engine nacelles. Also, the machines differed from each other in different sets of weapons. Fighters in the A-5 version were released from the autumn of the 1944 of the year, the exact number of cars produced was not established.

He-219A-7 has been produced since February 1945. The first 5 aircraft possessed DB 603А engines, the rest received DB 603Е (HP 1800). The installation on the fighter of even more powerful engines DB 603G was often refused, as they required high-octane gasoline, which was unavailable at the last stage of the war. The standard for this aircraft considered arms of 2h20 mm cannon MG 151 / 20 wing (by 400 shells on the trunk), 2h20 mm cannon MG 151 / 20 under the fuselage (on 500 shells on the trunk) and 2h30 mm MK 108 to install “Wrong music” (100 projectiles per barrel), with most of the aircraft produced was made in the modification He-219A-7 / R4 without installing “Wrong music”. A total of 21 aircraft was assembled. In addition, in April, 1945 He-6A-219 / R7, equipped with Jumo 5Е engines (213 hp), were assembled in Germany in April.


A number of modifications of the night fighter He-219 "Uhu" was not introduced into production for various reasons: He-219А-1 - originally planned version of the aircraft with engines DB 603Е; He-219А-3 - 3-local fighter-bomber with engines DB 603G; He-219А-4 - version with Jumo 222 motors and increased wing span; He-219-6 - the most lightweight version of the night hunter for the English "Moskito" with motors DB 603. Even more in-depth modernization of the aircraft were its variants He-219В, He-219С, Not 319 and Not 419, which remained forever only on the drawings.

Project Evaluation

Originally developed as a multi-purpose aircraft, the “Filin” eventually became a highly specialized machine, and as a night fighter it achieved outstanding success. However, the mass of modifications and options seriously reduced the rate of release of the aircraft. To this was added the problem of late deliveries of the Daimler-Benz and Junkers engines. Already in August, 1944's technical director Heinkel admitted that the Non-219 is the speediest and best night fighter of the Luftwaffe. However, its flight performance was not quite sufficient for intercepting the English "Mosquito". At the same time, the Non-219 Filin was a good machine, which, unlike many of its classmates, had no problems with mastering the front-line units. However, the indecision of the Technical Committee and the inexplicable rejection of the second man in the Luftwaffe Erhard Milch did not allow this machine to have a significant role in the defense of the German night sky.

Radar

All serial "Filina" favorably distinguished by the presence of radar. The first serial 12 aircraft of the Non-219A-2 / R1 aircraft was equipped with a FuG 212 C-1 radar equipped with 4-me small antennas in the nose of the fighter fuselage. Then the aircraft were equipped with one antenna for the C-1 and 4-me big for the new radar FuG 220 "Liechtenstein" SN-2. On some versions of the Non-219A-5 fighter, the C-1 radar was not deployed, and the SN-2 antennas were often installed upside down to reduce the level of interference. On the plane A-7 to "Liechtenstein" added a new radar FuG 218 "Neptune".


weaponry

The nomenclature of night fighter armament was largely dependent on the aircraft cannons that were available at the time of the readiness of the next production aircraft. Various combinations of X-NUMX-mm guns MG-20 / 151 and 20-mm MK-30 or MK-103 were widely used. At the same time, the rate of fire of automatic guns installed in the lower fairing was high, since there was no need to install synchronizers that reduced the rate of fire. In addition, in all the "Owls", there was a place under the 108х2-mm gun MK30 of the installation "Wrong music" for firing up and down at an angle of 108 degrees, but it was installed extremely rarely in the maintenance parts.

Flight performance of the He-219-7:

Dimensions: wingspan - 18,5 m; wing area - 44,5 m., aircraft length - 15,55 m, height - 4,10 m.
Take-off weight - 15 300 kg, empty aircraft - 11 210 kg.
Powerplant 2 PD Daimler-Benz DB 603G power HP 2x1900
Maximum speed - 665 km / h.
Cruising speed - 535 km / h.
Practical range - 2000 km.
Practical ceiling - 12700 m.
Crew - 2 people.
Aircraft armament: 2X30-mm MK-108 guns in the wing root (100 ammunition for projectiles per barrel), 2X20-mm MG-151 / 20 (reconnaissance gun 300 projectiles for the barrel) and NNXX2 for non-standard-of-the-art; on the trunk).

Information sources:
—Http: //pro-samolet.ru/samolety-germany-ww2/istrebiteli/155-he-219
—Http: //www.airaces.ru/plane/khejjnkel-he-219-uhu-filin.html
—Http: //www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/he219.html
—Http: //ru.wikipedia.org
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  1. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell 29 October 2013 09: 23
    +9
    cool plane! the Germans surprised by the appearance of a cuttlefish, but what an effective
    1. Civil
      Civil 29 October 2013 09: 59
      +5
      Thanks to the author. And who will reveal the topic of the first radars on our aircraft .... in general there is no normal article about this.
      1. badger1974
        badger1974 29 October 2013 10: 34
        +3
        there is only a mention of them, watch - radar RUS-2 (1942), radar guidance "Redoubt-43" and "Pegmatite", aircraft type "Gneiss". the current MA was installed in the American Boston - along the way from there and the station
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 29 October 2013 12: 09
          +3
          Our first ones were still on the Pe-2, installed. The later ones were on Boston. But taking into account their single release, and they were not only raw, but very "wet", so they didn't show themselves as bad.
          Quote: Civil
          And who will reveal the topic of the first radars on our aircraft .... in general there is no normal article about this.
          In a number of aviation magazines there were quite overview articles on the topic of our first aviation radars. Ask in a search engine and you will find everything.
  2. DuraLexSedLex.
    DuraLexSedLex. 29 October 2013 09: 37
    +8
    I always liked these twin-engine giants))) What Fw 57 Bf.110 Me410))) Everyone has their own unique look)
  3. Rinat 1
    Rinat 1 29 October 2013 09: 48
    +9
    Good article. But it would be cool to read its real application in parts. Tactics of action, and the results of its use.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 29 October 2013 10: 40
      +2
      see the legend of the night fighter aircraft of the 3rd Reich Werner Streib (Werner Streib) - the tail number of his owl G9 + FB? during one departure, won 5 victories at night with cameraman Fisher
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 29 October 2013 11: 43
      -2
      Zefirov M.V. "night fighters of the Luftwaffe"
  4. makarov
    makarov 29 October 2013 10: 20
    +4
    It should be recognized that many German military technologies and techniques of the Second World War are prototypes and analogues of modern weapons.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 29 October 2013 11: 00
      +3
      far from advanced, for example, German airborne 10cm radar Berlin appeared on night Reich fighter jets in 1944 as a result of the capture of the H2S British radar station in 1942, that is, Bob Brechem managed to shoot down about 20 German nightlights on his Bofighter, before being captured (there were no sticking antennas in the stations)
  5. samoletil18
    samoletil18 29 October 2013 11: 03
    +2
    But Hitler, it turns out, was not such a great strategist. Our so many resources were not spent on night aviation, due to the lack of urgent need. Even Lend-Lease equipment was not specifically ordered for these purposes, so the modernization of the existing one.
    In addition to the He-219, the Ta-154 was a failure. These were specialized cars. How many were manufactured and converted on the basis of existing models, and did not go for the manufacture of strike aircraft?
    Stalin was smart. Germany had no night fighters before WWII, and after drawing in England and France, it was necessary to create.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 29 October 2013 11: 59
      +3
      e of Stalin there were two air defense air corps in which the guys served as good as anyone who could hurt anyone with some potential, some of them had 4 battering rams, Kovzan 6 IAK air defense of Moscow
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 29 October 2013 12: 09
        +5
        Quote: badger1974
        two air defense aircases in which the guys served


        Ram when on their MiG-1 there were two machine guns of 7,62 and one 12,7 the first vital places were not taken, and the ammunition had 300 rounds of ammunition.
        1. badger1974
          badger1974 29 October 2013 16: 33
          +2
          Well, the MiG-1 was "raw material", reinforced the chassis, and added "rails" for the RS, and became the MiG-1 MiG om-3, which, as you put it correctly, ram the current, but not always the 3 and 6 IAK air defense systems were like that, they "drove" in the middle of the Second World War and Thunderbolts !!! (the aviators have never heard anything like that), and indeed the whole curiosity of Aviation Lend-Lease
          1. Vadivak
            Vadivak 29 October 2013 18: 35
            +2
            Quote: badger1974
            they "drove" in the middle of the Second World War and Thunderbolts!



            Thunderbolts?

            203 Thunderbolts were sent to the Soviet Union - 3 P-47D-10 and 100 P-47D-22 and P-47D-27 each, of which 195 reached the USSR - 190 in 1944 and 5 in 1945.
            1. badger1974
              badger1974 29 October 2013 18: 43
              +1
              mind you, out of this number of Thunderbolts on the overwhelmed al-? nothing
              1. Vadivak
                Vadivak 29 October 2013 19: 04
                +3
                Quote: badger1974
                mind you, from this number of Thunder on


                It doesn’t matter, then there weren’t any raids anymore, and at 41 in Yaroslavl Patolichev recalled that when in October-1941 he was reporting in Moscow about the situation in the region, about enemy bombing, to Stalin’s question about that. how many German planes were shot down over Yaroslavl; he was forced to admit: "Not a single one." Soon, according to Stalin's personal order, 4 aviation regiments of air defense were sent here to protect the airspace of the region.

                On the night of June 9-10, 1943, the plants of the Rezinoasbestovy combine were subjected to the largest bombardment of the entire war. G. Ginzburg gave the following picture of what he saw at the plant:

                “The picture of destruction was amazing. Everywhere burnt skeletons of bearing columns, collapsed ceilings, burnt equipment, electric motors. And everything is littered with collapsed structures. In equipment and electric motors ... all bronze bearings were melted, all electric windings in motors were burned out, all ground communications and cables were out of order ... ”The plant was put out of action for three months.
                1. badger1974
                  badger1974 29 October 2013 23: 47
                  +1
                  do not read carefully, the R-47 Thunderbolts appeared in the Union in the middle of the Second World War, and even that modification D, and what happened in October of the 41st year? brother, you won’t believe it, everything was hopeless for the alarmists, the current on Ishachki and Seagulls, on the Mihs, desperate guys were taxiing, and a ram, and who was just a frightening maneuver before the Yu-88 and He-111
    2. Vadivak
      Vadivak 29 October 2013 12: 06
      +4
      Quote: samoletil18
      We didn’t spend so many resources on night aviation,


      Well, in our territory there were no such raids on 1000 bombers per flight. Yes, and the Germans did not have strategists, heavy ones such as Heinkel He.177 (four engines - two twin Daimlers 606 are therefore considered twin-engine) were, but it seems no more than two hundred, along with those that were made on Arado and they stood more than flew
      1. badger1974
        badger1974 29 October 2013 16: 38
        +2
        well, there’s nothing to say, tanks and Ilyukha played their wonderful role, people are sure, but back to our rams, the Reich air defense nevertheless gave an impetus to the interception, and it was nightlights that were the first organized interception force in any weather conditions
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 29 October 2013 19: 40
          +2
          Quote: badger1974
          even the Reich air defense gave the impetus precisely in the interception, and it was nightlights that were the first organized interception force in all weather conditions


          Oh oh 264th squadron Defiant night interceptors Mk I 1940 United Kingdom The crew of the 264th squadron consisting of pilot E. Thorne and gunner F. Baker, who won 13 victories in day and night sorties, became the leader in aces of two-seater aircraft.
          1. badger1974
            badger1974 30 October 2013 00: 05
            +1
            In the subject, to note, the current ma 264th achieved such magnificent results in 1942, when the day current was Richtoffen’s ma, and the two Night NJG1 and NJG2 were lightly judged on the Eastern Front, and the attacks on London and Bristol were catastrophic, thanks to Churchill, aggression spread east
  6. Black Colonel
    Black Colonel 29 October 2013 11: 09
    +2
    Heinkel had not heard of this type of aircraft. It was interesting. Read about its combat use
  7. pahom54
    pahom54 29 October 2013 11: 16
    0
    We had something like development - night, twin-engine, high-altitude ... I read information somewhere, I don’t remember ... And also during the war ... And it was tested in the sky of Moscow, and in my opinion, Leningrad ...
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 29 October 2013 11: 47
      +1
      on the basis of the Boston bomber, but it was needed to work in the rear of the enemy for its intended purpose, and Pe-2 was used with a generator for a searchlight, the result is minimal
  8. Achtaba1970
    Achtaba1970 29 October 2013 11: 47
    0
    Quote: samoletil18
    But Hitler, it turns out, was not such a great strategist. Our so many resources were not spent on night aviation, due to the lack of urgent need. Even Lend-Lease equipment was not specifically ordered for these purposes, so the modernization of the existing one.
    In addition to the He-219, the Ta-154 was a failure. These were specialized cars. How many were manufactured and converted on the basis of existing models, and did not go for the manufacture of strike aircraft?
    Stalin was smart. Germany had no night fighters before WWII, and after drawing in England and France, it was necessary to create.

    So the Germans didn’t get us at night bombing
    1. samoletil18
      samoletil18 29 October 2013 14: 13
      +1
      Quote: Achtuba1970
      So the Germans didn’t get us at night bombing

      Because they didn’t reach, there were no more resources for night bombing except for Moscow and Gorky. This was written for those who have the Nonaggression Treaty of 23.08.1939. considers a mistake.
  9. badger1974
    badger1974 29 October 2013 11: 55
    0
    in general, a good sharpening under the night light, but I dare say that the Sonderkommando Welter on the Me-262A2 (later NJG 11) could have appeared in 1943, and not at the end of the 44th, if not for the drug addict Goering, who replaced the talented Josef Kammhuber, soberly understanding what the "Thousand Harris" raid is
  10. washi
    washi 29 October 2013 12: 12
    +5
    It's not just about the planes, but also about the pilots.
    True arias are not they, but WE are not afraid of death for the sake of completing the assignment.
    The Strugatsky in one of the works sounded the phrase: see the target and not notice obstacles.
    At the beginning of the Second World War, our pilots inflicted losses on the Luftwaffe not commensurate with losses before 1941. Although they lost most of the planes at airfields, insufficient training, etc.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 29 October 2013 16: 58
      +2
      is it about the movie "Wizards"? Unfortunately, the form of air combat in the Red Army Air Force was implemented only with the instructions of the fighter aviation of the great cavalryman, a certain Klim Voroshilov, for this they paid dearly and paid in the air on the 41st, the experience of fighting the Germans in 1936 went into the ground together with Rychagov, Smushkevich , Kobets, etc.-a pity
  11. rubin6286
    rubin6286 30 October 2013 14: 49
    +2
    In 2001, the first to write in sufficient detail about the actions of the Luftwaffe night fighters was M.V. Zefirov. A number of monographs appearing around the same period are devoted to describing the design of the aircraft, its performance characteristics, and the results of combat use. In general, the aircraft met most of the requirements imposed on it, formulated by the OKL, dictated by the course of the air war and was intended exclusively for solving air defense tasks, the main of which were:

    • Effective night-time detection of air targets moving at speeds of up to 800-1000 km / h at altitudes of up to 15 thousand meters;
    • Guaranteed destruction of air targets by the airborne weapons complex;
    • Flight speed, ensuring the interception of air targets, their tracking, pursuit and destruction.
    • A radius of action providing for airborne barrage, interception of air targets, their escort, pursuit and destruction over the main industrial areas of Germany.
    Along with Xe-219, at that time twin-engine bombers Yu-88, Do-215, Do-217, and fighter-bombers Me-110 were already used as night fighters. Using them as a night fighter required the installation of special equipment - radar and additional weapons, which was not always convenient for design reasons. He-219 was designed specifically for such equipment and weapons, specialized and integrated into the air defense system of the Reich, designed and created by General Luftwaffe Kammhuber.
    The air war on the Eastern Front was fought mainly in the daytime. Most ground targets were outside the range of front-line bombers, and the Germans did not have long-range aviation. Based on the “blitzkrieg”, the Luftwaffe command practically did not prepare pilots for night flights. There were few experienced crews. For this reason, already in 1941, the number of aircraft participating in night raids on Moscow was steadily decreasing.

    The tasks of air defense in the USSR on the eve of the war can be considered, in a general sense, similar to German, but the almost complete absence of scientific personnel, the technical backwardness of the production base and specialization of enterprises did not allow even half of what the Germans had already done during the early 40s to be created war, although considerable efforts were made. Though in small quantities and with low quality, but by the beginning of the war the first radar stations RUS-1, RUS-2 arrived in the army, which provided significant assistance in repelling German air raids on industrial and military facilities, Moscow and Leningrad.

    After the war, several samples of the He-219 aircraft in various technical conditions entered the USSR as military trophies, were flown around and comprehensively tested. There was nothing outstanding in the design. Of much greater value were on-board navigation, sighting equipment, on-board radar and equipment for air target detection and selection stations located at ground command posts. The German experience has found application in the organization of domestic air defense in the postwar period.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 31 October 2013 20: 23
      -1
      I dare to notice. our Hero of the article - He didn’t receive the fancy surveillance radar station Berlin at219, because there was simply no place to install it, -Ne-219 was just an excellent ersatz, and not a real combat interceptor, The real interceptor was the Me-110, and the most real Me -262A-2
      1. rubin6286
        rubin6286 2 November 2013 09: 36
        0
        Xe-219 is released relatively little, but German night-night pilots spoke well of them. The Me-110 was released more, but in its capabilities they were worse. 262-10 pieces of night-time ME-12 interceptors with a panoramic locator were built. Really talk about their effectiveness is not necessary.
        1. badger1974
          badger1974 4 November 2013 22: 51
          -1
          everything is not so simple here, for example, the overwhelming majority of the night aviation of the constituent groups from the 110s brought the night aviation of the Reich the greatest victories, unlike the Pre-117s and Ju-88s, there is no need to talk about the rest of the aircraft, but the potential of the Me -262 was obvious to everyone, there was a lot of trouble with it, but these are childhood illnesses, an intelligent person immediately understood what a night reagent was, when the Gloucesters were chasing the "tadpoles", 262 was already actively cutting echelons of Lanks and fortresses, even in a single appearance caused panic among bombers