Military Review

Ship DARK "Dirk"

In the seventies of the last century, several new types of anti-ship missiles came into service with NATO countries. The use of the latest technology has made these munitions particularly dangerous for enemy ships. A high-speed rocket, equipped with an effective homing head and flying at a height of several meters above the water, posed a great danger to the ship, since its interception was a very difficult task. To protect the ships from such threats, a new complex of anti-aircraft weapons was required, superior in character to existing ones.

Ship DARK "Dirk"
Fighting module 3С87 ZRAK 3М87 "Dirk" (Kashtan - air defense gun / missile system (booklet). Rosoboronexport. 2000-e)

In the late seventies in the Tula Design Bureau instrument-making began work on the topic "Dirk". The project manager was A.G. Shipunov. As part of the scientific and design work, it was supposed to create a new anti-aircraft complex designed to be installed on ships and capable of fighting all types of existing and prospective threats. To perform the tasks it was necessary to eliminate several problems inherent in the old ship anti-aircraft systems. So, it was required to significantly improve the capabilities of the anti-aircraft complex in the field of detecting and tracking targets, including high-speed ones; increase the probability of hitting the target; and increase ready-to-use ammunition and speed up recharging.

As a result of analyzing the capabilities of modern and prospective anti-ship missiles, it was decided not to make an artillery or missile anti-aircraft complex, but a system that combines the best qualities of both of these defenses. As a result, "Dirk" became a rocket-artillery. By this time, the designers had already had some experience in creating such systems, since shortly before that they had created the land-based anti-aircraft missile-artillery complex (SPRA) Tunguska. It was decided to use some of the existing developments. In particular, some of the Tunguska nodes almost without changes went to the Dirk.

A pair of combat modules 3C87 ZRAK 3M87 "Dagger" on TAKR "Admiral fleet Soviet Union Kuznetsov "pr 11435, photo probably 2010 (

However, most of the elements of the shipborne DIRECT "Dirk" (index GRAU 3М87) was designed anew. Such novelty can be traced even in the structure of the complex: depending on the need, one ship can receive one or two command modules of the DIRECT "Dirk" equipped with a radar station for target detection and a digital control system, and up to six combat ones. Thus, a small ship or boat can carry only one combat module with missiles and guns, and a large destroyer or cruiser receives several sets of anti-aircraft weapons, which meets the needs of a particular class of ships.

The 3C87 combat module with some limitations can be installed practically on any part of the ship deck, depending on the need. The total weight of the module is 9500 kg (12 thousand kg with ammunition). The main equipment of the combat module is mounted on a common turntable, which allows guiding missile and artillery weapons in the horizontal plane. Radar and optoelectronic stations are located in the upper part of the rotary module, which are designed to target weapons. On the side surfaces of the combat module 3C87 placed guns and rockets.

The artillery part of the Kortik complex incorporates two AO-18 automatic cannons of 30 caliber of millimeters. Six-barreled guns are capable of shooting at a rate of up to 4,5-5 thousand shots per minute and conduct effective fire at ranges up to 1500-2000 meters. The maximum sighting range is equal to 4 kilometers. In order to avoid damage to the rockets by powder gases, the blocks of the trunks of both guns are covered with cylindrical casings. Ready to use ammunition for each of the guns - 500 shells. It is interesting that, in contrast to the previous artillery complexes, the Kortika’s ammunition system uses auger-free, shelling-free projectiles. Ammunition is stored in two drums next to the guns, and not in the turreted volume.

Shipborne anti-aircraft missile and artillery complex Kortik on on SKR "Steregushchy" pr.20380

Above the guns in the combat module placed missile launchers. On the sides of the upper part of the 3C87 module there are two swinging platforms on which the blocks of the transport-launch containers of guided missiles are mounted. The standard ready-to-use ammunition of the missile part of the DIRECT "Dirk" - six or eight missiles. After these missiles are used up, the supply of new ones from the cellar is possible. To simplify the production and operation of the rocket 9М311 with minimal changes was borrowed from the land anti-aircraft complex "Tunguska". According to some sources, for some time the rocket for the “Dirk” was called 9М311К, but later the last letter disappeared as unnecessary. A two-stage rocket with solid-fuel engines and a launch weight of about 43 kg (60 kg per container) in flight accelerates to a speed of the order of 900-910 meters per second. The maximum range of action - 8000 meters. The height of the lesion is up to 4000 m.

Missiles 9М311 are displayed on the target with the help of a radio command guidance system. The capabilities of the radar and optoelectronic stations allow simultaneous tracking of up to six targets. At the same time, according to some data, one combat module can attack only one target at a time. The 9М311 rocket with radio command guidance destroys the target with the aid of a fragmentation warhead that was first used on guided munitions for a shipborne anti-aircraft system. When an explosive is blown up, rods with a length of 600 millimeters and a diameter of 4 to 9 mm are crushed into fragments. In addition, for the additional defeat of the target on top of the rods in the warhead are light ready-made fragments. The greatest effectiveness of destruction is achieved by undermining the warhead at a distance of 3-5 meters from the target.

Characteristics of missile and artillery weapons of the Kortik complex allow it to destroy various types of targets located in a sector with a radius of up to 8 kilometers and a width of about 350 meters from the axis of the combat module. In the case of anti-ship missiles, the maximum effective firing range is reduced to 5 km. The capabilities of the 3C87 combat module allow for some semblance of layered air defense. So, at ranges from 1,5 to 8 kilometers, the target is attacked with guided missiles. A target that breaks through missile defense is attacked by two quick-firing cannons. The applied architecture of the Kortik complex allows attacking both aircraft and high-precision with high efficiency aviation weapons and anti-ship missiles. The claimed probability of hitting a target located in the range of the complex exceeds 95%.

When creating the new shipborne DIRECT "Dirk", it was assumed that in the future it would partially or completely replace the old artillery systems of a similar purpose. Because of this, for example, the diameter of the shoulder strap of the 3C87 combat module corresponds to the same parameter of the AK-630 artillery complex. However, in practice, both systems are adjacent to each other and are used in parallel. The fact is that the “Dirk” complex was adopted only in 1989 year and due to subsequent heavy events in the life of the country could not become the main anti-aircraft armament of ships in the near zone. In addition, the wide distribution of this complex put one of its characteristic feature. The combat module has a height of 2250 mm above the deck, which imposes certain restrictions on the choice of its location.

Nevertheless, a number of types of ships received new rocket and artillery systems. The first carrier of the modules of the complex "Dirk" during their tests was the rocket boat of the 1241.7 "Lightning" project. On it test shooting and operational development of all systems were made. In the future, the serial "Dirks" were installed on ships of other projects. Thus, the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser "Admiral Kuznetsov" of the 1143.5 project is equipped at once with eight combat modules of the DIRECT "Dirk". Two heavy nuclear missile cruisers of the 1144 project (Admiral Nakhimov and Peter the Great) each carry six combat modules. The large anti-submarine ship Admiral Chabanenko of the 1155.1 project has four combat modules. Two or one module each with missile and artillery weapons are installed on the 11540 project patrols, as well as in the 1135.6 and 11661 project frigates.

Back in the early nineties, a new designation, the Dirk “Dirk”, appeared in promotional materials. For export was offered a variant called "Chestnut". According to reports, the export version of the "Dirk" was almost no different from the base version intended for ships of the Russian Navy. In this configuration CRAFT "Chestnut" interested foreign buyers in the face of the Indian military. Built for India, the 1135.6 frigates carry one combat module and one command module of an anti-aircraft complex. From 2003 to 2013, the Indian Navy received ten 1135.6 frigates equipped with the Kashtan MASTER.

In 2008, the guard ship “Steregushchy” of the 20380 project, armed with the new KORTIK-M, was accepted into the Russian Navy. From the base complex, the upgraded version is distinguished by some structural elements and weapons. All the changes applied ultimately had a beneficial effect on the characteristics and capabilities of the entire anti-aircraft system. For example, it was possible to achieve a noticeable relief design. The total mass of the combat module with ammunition does not exceed 10 tons.

The artillery part of the complex is made on the basis of automatic guns AO-18KD, representing the further development of the basic AO-18. The main difference between the updated guns - the initial velocity of the projectile. With the help of longer barrels, the Kortika-M cannon accelerates high-explosive fragmentation shells up to the speed of 960 m / s, and armor-piercing subcaliber - up to 1100 m / s. Thus, using the same projectiles and having similar characteristics of the range and height of the lesion, anti-aircraft guns AO-18KD provide greater effectiveness of hitting the target. The total ammunition ammunition increased to 3000 shells.

In addition to the new guns ZRAK “Kortik-M” received new missiles. The controlled ammunition 3М311-1, while maintaining the dimensions and weight of its predecessor, is capable of hitting targets at a maximum range of 10 kilometers. It is also necessary to note the update of the electronic part of the ship's anti-aircraft complex. As stated, the response time of the “Dirk-M” is noticeably shorter than that of the MASK of the previous model. This indicator, according to different sources, ranges from 3-6 to 5-7 seconds. For comparison, the complex "Dirk" can attack a target only 6-8 seconds after its detection.

In parallel with the complex "Dirk-M" was created its export version called "Kashtan-M". In the first half of the two thousandth, it was offered to the Indian military for installation on the Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier (later this ship was given the new name Vikramaditya). After numerous negotiations, India abandoned these anti-aircraft systems. As a result, the currently updated "Dirk-M" is used only in the Russian navy.

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  1. Iraclius
    Iraclius 19 August 2013 08: 32
    The material is good, thanks to the author. The question is for sailors or gunners - are the results of artillery fire at small-sized high-speed targets like the same cruise missiles known? This is the first. The second - the ammunition in the 500 cannon shells at such enchanting rate of fire seems ridiculous to me. Maybe you can quickly replenish it?
    Or is it that artillery is playing the role of "last-chance weapon" here?
    1. little man
      little man 19 August 2013 16: 23
      Yes. Not everything is so simple with him. 1000 shells (500x2) is a laugh. And the Navy has already expressed a desire to abandon it. For example, you can search the Internet for words
      Zrack Mace.
      .... "Mace" will be in all respects better than the outdated "Cortica-M", which, in his opinion, was already quite good, unlike "Redoubt". However, the Cortic-M sailors themselves mercilessly criticize. One of the naval officers told Izvestia that it was very difficult to operate.

      - Normally only works with breeders. As soon as we go on a hike, failures and malfunctions begin - sometimes in the supply of shells, then in the guidance system, you can’t list everything. In it, even a trained artillery officer will break his head, not to mention sailors and foremen. I really hope that the “Mace” will be better, ”the officer says.
  2. sasha.28blaga
    sasha.28blaga 19 August 2013 08: 34
    Good job.
  3. a52333
    a52333 19 August 2013 10: 15
    After numerous negotiations, India abandoned these anti-aircraft systems.
    Here are all the Indians trying to save money, they refused such beauty, and then they squint at us, they say the submarine drowned, the t-90 blew marriage (and they use self-made shells) A wikimady without a chestnut can also become a submarine.
    1. 11 black
      11 black 19 August 2013 22: 33
      Quote: a52333
      A wikimady without a chestnut can also become a submarine.

      beautifully and accurately said - only for this you can + put good
  4. yacht
    yacht 19 August 2013 10: 44
    Why did you decide that the Indians made this decision out of cost savings? Maybe they didn’t arrange their performance characteristics.
  5. scientist
    scientist 19 August 2013 10: 47
    I have been developing this topic for a long time and created a fundamentally new system for creating a noise-resistant hidden radar field, which allows you to very effectively control all aerospace space with minimal cost, and without the risk of being detected by electronic reconnaissance equipment. In the description of the invention, active noise interference from a moving object with a priori undefined parameters is considered, as the most difficult case, but in fact there can be any radiation source, star, navigation and communication satellite, and terrestrial broadcasting stations. He defended his thesis and filed a patent here is the link: However, I still cannot break through science officials in the Russian Federation. Advise how to continue these studies and create a prototype, whom to contact.
    1. Iraclius
      Iraclius 19 August 2013 11: 20
      Write to Putin personally. He will figure it out.
    2. biglow
      biglow 19 August 2013 11: 57
      Quote: scientist
      I have been developing this topic for a long time and created a fundamentally new system for creating a noise-resistant hidden radar field, which allows you to very effectively control all aerospace space with minimal cost, and without the risk of being detected by electronic reconnaissance equipment. In the description of the invention, active noise interference from a moving object with a priori undefined parameters is considered, as the most difficult case, but in fact there can be any radiation source, star, navigation and communication satellite, and terrestrial broadcasting stations. He defended his thesis and filed a patent here is the link: However, I still cannot break through science officials in the Russian Federation. Advise how to continue these studies and create a prototype, whom to contact.

      Write to Rogozin on Twitter.
    3. S-200
      S-200 19 August 2013 20: 35
      Most likely, this is the topic "Almaz-Antey" (JSC "Research Institute of Instrumentation named after V. V. Tikhomirov"), if, of course, you can interest them. It goes without saying that the algorithms (and hardware) of the PAA operation for the producers of various types of interference have been successfully implemented for a long time.
  6. kapitan281271
    kapitan281271 19 August 2013 11: 48
    Write to Obama then it will definitely be good
  7. aud13
    aud13 19 August 2013 12: 03
    Shoigu seems to like to introduce different novelties. Try it can appeal to him?
  8. Max otto
    Max otto 19 August 2013 12: 07
    Incidentally, kapitan281271 business says, write to Obama, and they themselves will come to you. Yes, and they will help.
    1. Max otto
      Max otto 19 August 2013 17: 34
      P.S. I mean, ours will come so that Obama won’t get it. wink
  9. denson06
    denson06 19 August 2013 14: 07
    We pull the Indian Armed Forces, which have almost all types of weapons produced in our country (ships, submarines, tanks, airplanes, etc.), but the Anglo-Saxons will come to them and all kinds of samples will appear on you. and against the location station ZRAK "Kortik" and against other military equipment .. then everyone knows (from the experience of the Arab-Israeli conflicts, at least) .. clogging with interference, setting false targets, etc. .. a rocket flies into the ship on the right, and a dagger shoots to the left .. Our defense industry specialists have such competent technical solutions ... it would be more careful ... to the author for the article "+" big.
    1. Gromily4
      Gromily4 19 August 2013 15: 42
      There are export options, understated features. So even if they see, then 1 to 1 will not work. There are always two options, for yourself and for sale, and these are almost two different devices. Yes, and it’s difficult to get into the brain of a rocket and figure out the algorithm of work, for sure the commands are encrypted and it can take a lot of time to decode.
  10. Nick_1972
    Nick_1972 19 August 2013 16: 11
    The complex is really impressive for its spectacularity and futurism. I wonder only what kind of turning drives are there? To work on the RCC tower, you need to spin quickly, stop quickly at the desired point. And here there are only three tons of ammunition and all rotate with the installation. Plus guns, PSUs, missiles are located relatively far from the axis of rotation. And no one canceled the inertia. It’s all the same what to put the neck on the shoulders and twist the torso. Hard, but good exercise wink And if one of the guns can’t shoot? The total recoil momentum of systems with a rotating block of barrels is very rather large, will the tower withstand the torque from it during firing?
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 19 August 2013 19: 42
      Quote: Nick_1972
      The complex really impresses with its spectacularity and futurism.

      Rather futuristic. The modest looking Raytheon SeaRAM is much more efficient, because noise immunity is an order of magnitude higher.
  11. 1c-inform-city
    1c-inform-city 19 August 2013 18: 23
    By the way, the Indian aircraft carrier was left without a near-air defense at the moment. They refused from Cortica and turned to Israel. And the Jews threw them and now promise to deliver complexes only after three years.
    1. Alex 241
      Alex 241 19 August 2013 22: 41
      Shipborne artillery installation "Duet"
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. komTMG
    komTMG 20 August 2013 07: 11

    chestnut. 1135.6
  14. carbofo
    carbofo 20 August 2013 14: 58
    And where is the scheme or section of the complex, you won’t be fed up with the performance characteristics and severe view!
    But I just don’t understand how they stand in the tape, like Maxim’s machine gun?
  15. xomaNN
    xomaNN 20 August 2013 18: 14
    Good "metal-cutting machine" :) On avenue 1135 "Wasp" + six-barreled machine guns were already grandfathers.