Military Review

Unknown Great War

16
Unknown Great War



A characteristic feature of the modern world order is its unipolarity. With the United States at the head of the world. To its triumph America has come in two stages. On the first, she dismissed England from the political Olympus, taking him along with the Soviet Union, on the second she destroyed the USSR. This article will consider the first round of the cold confrontation between England and America in the first half of the 20th century for the sole world championship.

In early 1901, Queen Victoria died. Following her into oblivion, not only the brilliant Victorian era was ready to follow, but also the whole “good old England”. The successful confrontation between the Boers and Great Britain showed the impossibility of its confrontation with its eternal geopolitical opponents - France and Russia. Even worse, after the industrial upheaval, young players full of energy and energy joined the Great Game veterans - the USA, Germany and Japan. Although London continued to be a global financial center, the United States and Germany pushed England to third place in terms of industrial production. In both America and Germany, the construction of fleets began to challenge the power of the British fleet. Even worse, the era of colonial conquests came to an end, and there was nowhere to direct their greedy aspirations. The Great Colonial Redistribution was brewing, and the British Empire, with its vast territories over which the sun had never set, was becoming a tasty prey. Even worse, brilliant isolation threatened England to turn into forced isolation. And many times, the British rescue policy to pit their environment this time gave an unfortunate failure.

According to P.N. Durnovo "France was secured by an alliance with Russia from the attack of Germany, the latter was tested by Russia’s peace and friendship from the desire for revenge from France, Russia was necessary for Germany to maintain good relations with her - from the excessive intrigues of Austria-Hungary on the Balkan Peninsula." Due to the impossibility for Japan to get money in England during the Anglo-Boer War, Japan tended to a Japanese-French-Russian agreement based on a French loan offer from Japan. It remains only to engage the historically hostile United States in the anti-British orbit of Britain, and the position of England became simply hopeless.

In this situation, the actions of the British were decisive and lightning. Taking advantage of the aspiration of the United States of America to the sole world domination England during the negotiations of Japan with England and Russia on the union agreement 18 of November 1901 of the year in exchange for subsidizing Japan gave America unlimited rights to build the Nicaraguan channel between the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean, thus completing almost four years Anglo-American diplomatic bargaining. The Anglo-Japanese alliance received its financial security and 30 was concluded on January 1902.

Following America and Japan, France fell into the arms of England. In June 1902, the French sold the concession, work performed and significant equipment to the Panama Canal company USA, after which they decided to build a canal on the Isthmus of Panama. In November, the United States, with the help of French citizen Philip Byuno-Varilla, deposited Panama from Colombia and signed a land lease agreement with the independent Republic of Panama for the construction of the Panama Canal for a period of 1903 years. 100 February 9 of the Year Japan attacked Russia, and already 1904 of April 8 of the year France concluded agreements with allied Japan, England on the division of spheres of influence in Africa, which undermined the principle of "brilliant isolation" in Europe itself.

As a result, in the Russian-Japanese war, Russia was supported only by Germany. As Alexander Shirokorad notes, “2-I and 3-I Pacific Squadrons passed by dozens of French ports in Europe, Africa and Asia. But our brave allies didn’t let our ships go to any of them. Russian squadrons managed to reach the Far East solely through the help of German supply vessels, primarily coal miners. Few people know that the German sea tug Roland was sunk by Japanese ships in Tsushima along with our squadrons. ”

As is well known, “the Russian Empire was unable to wage a war with Japan.” At the same time, "the Japanese rulers, despite the successes, also could no longer continue the war." The prisoner mediated by Roosevelt of Portsmouth did not bring any political dividends to the United States. 12 August 1905, before the conclusion of the Peace of Portsmouth, England and Japan signed a new treaty, already against America itself,.

After the separation of America, England agreed with Russia in 1907 on the division of spheres of influence in the East. Thus, a group of powers of the tripartite accord was formed — the Entente, with England’s dominant influence, after which “a clash with the powers grouped around Germany became, sooner or later, inevitable.” In 1911, England, by concluding a treaty on general arbitration, unsuccessfully tried to eliminate its contradictions with America and keep it from coming closer to Germany.

The next step of England was the Great War directed by her not to redistribute the colonies, to which Germany was striving, but to their new creation. First of all, in Russia. “Already during the war, England and France promised Russia to Constantinople, while they themselves concluded a secret separative agreement, under which they mutually promised not to give the Straits to Russia in any way. Moreover, both London and Paris hatched plans for the division of the Russian Empire after the defeat of Germany ... For the first time in stories Russia fought not for the accession of some territories, but for its own dismemberment! ”

The war was protracted, bloody and for several years completely exhausted human and raw material resources of the warring countries. In February, 1917, on the eve of the grand Allied offensive and Russia's seizure of the Black Sea straits in Russia, suddenly, starting with spontaneous events, a revolution occurred, after which the Russian front cracked and the Allied offensive failed. Following this, according to Guido Preparat, Britain was already close to defeat, and on this basis in April 1917, the United States entered the war, which could not prevent the money they had lent to Entente for huge purchases of military materials. Following Russia's withdrawal from the war after the October Revolution 1917, and the conclusion of the Brest-Litovsk Separate Peace Treaty from March 3, 1918, Germany, followed by Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria, found a second wind.

“In June 1918, the German army broke through the defensive lines of the Allies and ended up in 50 miles from Paris.” However, the Allies, having sustained the blow themselves, "went over to the offensive, and suddenly the German military machine began to fall apart." October 28 The 1918 in Kiel began a rebellion in the German navy, and a revolution broke out in Berlin on November 9 in Berlin. On November 9, an armistice agreement was signed, and in January 11, the German revolution was crushed with merciless cruelty.

The First World War, Britain was brought to the brink of bankruptcy, her title of economic and political leader challenged her creditor - the United States. However, at the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson failed to win recognition of America from England. He put forward the idea of ​​creating a League of Nations called upon to preserve the universal world under the dominant position of the USA, but was defeated. The dominance of England and France in the League of Nations, the charter of which was an integral part of the Versailles Treaty, did not suit the US ruling circles, and the Senate refused to ratify it.

As a result of the post-war reconstruction on the ruins of the Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian and Turkish empires, either new states were recreated or for the first time created. Moreover, if England and France, having achieved a significant increase in their territories, were interested in their preservation, then the young countries were interested in increasing their borders and creating Great Finland, Poland, Hungary and Romania.

The main opponents of Germany in the First World War, England and France, under the cover of the mandate system, significantly increased their colonies, with England securing the first place among the colonial powers. By the 1923, the English ownership was approximately 60% of the territory and 70% of the population of all colonial possessions in the world, and France - 20% and 10% respectively. Having neither political nor economic opportunity to keep its swollen wealth intact, England went on the way of organizing a crusade against Soviet Russia under the pretext of fighting Bolshevism in order to satisfy the hunger of countries wishing to increase their prestige and expand their borders.

Apparently, the articles of the Versailles Treaty on the payment of enslavement by Germany, the withdrawal of colonies and lands with a predominantly German population from its structure were accepted by England for the sole purpose - in exchange for the cancellation of reparations, the return of the Sudet Germany, the Polish Corridor and the colonies . Under such a confluence of circumstances, Germany’s allies would have had to come to Czechoslovakia and Poland, which in compensation for their territories returned to Germany would receive a part of Soviet territory. Participation in the march to Russia would gladly accept, at a minimum, Finland and Romania.

It is noteworthy that under the terms of the Versailles Treaty, the security of the borders of the western neighbors of Germany, Holland, Belgium and France was ensured by the occupation of the Entente forces on the left bank of the Rhine for a period of 15 years and demilitarization of the territory on 50 km. east of the Rhine, as well as the destruction of all the fortifications of Germany in the West, while the security of the borders of the eastern neighbors of Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia, was not only guaranteed, but with the preservation of southern and eastern fortifications in Germany, a springboard for the campaign to the East was created.

In the summer of 1919, the German Social Democrats, under the threat of a military invasion of the victorious countries, acknowledged the hardest conditions of the Versailles Treaty, according to which Germany lost part of its territory, all its colonies, agreed to pay reparations, liquidate the efficient army and navy, and with it sovereignty. During the Soviet-Polish war, England tried to turn Germany against Soviet Russia, but was decisively rejected. In turn, America, having arranged Kapp for the coup, tried to restore the Versailles status quo, but the Germans did not support them, choosing their own path of friendly relations with Soviet Russia. Ultimately, in August 1921, the United States concluded a separate agreement with Germany, almost identical to Versailles, but containing no articles on the League of Nations, thus completing the first round of its cold confrontation in the first half of the 20th century with England for individual world domination.

Thus, in the first quarter of the 20th century, Great Britain, having destroyed the emerging anti-British alliance, was able to triumphantly overcome the crisis of the beginning of the century. At the same time, having fulfilled the task minimum, she could not solve the problem maximum - to turn Russia into a colony, thereby strengthening her position as a world hegemon and filling the colonial hunger of her restless and seething environment literally as a hive. As a result, the second round of England’s cold confrontation with America inevitably began.
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Articles from this series:
Unknown Great War
America vs England. Part of 2. From the Great War to the Great Depression
America vs England. Part of 3. Great break
America vs England. Part of 4. How Dallas and Papen Hitler brought to power
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  1. makst83
    makst83 7 August 2013 06: 45 New
    10
    govoritania and the whole Anglo-Saxon world brought us #vna more than Germany in two wars!
    1. elmi
      elmi 7 August 2013 09: 41 New
      +7
      History shows that Russia does not have faithful allies, Western countries use it for their own purposes. Therefore, Alexander 3 was right when he said that Russia has only 2 allies, the army and navy. You can’t trust anyone, you have to rely on yourself.
      1. makst83
        makst83 7 August 2013 10: 28 New
        +3
        Verily! But first, you need to stifle the whole liberal reptile or expel, so that young minds do not seduce their little ideas!
  2. valokordin
    valokordin 7 August 2013 06: 49 New
    +6
    Russia lost the war to Japan because of the rotten regime and because of the fact that Japan had a world majority. Ships of Japan were of English construction, ours in the overwhelming majority were of foreign construction, and in particular of Germany and the USA. And throughout the 20th century, Russia did not have reliable allies, but only temporary ones who used Russia for their own purposes. Only in Soviet times did we have allies who were supported by our country and did not betray. The Soviets left, the treacherous leadership of the country, began to act in favor of the West and also betrayed its allies. So Russia cannot be trusted in its current form. About the stability of the allied relations in the past we can only say that they were much more stable than the current ones. Russia still has only two allies.
    1. Gregazov
      Gregazov 7 August 2013 07: 58 New
      +7
      Russia lost, rather, did not win the war with Japan due to the use of the latest technology of controlled chaos (revolution of 1905). Despite military defeats, further warfare would lead to the defeat of Japan. It is for this reason that Japan agreed to peace, without essentially fulfilling the goals of the war.
      Chaos technology is very difficult to fight. They were immediately applied to Russia by both opponents (Germany) and allies (England and France) in the First World War.
      The same technologies (to some extent) led to the collapse of the USSR (Baltic, Sumgayit, etc.). It would not be desirable for some to acknowledge this, but Putin could win the victory over organized chaos, stopping the collapse of the remnants of Russia (USSR).
      1. dropout
        dropout 7 August 2013 12: 56 New
        +2
        Quote: GregAzov
        Putin was able to defeat organized chaos, stopping the collapse of the remnants of Russia (USSR).

        It’s still a long way to victory. We will return what our ancestors left to us as an inheritance, and we pissed away, it will take a long time.
    2. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 7 August 2013 13: 39 New
      0
      Quote: valokordin
      our vast majority were overseas buildings

      Afiget !!! And the men do not even know !!!
      Still not tired of repeating this bike?
  3. taseka
    taseka 7 August 2013 06: 56 New
    +2
    France in 1 Worldwide used the SPECIAL RUSSIAN BRIGADE to the fullest, which saved its independence, and then surrendered it to the camps and colonies of Africa, having shot Russian soldiers and officers trying to return home! Germany fought with us on Chudsky, in the 1 World War and in the 2 World War II, but England always fought and is fighting now !!! There is no faith of the Russian people in Europe !!!! (To some extent, perhaps, that in the Balkans, and even now it’s in question!)
    1. Corsair
      Corsair 7 August 2013 13: 20 New
      0
      Quote: taseka
      France in 1 Worldwide used the SPECIAL RUSSIAN BRIGADE to the fullest, which saved its independence, and then surrendered it to the camps and colonies of Africa, having shot Russian soldiers and officers trying to return home! Germany fought with us on Chudsky, in the 1 World War and in the 2 World War II, but England always fought and is fighting now !!! There is no faith of the Russian people in Europe !!!! (To some extent, perhaps, that in the Balkans, and even now it’s in question!)

      So Great Britain imagined the 1 World War Theater:
  4. pensioner
    pensioner 7 August 2013 07: 57 New
    +1
    Nothing, Nothing ... This little Britain will soon rattle at all seams. And recently, all sorts of misunderstandings have been created with nature. It is still unknown: how they will feel there on the island in 30 years ... Wait ...
  5. Shadowcat
    Shadowcat 7 August 2013 08: 05 New
    +2
    Well, how else to say after such that Nikolai was smart and good. After a concrete turn and posing as a state cancer that Germany did not use current, take and tilt it? IMHA The chances of preserving the empire were in the event that the Russian Empire united with Germany in the First World War and shouted at the French and the British.
    So no, the wise guy Nikolay climbed to those who had already sold it for several times. You can step on a rake? All Turkish wars, the Japanese war and after that go to bow to the enemy's secret (and sometimes obvious) ally.
  6. KG_patriot_last
    KG_patriot_last 7 August 2013 09: 46 New
    +5
    At the moment, England is a vassal of the United States. And a fashionable place to live. No more.
  7. Raptor75
    Raptor75 7 August 2013 10: 33 New
    +4
    I hope Nikolai Romanov is still burning in hell. To tear through a vast empire, plunging into chaos everything in which millions may have died or either a traitor.
    1. La hire
      La hire 7 August 2013 11: 02 New
      0
      It is incredibly unfortunate that each comment can be put only one plus.
  8. USNik
    USNik 7 August 2013 10: 49 New
    +4
    Well, how else to say after such that Nikolai was smart and good.

    Only liberals and other freedom lovers love and adore Nicholas II. How excellent the ruler was the “land-gatherer” Alexander III, just as worthless was the “prosral all polymers” Nicolas 2.
    I hope Nikolai Romanov is still burning in hell. To tear through a huge empire, plunging into chaos everything in which millions could have died or (? winked ) or a traitor.

    Or just a stupid and indecisive person who did not know how and who simply did not want to rule a huge country.
    1. dropout
      dropout 7 August 2013 13: 23 New
      0
      Quote: USNik
      Or just a stupid and indecisive person who did not know how and who simply did not want to rule a huge country.

      Have you tried on Monomakh’s hat for an hour? Not every cook ............. and so on.
    2. lexe
      lexe 8 August 2013 20: 48 New
      +1
      Only liberals and other freedom lovers love and adore Nicholas II.

      Go to any Orthodox church.
      Orthodox churches for three miles bypass any
      liberals and other freedom lovers.

      Only Orthodox families decide to have many children, unlike other atheistic ones.
      So there is less liberalism in the statements.
  9. knn54
    knn54 7 August 2013 12: 34 New
    +4
    -As a result, in the Russo-Japanese War, Russia was supported only by Germany.
    Turkey DOESN'T MISS the ships of the Black Sea Fleet in 1905.
    -However, at the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson was unable to obtain recognition of America’s leadership from England.
    HERE England and France opposed the USA TOGETHER. I would like to add that the victory of the Land of Soviets over the Entente also deprived the United States of the opportunity to become a leader on the planet. Wilson suffered a second defeat and for some time isolationism again triumphed in America. BUT economic and financial power of the USA after the WWII increased.
    Regarding Nicholas 2. He was a weak monarch, but he did not want war. She was wanted by the top and the cheers-patriots, who then hang all the dogs on the king. Virtually everything was betrayed by Nicholas 2 - from close relatives to the Masonic elite of the future Provisional Government. And the "ally" of the UK, who refused to accept the monarch and his family.
    And the Bolsheviks simply did not allow “to divide the Russian pie”.
    - As a result of this, the second round of the cold confrontation between England and America has inevitably come.
    In Asia and Latin America, British interests were hit hard. By the end of the 20s, contradictions reached a peak, and the world was discussing the possibility of an Anglo-American war.
    But the war threatened business, and therefore the United States was unprofitable. The Briand-Kellogg Pact followed (27.08.28/XNUMX/XNUMX), and then the crisis.
  10. vladim.gorbunow
    vladim.gorbunow 7 August 2013 13: 15 New
    +1
    I support the article. I will try to predict the main provisions of Part 2. The Anglo-American financial crisis of 31 -34. Britain goes on the counterattack: refusal of gold circulation, the law on imperial preferences with the gutting of property of ame.firm in the British territories. International default on debt to America, organized by the British in 32g. As a result, the dollar devaluation, the Great Depression, Roosevelt's New Deal. And the unprecedented US military program 36-38 g, which turned out to be unnecessary for the war with Japan. It is logical to assume that Anglophile Hitler was simply hired for the war with Britain for loans and strategic supplies.
  11. lexe
    lexe 8 August 2013 21: 56 New
    +1
    Let’s imagine that in 1914, Russia would decide not to enter the war.
    Here is a picture looming:
    Berlin-Vienna-Istanbul. 3 powerful empires take military cooperation to a new level ... A trade embargo is imposed against Russia. There is no longer a buyer but a seller dictating prices. It’s like the EU behaves when buying our gas and oil. Oil for Russia 1914 .-there was a grain.
    Italy joins the new force after the failure in 1914. Russia to fight. Next, the ultimatum of France. France agrees to allocate an expeditionary army in case of "disagreements" with Russia.
    The German progressive public suddenly "realizes" how quickly the extinction of Slavic peoples in the Balkans is taking place. An aid plan for the Balkans is being urgently created, in the form of German immigrants.
    The German General Staff is not idle, calmly and thoroughly creates the final plan for resolving the Russian issue. A simple German begins to realize that hunger will begin in Europe without the Russian black earth. Hysteria is also spreading in the European media with possible hunger. (How can Europe freeze, we have already seen this hysteria in the media).
    Any increase in prices for grain and natural resources by Russia leads to partial mobilization and maneuvers along Russian borders. In fact, racketeering.
    And here comes 1941 ... Troops from all over Western Europe are quietly concentrating to strike on the border with Russia.
    With all the might of the Russian army, the enemy has a gigantic advantage. And a simple European is very angry with the Russian that he took a piece of bread from his children.
    So how?
    World War I was a war for our independence. What other colonies? Straits-trade communications-guarantee from the Iron Curtain.
    And they didn’t wait for 1941, but decided to preemptively strike. And to say that we completely screwed up then was a deep delusion.
    Russia received a stab in the back in 1917. moreover, when the enemy already had a mortal wound.
    And Syria today is a repetition of that scenario. Instead of grain, oil is the only alternative.
    The economy allows you to break away from competitors and then inevitably hit from a technological competitor who has come off.