Military Review

Space Kamikaze. 45 years ago, for the first time, the Soyuz spacecraft was successfully flown with a man aboard

10
Space Kamikaze. 45 years ago, for the first time, the Soyuz spacecraft was successfully flown with a man aboard26 October 1968 was piloted by an unusual cosmonaut - already a Hero of the Soviet Union, Honored Test Pilot of the USSR, a participant in the Great Patriotic War, in particular, fighting on the Kursk Bulge, 47-year-old native of Donetsk region Georgy Beregovoi.


Determining for the extremely dangerous launch in the honorary list of regalia and achievements of Georgy Timofeyevich were the words honored test pilot, that is very experienced.

Until the moment Beregovoy finally, tangibly returned to Earth, colleagues considered him a suicide bomber.

Several times this terrible word will be sounded in the great film by Ruslan Bozhko and Alexander Ostrovsky just shown on the Russia-1 TV channel “Space Kamikaze. The angle of attack of the cosmonaut Beregovoi ”(scriptwriters A. Ostrovsky and A. Merzhanov). And this is not a big word. Why was it known to people of Beregovoy as a suicide bomber? Because they really knew that the next cosmonaut was flying on a doomed ship: before that four Soyuz had died in a row. The first three are unmanned. One exploded on the launch pad, the other two launches were considered unsuccessful. In the fourth, Soyuz-1, in April 1967, Vladimir Komarov climbed into space for the second time in his life. A crash occurred during landing, and the first burnt fragments of the pilot-cosmonaut's body were found only an hour after the descent vehicle crashed into the ground; after a while others were found, so that V.M., twice Hero of the Soviet Union Komarov has two graves: in the Kremlin wall and in the Orenburg steppe ...

There is nothing more dangerous than desolation in something significant and important, which only recently attracted the attention of admiring contemporaries. This is precisely the position of the space industry, which, as it turned out, rests solely on prominent personalities - from the Chief Designer to the completely not ordinary Master at the factory, which produced delicately executed parts for rockets and ships (about him, about the Master, he wrote brilliantly publicist Anatoly Agranovsky). But people are mortal. At the beginning of 1966, shortly before the fifth anniversary of the flight of the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, the brilliant General Designer, who was also distinguished by incredible rigor, even captiousness, did not become. And the space industry shuddered, confused and, one might say, lowered her hands. Went one after another failure.

In the film, the All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company about the space feat of the Beregovoi test-pilot, it is said about the events following this:


“In the second half of the 60s, after the deafening triumph of the first years, the Soviet cosmonautics was at an impasse. Then two people who looked very similar to each other managed to save her. One had power, the other had a tester's talent ... ”

Yes, and their names were something similar. The first of these two was Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, the second - George Timofeevich Beregovoi.

Brezhnev met Beregov in the 1961 year, when he had not yet ascended the communist throne, although he occupied a significant position in the Soviet summits. When presenting certificates of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, he drew attention to a tall, brave Ukrainian, remarkably similar to himself (after 8 years, this similarity unexpectedly rescues Leonid Ilyich from the bullets of an not quite adequate Leningrad citizen who tried to kill him and mortally wounded the driver, and broken windows would scratch cosmonaut Beregovoy, who was traveling to the Kremlin for a reception in the first car of the motorcade). And when the Secretary General, who took this post in October 1964 of the year, was informed about the ongoing difficulties with the Soyuz ship, he said: “Well, there you have a test pilot in the squad ...”

Beregovoy was enlisted in the cosmonaut corps in the same year 1964. Younger colleagues met him with hostility: “The aged pet came for fame”. They meant that Beregovoy at one time served under the leadership of a prominent commander Nikolai Kamanin, who took care of future astronauts.

Yes, but Coastline glory was not to occupy. Once he asked cosmonaut Zholobov: “Vitalka, what year are you?” - “1937”, he answered. "I wear this headset from 37." After graduating from Enakiev Aero Club together with his elder brother (Mikhail Timofeevich, now Lieutenant-General-Engineer, participated in the filming of a film about his younger brother), Georgy became a professional pilot. From the first days of World War II, he participated in air battles. He flew the attack aircraft Il-2, which the Germans called "plague", i.e. "Black death", if literally. The “flying tank” was tenacious and because of this vitality is omnipresent, and that is why our hero said about the IL-2: “All kinds of weapons».

The pilot of the Coast was inventive. Once, when he saw the superior forces of the enemy, he ordered the followers to go on a strafing flight, and they really dropped to a height of one and a half or two meters (!) Above the sunflower field, so they completely shaved off the heads of the highest sunflowers - but the squadron survived! Then the comrades told him: “Zorka, you can live and fight with you”.

He was shot down three times, but he walked away from death. In 23, he became the Hero of the Soviet Union.

At the front, Georgy Beregovoi did not part with the American pilot Jimmy Collins’s “Test Pilot” book published in the USSR and after the end of the war he himself became a test pilot. The first - and extremely serious test of many others was for him the MiG-15. The aircraft pursued the accident. He fell into a spin not like the others, quite unexpectedly for pilots. Beregovaya was the first to discover the temper of a fighter jet and earned the nickname ... Comrade Corkscrew. Since then, all military pilots began to fly on the coastal science. Georgy Timofeevich’s cosmonautics teacher, younger than him by 13 years, the renowned space pilot, twice Hero of the Soviet Union Alexei Arkhipovich Leonov said about him in the film as follows: “For him, the wings were an extension of his arms”.

So it was not at all for glory that Beregovoy came to cosmonautics. Now we can say that fate itself has led him - who, apart from him, would have guessed the character of the “Union”?

Yury Gagarin unexpectedly played a tragic and mystical role in the fate of the Beregovoy, and therefore of the Soyuz, and of our entire astronautics. For some reason he told George Timofeevich: “As long as I am alive, you will not fly into space.” This is extremely unpleasant to think about - after all, we all loved the cheerful Gagarin very much and respected the serious Beregovoi very much - but that’s what happened. Pilot-cosmonaut Gagarin died in the spring of 68, and in the autumn of the same year it was decided to send Beregovoy test-pilot into space.

In the photo of George Beregovoy shown in the film before the start, he is so joyful, so pleased that it is difficult to recognize him. It was as if someone wrote on his face: “You will not catch up with us!” - although in fact he spoke differently: “Everything, they won't catch me anymore.” That is, they will not be separated from flights, they will not be stopped.

Good start. Going into Earth orbit. The first turn. Approaching an unmanned ship, which should dock ... And - bad luck. It was impossible to repeat the docking attempt - there was only fuel left for landing.

He did not know that for everyone in the space industry, the Tassov phrase “All systems of the ship were working normally” was already a victory, which this not-so-young test pilot with a real military background had achieved.

Coast did not immediately understand what happened in space. And then somehow he realized that the ship approached the drone upside down - the unusual state of weightlessness at first does not allow the astronaut to orient in space. But he made a very detailed report on the flight and possible shortcomings of the ship design.

Later, the engineers would call the order to dock at the first turn stupid, but for Georgiy Timofeevich it was a poor consolation. Until the end of his days, it seemed to him that he "had not completed the assignments."

Although in fact he over-fulfilled it. Major General of the Medical Service Vladimir Ponomarenko said in the film: “He, Beregovoy, was the first cosmonaut who was not afraid to tell the designers what he considered unsuccessful in the design of the spacecraft.” He did not make excuses - he was looking for reasons. Found and, in fact, became a co-designer of the "Union", which to this day is considered the most reliable spacecraft.

The ship is excellent, and the story of the person who saved his reputation is also excellent. Only one question doesn’t give rest: why such a beautifully made one, so necessary for other people, even younger people, to be remembered about the national significance of cosmonautics, the film was shown already after midnight, five minutes before the performance of the National Anthem? No answer…
Author:
Originator:
http://www.stoletie.ru/
10 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell 29 October 2013 09: 12 New
    +2
    the phrase about Gagarin jarred!
    a plus article!
    1. Apollo
      Apollo 29 October 2013 09: 44 New
      10
      With his life, George Beregovoi saved the lives of dozens and dozens of astronauts plus the image of Soviet cosmonautics.



      Bright and eternal memory to you George Timofeevich!
      1. Walker1975
        Walker1975 29 October 2013 14: 48 New
        +3
        Plus an article, and Hero glory and a bright and eternal memory!
    2. unclevad
      unclevad 29 October 2013 11: 02 New
      +5
      I think Gagarin didn’t say that as a flight manager. I think he was a little seer.
  2. unclevad
    unclevad 29 October 2013 10: 59 New
    18
    "There is only one question that haunts: why such a beautifully made, so necessary at least for example to other, younger people, to remember the national importance of astronautics, the film was shown after midnight, five minutes before the performance of the State Anthem? There is no answer ..."

    The fact of the matter is that television is trying to fool the people of Russia: continuous snot of "ladies'" serials and "cheap" shooters with lads, in which there is neither soul nor thought. All the most necessary and interesting things are driven into a time when the working part of the population of Russia is simply not able to watch it, and such programs have not given up to the Russian "beau monde". The thinking part of the population is isolated. Fortunately, there is the Internet and good sites, including this one. I beg your pardon, it broke out off topic.

    Great article. At that time I wondered why such an "adult" astronaut was sent on the flight. Thanks to the author.
    1. zub46
      zub46 29 October 2013 11: 13 New
      12
      Totally agree with you. All this, in conjunction with the destroyed Soviet education system, is aimed at further wildness of youth. Whom do we bring up - a creator, protector or Papuan to get coconuts from a palm tree?
  3. pahom54
    pahom54 29 October 2013 11: 29 New
    12
    ... "Only one question haunts: why such a beautifully made, so necessary at least as an example to other, younger people, to remember the national importance of cosmonautics, the film was shown after midnight, five minutes before the performance of the State Anthem? answer ... "...
    The answer is: there is no prophet in his Fatherland. In prime time (pah, eshkin root !!!), every h ... e. T. He jumps on the screen, engages in a pointless and low-grade balabolstvo. It is better to show Ivan Urgant and Borya Moiseyev than a man WHO A COUNTRY SHOULD BE Proud of.
    The owners of the channels will answer you: showing a film about people like cosmonaut Beregovoi, we won’t get the desired grandmas ... And the Minister of Culture will answer: I have no leverage on the owners of the channels ... And a fan of watching a channel like RenTV will say - why should I Is this mura (film about Beregovoy) needed? Here are the answers.
    Oblivion of people who have brought benefit and glory to their state will not lead to anything good.
    1. Walker1975
      Walker1975 29 October 2013 14: 49 New
      +2
      Everything to the point. A plus
    2. voffchik7691
      voffchik7691 29 October 2013 21: 22 New
      0
      It happens that on REN TV the same films show, the main thing is to filter out the excess!
  4. Rinat 1
    Rinat 1 29 October 2013 11: 50 New
    +4
    Only one question haunts: why was the film shown after midnight, five minutes before the performance of the national anthem, so beautifully made, so necessary, at least for example, to other, younger people, to remember the state significance of astronautics? There is no answer ... Yes, because the channel leaders consider ratings and money and they don’t care about such people. It’s easier to show this d ... ba Malakhov and so on. But forgetting such GREAT PEOPLE AND IN REALITY WILL NOT LEAD TO WHAT GOOD. Article +. Only about the words of Gagarin wrote in vain. You could not write it
    1. cherkas.oe
      cherkas.oe 29 October 2013 23: 18 New
      +1
      Quote: Rinat 1
      . Article +. Only about the words of Gagarin wrote in vain. You could not write it

      No wonder dear. We are all human, we are all human, and unfortunately we are all inherent in both the sublime and the base, even the best of us, and all this manifests itself in life at all levels.
      1. Cosmos-1869
        Cosmos-1869 18 November 2013 20: 58 New
        +1
        Gagarin was Komarov's backup on Soyuz-1. If Komarov, for some reason, did not fly, then Gagarin would fly and die.
        In accordance with the cosmonaut training system in those years, the backup of the previous flight became the main pilot of the next flight. Therefore, Gagarin was to fly on Soyuz-3. But he died in a plane crash with Seryogin and flew to Beregovoy.
        I explain Gagarin’s words in this way.
  5. pensioner
    pensioner 29 October 2013 12: 07 New
    +2
    Quote: Rinat 1
    Only one question haunts: why was the film shown after midnight, five minutes before the performance of the national anthem, so beautifully made, so necessary, at least for example, to other, younger people, to remember the state significance of astronautics? No answer…

    Really! The movie is wonderful! Here is WHAT to show at the best time. And not all petrosyanoids there.
  6. Ivanovich47
    Ivanovich47 29 October 2013 17: 25 New
    +3
    Quote: why is it so beautifully made, so necessary, at least for example, to other, younger people, so that they remember the state significance of astronautics, the film was shown after midnight,
    The best time on air is given to stupid and the mediocre series that stupid the younger generation of Russia. And great informative films are shown either very early (when everyone is sleeping) or very late. Television earns money. Spit high TV bosses on the education of youth.
  7. cherkas.oe
    cherkas.oe 29 October 2013 23: 08 New
    +3
    Quote: Ivanovich47

    The ship is excellent, and the story of the person who saved his reputation is also excellent. Only one question doesn’t give rest: why such a beautifully made one, so necessary for other people, even younger people, to be remembered about the national significance of cosmonautics, the film was shown already after midnight, five minutes before the performance of the National Anthem? No answer…

    Yes there is an answer, and everyone knows it. Just a foreign face sits at the head of the channel and shows flabby party-goers from show business, like verbiage, talking about everything and nothing, vulgar heifers propagating grub, but there are no normal time for showing people and events that made our Motherland a powerful state, otherwise then everyone will see which dwarfs are now in favor.
  8. makarov
    makarov 2 November 2013 06: 08 New
    +1
    With deep respect, I treat Beregovoy as a person !!
    But there is such an infa:
    ... Sentences to Yanukovych were canceled in 1978 after a protest by the head of the Donetsk Regional Court Vitaliy Boyko - who, incidentally, in the 1990s became chairman of the Supreme Court of Ukraine and even saved Yulia Tymoshenko from being arrested again in the spring of 2001.
    According to Boyko himself, thirty years ago, a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from Yenakievo, a pilot-cosmonaut and twice a hero of the Soviet Union Georgy Beregovoy petitioned him to review the Yanukovych case.
    And if the hero had not filed a petition, then the history of Ukraine would have gone differently ... maybe
    1. Poruchik 90
      Poruchik 90 21 November 2013 17: 48 New
      0
      Quote: makarov

      And if the hero had not filed a petition, then the history of Ukraine would have gone differently ... maybe


      What is destined to be. Communications always played a role in our country, went to Beregovoy, asked, and he did not know how to refuse.