The coalition government of Hitler. Sit (from left to right): Hermann Goering, Adolf Hitler, Franz von Papen. Standing (from left to right): Franz Zeldte, Günther Görek, Schwerin von Krosig, Wilhelm Frick, Werner von Blomberg, Alfred Gugenberg.
America, immersed in the Great Depression, destabilized the economic situation, first in Germany and then throughout the capitalist world. There was no one to help Germany: all of Europe was in the same plight. Germany rapidly radicalized. For the Nazis to come to power in Germany, in fact, greenhouse conditions were created. Hitler reached the finish line and was ready for an unconditional victory in the presidential or parliamentary elections and the adoption of the dictatorial powers that he so desired.
“In September, 1931, Hitler asked Carter [a representative of the Morgan group - SL] what subsidies from American industrialists the Nazis could count on in the future. In order to give a detailed answer, Carter convened a new meeting, which in addition to the participants of the July 1929 meeting was also attended by the Director of the Bank of England Montague Norman and the representative of Asian Petroleum Co., who was in the US at that time. During the meeting, Aldrich, Carter and Klin advertised the Hitler party as the only "real force" in Germany, and Hitler as the "strong man" who could prevent chaos and revolution. The meeting authorized Warburg to meet again with Hitler and inform him of the increase in financial assistance to the Nazi party.
During the subsequent meeting, which took place in Hitler’s private residence in Berlin, the latter developed his plans to seize power in front of the American banker. Apparently, these plans met with the full approval of the American monopolies, because in the course of subsequent negotiations, which Warburg conducted with prominent representatives of the fascist party - Goring, Streicher, Heidt, Lyutgebrun and Gregor Strasser - the transfer of Hitler's party in the amount of $ 15 million was agreed. In the autumn of 1931, for the sake of conspiracy, the transfer of this amount was carried out in three steps - through the aforementioned Bank of Mendelssohn in Amsterdam, Bankfereynigung in Rotterdam and Bank of Italy in Rome. By the end of 1931, the amount of financial assistance provided to the Nazis by the Royal Dutch-Shell concern is five to six times. In total for 1923-1933 years, it amounted to the sum of 50-60 million dollars "(Rozanov GL Germany under the rule of fascism (1933-1939). - M.: IMO, 1961 - C. 26- 27 //
In October, Hitler's racial theorist Alfred Rosenberg visited London 1931. “Among others, Rosenberg met with Director of The Times, Jeffrey Dawson; the Daily Express publisher and Churchill's bosom friend Lord Beaverbrook; and with the "spiderman" Norman, who Rosenberg liked his anti-Semitic research; In addition, there was a meeting with some of the future influential supporters of Nazism, the directors of Schroeder’s banking house. It was a concern that had a great influence on the global banking network; Schroeder’s official representation on Wall Street was nothing but the Sullivan and Cromwell office, where the Dulles brothers, John Foster, a lawyer of the American delegation in Versailles and the future US Secretary of State and Allen Foster, who led the Cold War Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Bruno von Schröder, the patriarch of the company, was one of the founders of the Anglo-German Union Club in 1905, and his bank entered "that narrow circle of London financial houses that enjoyed a recognized (albeit unofficial) influence ... on the board of the English Bank ”(Preparata GD Hitler, Inc. How Britain and the United States created the Third Reich // http://litrus.net).
“In the months that followed, the Times had provided Hitler with invaluable help in creating a positive image in the eyes of the world community. However, the most important meeting of Rosenberg during his first visit to England in 1931 was the conversation with Montague Norman, the manager of the Bank of England and perhaps the most influential person in the global financial world of that time. According to his personal secretary, Norman hated three things: French, Catholics, and Jews. Norman and Rosenberg easily found a common language. Norman Rosenberg was introduced by Jalmar Schacht. ...
Rosenberg completed his fateful visit to London with a meeting with the first person of the London Bank Schroeder, connected with the New York “J. G. Schroeder Bank "and with the Cologne private bank" I. G. Stein Bank ", which belonged to Baron Kurt von Schroeder. At the meeting with Rosenberg, the Bank Schroeder was represented by F.S. Tiarks, a member of the Board of Governors of the Bank of England and a close friend of Montague Norman.
When, after 1931, Baron von Schroeder and Jalmar Schacht appealed to Germany’s leading industrial and financial tycoons for support of the NSDAP, the first question of anxious and skeptical industrialists was: “How will the international financial community, and especially Montague Norman, take the lead of the German government with Hitler? ”Was Norman ready in this case to help Germany with loans? It was at this moment when Hitler's Nazi Nazi Party received a little less than 1930 millions of votes in the 6 elections, international support for Montague Norman, Tiarks and their London friends was crucial ”(Engdahl U.F. War Centenary: Anglo-American Petroleum Policy and New World Order // http://www.warandpeace.ru/ru/news/view/9097/).
“October 10 1931, Hitler, as a representative of the new mass movement in Germany, met with President Hindenburg. The timeliness of this meeting is simply amazing: just two weeks have passed since Britain’s refusal of the gold standard, and the Nazis are already looking for meetings with the President of the German Republic to present what can rightfully be called a legitimate claim to power. From the point of view of the maritime powers, the prerequisites for such a meeting could not be more favorable: the new dynamic leader of the nationalists meets face to face with ersatz-kaiser Hindenburg - a war hero and a brilliant symbol of the imperial era.
"The deed is done" - so, they must have thought. But the deal was not done. Hindenburg was deeply disgusted with this “Bohemian corporal”; he took Hitler, talked to him and let go with icy coldness. Germany resisted. Hindenburg decided to support his Chancellor Brüning to the end. ” (The preparation. Ibid.) Winston Churchill writes in his memoirs that when the old marshal saw Hitler “he did not make any impression on him. “This person is appointed chancellor? I will make him a postmaster - let him lick the stamps with my image ”(Churchill, U. World War II. In 3, Prince. Kn. 1 // www.lib.ru).
In America, “by the beginning of 1931, the industrial production index was 60% of the 1928 level, 6 million people were out of work - almost a third of the labor force” (Ahamed L. Finance Lords: The Bankers Turning the World / Translated from English - M: Alpina Publishers, 2010. - S. З81). “In the context of the outbreak of the banking crisis and the collapse of German industry, the winter of 1931-32 of the year was, according to some, the“ most difficult winter of the century ”. The current situation has become a breeding ground for radical political trends ”(Engdal, ibid.).
4 January 1932 met A. Hitler and von Papen with the largest English financier M. Norman, at which a secret agreement was reached on financing the NSDAP, “by that time practically ruined and burdened with huge debts, up to the seizure of power by Hitler. This meeting was also attended by the American politicians Dulles brothers, which their biographers do not like to mention ”(Rubtsov, Y. World War II, Hitler took America from // http://svpressa.ru/war/article/13438/). After it, “on the instructions of Hitler, an economic council was created in the structure of the NSDAP, which included well-known and respected entrepreneurs Wilhelm Keppler and Kurt von Schroeder” (A. Nemchinov. Oligarchs in black uniforms. - M: Yauza, 2005. - C. 17).
After this meeting, Papen was supervised by Hitler from the Dulles brothers. It was still impossible to bring Hitler to power in Germany, so it was decided to bring Franz von Papen to power first, who could later push Hitler into power with his backroom intrigues. Perhaps this can only explain how, in the words of von Papen himself, “it could happen that a person of my position, who was more or less constantly in conflict with the other members of his party and never occupied any government positions, gained enough influence to get an appointment to Chancellor's office "(Papen F. von. Vice Chancellor of the Third Reich. Memoirs of a political figure in Hitler Germany. 1933-1947 / Translated from English. - M .: Tsentrpoligraf, 2005. - C. 116).
As for the support of Hitler by the British, in London they probably understood that it was necessary to negotiate not with the Nazis, but with their overseas masters. The problem was that Washington was ready to discuss exclusively the conditions for the unconditional surrender of the British Empire. Helping the Nazis, flirting with them, negotiating and concluding agreements, London unsuccessfully tried to seize control and introduce the Nazis into its sphere of influence. The weakening of the influence of America on the Nazis created the illusion of their independence, but in fact, England by its actions only achieved strengthening the position of America and weakening its own.
“22 January 1932 Mr. F. Roosevelt officially announced that he is running for president. ... He believed that the crisis in the United States is a natural result of the development of the American economy; it cannot be mitigated without making drastic changes to the methods of government in the United States. ... He insisted: “We can start experiments, and we should go for them before it is too late. Otherwise, we will surely have a revolution. ” (Yakovlev NN Unknown Roosevelt. We need a new course! // http://lib.rus.ec/b/442116/read). Thus, Roosevelt's rise to power led to an improvement in the economic and social situation, first in America, and then in Germany. From that moment on, Hitler was extremely limited in time. It was necessary to hurry - the election of the new US president was to be held in the fall of 1932, and his inauguration in the spring of 1933.
Meanwhile, the attempt of the Minister of Internal Affairs of the state of Braunschweig Dietrich Klagges, a member of the NSDAP, “to arrange Hitler for the position of teacher of the Higher Technical School in Braunschweig” failed 22 February 1932 of the year was announced about the participation of Hitler in the presidential election. And "only the subsequent decision on the appointment of Hitler as a government official in the Braunschweig representation in Berlin was crowned with success" (Festus I. Hitler. Biography. Way Up / Translated from German. - Moscow: Veche, 2006. - C. 520). 25 February 1932, two weeks before the elections and “on the eve of their coming to power [as the Nazis believed, in any case, SL), the Führer received his cherished citizenship. Neither before nor later. And just right ... ”(Starikov N.V. Who made Hitler attack Stalin? Hitler’s fatal mistake. Decree. Op. - C. 146).
Presidential elections were held 13 March 1932 of the year. Hindenburg was re-elected only in the second round. "10 on April 1932 was already 13,4 million votes for Hitler's candidacy, 19,36 million for Hindenburg. Four days later, in connection with the publication in the German press of documents testifying to the preparation by the National Socialists of an armed putsch to seize power, Hindenburg signed emergency decree banning SS and SA ”(SA Gorlov, Top Secret: Alliance Moscow - Berlin, 1920-1933. - M .: OLMA-PRESS, 2001 // http://militera.lib.ru/research/ gorlov1 / 05.html).
“1 June 1932 was appointed Franz von Papen as Reich Chancellor. Coming from a Teutonic knightly family, a large landowner, an officer of the Kaiser General Staff and a military diplomat [at the beginning of World War I was in the United States as a German military attache, from where he was expelled by the US government for "improper activities in the military and naval areas" - S. L.], he, surprisingly, did not enjoy the influence of authority. Massam von Papen was a stranger. Elite considered him a frivolous character. It is characteristic that with extremely conservative views, he was not part of the DNPA, but the Center — the conservatives respected tough people, while the centrists were more tolerant. But it was precisely such a politician who was most suitable for the role of the chairman of the liquidation commission of the Weimar Republic, into which, after Brüning, the Cabinet of Ministers of Germany finally turned. Hitler could only dream of such a counterpart ”(Freonov S. Final in the Underworld //http://solidarizm.ru/txt/fiura.shtml).
“Papen ... began by dissolving parliament. Germany had to survive the second election marathon this year. This time the Nazis showed everything they were capable of. ... As soon as the ban on the assault detachments was lifted in June, the Reds and Brownshirts immediately began to tear each other to shreds. Within a month, the police recorded more than a hundred street killings. The wounded were three times more. Goebbels wrote in his diary: "We are rolling towards civil war, but nobody cares about Wilhelmstrasse." ...
In June, at the international conference in Lausanne, now that the incubation was completed, the Allies, at the suggestion of Britain, did away with the reparation payment scheme, demanding the payment of a symbolic piece to 3 of a billion marks that Germany would not pay, in 1933, Hitler refused pay reparations ”(Preparata GD ibid.). “On the days of the completion of the Lausanne Conference in July 1932, Mr. Papin proposed to France the cooperation of the General Staffs of the two countries with the goal of forming an anti-Soviet front. [which was then planned to be deployed in the “German-French-Polish alliance to seize Ukraine” - S. Gorlov Ibid] ...
Thus, Paris did manage to achieve one of its goals — a shadow of distrust lay between Moscow and Berlin, and the German press interpreted the negotiations between the USSR and France and Poland and the subsequent conclusion of the corresponding non-aggression pacts as Rapallo “explosion”. Moscow explained its “compliance” of France with the implementation of the security policy, expressed in the conclusion of a number of bilateral non-aggression pacts with its neighbors Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Germany. ... The Soviet-Polish non-aggression pact ... was signed on July 25 1932, and on November 29 1932 was signed the Soviet-French non-aggression pact ”(S. Gorlov, Ibid.).
Meanwhile, in America “millions were facing not a problem, but a completely real threat of starvation, while factories and factories were inactive throughout the country, and farmers were suffocating from the overproduction crisis. Even the New York Times wrote: “Troubled economic phenomena not only outperform episodes of this kind, but also threaten the destruction of the capitalist system. ... 7 March 1932 of the year was shot from machine guns three thousand demonstration at the gates of Ford factories in Dibron. ...
In the Midwest in the summer of 1932 ... a farmers' strike movement spread. ... The movement was stopped by reassurances to conduct reforms after the presidential election. The farmers took the word, but firmly declared: if they were deceived, in the spring of 1933 a national strike would break out. ” July 28, 1932 in Washington tanks, a cavalry, bayonets and grenades with tear gas dispersed a collection of 25 thousand veterans of the First World War (Yakovlev NN In the same place). It is significant that the growth of the American population during the years of the Great Depression has decreased significantly compared to previous and subsequent periods. The decline in US population growth is clearly visible both on the graph of the US population and on the US demographic pyramid of the second half of the 1th century (schemes 2-XNUMX).
1 schema. US population growth in the 20th century
2 schema. US Demographic Pyramid 1950-1960's. Source: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/533673/Population-Pyramids-US---1950--2020-by-5-years
3 schema. The age structure of the population of the USSR and the USA. Source: Podgyachy PG The population of the USSR. - M .: Gospolitizdat, 1961. - 192 with. - S. 30.
Comparing the age structure of the population of the USSR and the USA on the 3 scheme, we will see that “the population of the USSR has two pronounced“ failures ”in the pyramid of ages (population decrease): for 10-19 ages of years and for 35-44 ages. Persons aged 35-44 years belong to those born in 1914 — 23, that is, during the First World War, intervention and civil war, 10-19 years - to 1939-48. birth, i.e. to the years of the Great Patriotic War and the adjacent pre-war 1939-40. and the first post-war 1946-48 years.
In the USA there is only one “failure” for ages from 15 to 34 years, in which the “bottom” falls on the age of 20-29 years. Persons 15-34 were born in 1925-44 years, including faces 20-29 years - in 1930-39 years. The general crisis of the capitalist system and its economic crises (especially significant in 1919-21, 1929-33 and 1937-38) affected the decrease in the number of births in the USA during these years. Crises 1929-33 and 1937-38 affected the age structure of the US population as significantly as the age structure of the Soviet Union - the first and second world wars.
At the same time, the world wars did not reflect negatively on the age structure of the US population, but on the contrary - they somewhat improved it. There were no hostilities in the United States and the country did not experience the devastating consequences associated with them. On the contrary, the monopolies of the United States received fabulous profits during the war, profited from trade with the warring countries and strengthened their economic positions. The expansion of military production caused a temporary increase in employment. This not only did not reduce the birth rate in the United States during the world wars, but even contributed to its growth ”(Podyachich PG Population of the USSR. - M .: Gospolitizdat, 1961. - 192 p. - S. 31).
1 July Democratic Party announced Roosevelt presidential candidate. Considering the dissatisfaction of ordinary Americans with Hoover’s policies, Franklin Roosevelt had great chances of becoming the president of the United States and curtailing his predecessor’s economic policies. On 8 July, 1932, the peak of the fall of the American stock market. During its fall from a historical maximum in 381, point 3 of September 1929, to a historical minimum in 41, point Dow Johnson lost 93%. Since July 1932, the situation has slowly but steadily begun to improve. Hitler remained the last attempt legitimately, with a convincing victory in the elections to come to power. According to Goebbels, “now something has to happen. We must come to power in the foreseeable future. Otherwise, we will win elections before our own death ”(Fest I. Decree. Op. - C. 547).
4 schema. The dynamics of the Dow Jones index in the Great Depression.
“NSDAP 31 July 1932 of the year received a record number of votes - 37,3 percent, that is, 13,7 million votes. This is the maximum of what the Nazi party was able to gather by legal means - it was a very large proportion, but not an absolute majority. Breakthrough did not take place. ... 10 August, Hitler met with Hindenburg and demanded the post of chancellor. Hitler bluntly declared to the president that he was not going to enter the office to play the second violin under von Papen, and was not going to put together a supporting majority in parliament. He, too, wished to rule by decrees: all or nothing. “Nothing,” Hindenburg replied sharply: he absolutely did not trust Hitler. He was seething with rage ”(Preparata GD ibid.).
The announcement of a new election, quite cynical, was not slow in coming. "At the first working meeting of the Reichstag, convened by Papen 12 of September," he "with the help of Hermann Goering, who was elected chairman of the Reichstag," was expressed a vote of no-confidence. In response, Papen “presented the Reichstag with a famous red folder containing a decree on its dissolution, signed before the meeting. ... After almost an hour of meeting, the newly elected parliament was dissolved. The new election was to be held on November 6. ... Goebbels wrote in his diary: "Everything is still in shock; no one believed that we dared make such a decision. We are only the ones happy ”(Fest I. Decree. Works. - C. 568).
In October, 1932, which made a bid to build a "strong [in fascist - SL] state", which was once a member of the Macdonald government, a former Labor Party member, O. Mosley founded the British Fascist Union, which included many members of the 1931 created in sample NSDAN New Party and the remnants of the early fascist organizations. “At the same time, Mosley relied on the support of some prominent industrial and financial magnates, in particular, Lord Neffield and Rothermir. He himself was also a very wealthy man. The British Union of Fascists could contain a whole state of leaders. " However, “despite all the efforts and assistance of the internal and external reaction, BSF could not become a mass organization” (History fascism in Western Europe. - M .: Science, 1978. - S. 347, 358).
5 November, the day before the elections to the Reichstag Goebbels writes: “The last assault. Desperate resistance of the party against defeat ... ... Everything that could be done, we did. Now let fate decide ”(Festus I. Decree. Works. - C. 572). November 6 1932 of the Year “The Nazis suffered damage, and their 230 mandates were reduced to 196 - the difference went to the Communists. Thus, Hitler’s positions were weakened ”(Churchill, W. Ibid.). In turn, in the 8 elections in November 1932, Mr. F. Roosevelt won an unconditional victory over G. Hoover, who received 22,8 million and 15,7 million votes and won 472 and 59 with electoral votes, respectively.
The absence of a breakthrough from Hitler demanded the continuation of a policy of worsening economic conditions. It is not surprising that “during the period of“ interdistribution ”, when Roosevelt had already been elected, but had not yet taken office, the country was covered by another wave of bank failures” (Ahamed L. Decree. Op. - C. 302). “Partner of the bank I. X. Stein in Cologne, the German branch of the Schröder firm, Kurt von Schröder, together with Schacht and other prominent representatives of the German business community, in November 1932 of the year signed a petition urging Hindenburg to appoint Adolf Hitler as chancellor” ( Drug GD ibid.).
17 November Papen resigned, and already “November 19 Hitler, still the leader of the country's leading political force, again knocked on the door of Hindenburg, demanding a presidential mandate from him. And again received a refusal. “The office led by you,” said Hindenburg to the Führer, with soldier directness, “will become a dictatorial party, resulting in a deepening of the conflict tearing apart the German people ... I cannot answer for such consequences neither before my oath nor my conscience”. This failure sounded like a final verdict. Hitler was scared and broken: at that moment he admitted to Goebbels that he would take three minutes to knock his brains out with a shot, and this would be the end of everything ”(Preparata GD ibid.).
November 29 The Soviet-French non-aggression pact was concluded between the Soviet Union and France on November 1932. “The USSR and France pledged ... not to interfere in each other’s internal affairs, to refrain from encouraging any hostile agitation and propaganda towards each other, not to create and in no way support and prevent any military organizations in the French and Soviet territories that would prepare armed struggle against each other. ... Articles of the Covenant ... also ... obliged both parties not to participate in any international agreement that would have the practical effect of prohibiting the purchase of one party from others. This was more than timely, because certain circles in a number of countries did not leave the thought about the economic blockade of the USSR. ... The Soviet-French pact testified that attempts to isolate the USSR failed internationally ”(Protopopov A. S., Kozmenko V. M., Elmanova N. S. A History of International Relations and Russian Foreign Policy (1648-2000). Textbook for universities / Under the editorship of A. S. Protopopov- M .: Aspect Press, 2001 .- S. 126).
On December 2, Hindenburg appointed Kurt von Schleicher the last Reich Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. Schleicher undertook to split the Nazi movement. “In fact, the moment for Schleicher’s plans was unusually favorable: the crisis experienced by Hitler reached its climax, it was heavier than any other of its previous failures. In the circles of his supporters impatience and deceived hopes were widely expressed, besides the moments it seemed that the party was about to collapse under the weight of debt. ... In the elections to the lanth of Thuringia, which until then was one of Hitler's strongholds, the NSDAP suffered a major defeat. Goebbels writes in a diary on December 6: “The situation in the country is catastrophic. Compared to July 31, in Thuringia we lost almost 40% of the vote. ” Subsequently, he publicly admitted that at that time he was sometimes overwhelmed by doubts whether the movement would die completely ”(Fest I. Decree. Op. Cit. - P. 579-580).
“December 15 General [Schleicher - S.L.] spoke on the radio and announced the program of a large-scale attempt to create jobs. He clearly turned his attention to the left flank, hoping to create a universal alliance that included many forces - from Catholics and socialists to the army and the left Strasser wing of the Nazi party. It was an excellent maneuver, the last offensive undertaken by Germany in the person of one of its generals in an attempt to keep himself from falling into the abyss. Truly, this maneuver was the fruit of immense despair. December 19 Schleicher received Maxim Litvinov, the Russian foreign minister, who was very cordial at the meeting. But Litvinov was deceiving a man whom the German reactionary press had already defamed as a “red general” that awe-inspiring and disgusted: in the first half of October, Litvinov told Ivan Maisky, the newly appointed new Soviet ambassador in London, that the Nazis would soon come to power.
But in spite of everything, Schleicher nevertheless put his plan into action: he offered Strasser the post of vice-chancellor, wanting to tear off the left wing from the Nazis and bring him to his camp. And Strasser didn’t say no ... He would dissolve parliament and hold new elections within the sixty-day time period stipulated by the constitution - Schleicher was sure that he could convince the old president of Hindenburg to go for it. Thus it would be possible to put in place the Nazis, whose electoral success was melting before our eyes. If this impulse would meet resistance, then he was ready to use the army in civil conflict with the Nazis! If, for some whim of fate, this maneuver was a success, then Germany would probably have been saved ”(Preparata GD ibid.).
“December 23 Goebbels writes:“ I am covered with terrible loneliness, similar to stupid hopelessness! ”In the new year,“ Frankfurt Zeitung ”was already happy to“ debunking the NSDAP legend ”, and Harold Laski, one of the leading intellectuals of the English left forces, assured:“ Day when the national socialists were a mortal danger, passed ... If we ignore accidents, it is not so incredible that Hitler would end his career as an old man in a Bavarian village telling his friends in the evenings in the pub as he alone dy almost staged a coup in the German Reich. " As if continuing this thought, Goebbels displeasedly wrote: “The 0 year was a continuous set of failures. He should be smashed to bits ... no prospects, no hopes left. ...
True, the economic crisis, to which the party was so much obliged, was still far from overcoming, the total number of unemployed, including hidden unemployment, in October 1932 was, according to official data, 8750 thousand people, and the country was going to meet a hungry and cold winter with all its unpredictable demoralizing and radicalizing effects. But according to experts, there were some encouraging signs of a breakthrough for the first time, and in foreign policy the protracted process of reaching a compromise moved off dead center (Fest I. Decree. Op. - C. 581, 585-586).
At the end of 1932, the first relaxation of the Versailles Treaty restrictions took place. “Schleicher obtained from the four powers (England, France, USA, Italy) the signing of December 11 by 1932 a declaration recognizing the principle of equality of Germany in the matter of armaments” (SA Gorlov. Op. Cit.). Plan A 1930 of the year for the creation of 10 divisions of the Reichswehr with a total number of 100 thousand land army as part of the 21 division with a total number of about 300 thousand people for the year 1937 was revised and accepted for execution. “In East Prussia, the construction of a permanent, but without reinforced concrete long-term structures, a defensive position - the so-called Heilsberg Triangle, was started. This construction was supposed to demonstrate, in the face of Poland, whose behavior was considered threatening, the will of Germany, if necessary, to fight for this province with weapons in the hands, although there would hardly be enough forces for that ”(Muller-Hillebrand B. Land Army of Germany 1933-1945 - M .: Izografus, 2002. - S. 19, 23-25, 31).
“None other than Franz von Papen confused all Schleicher’s calculations and unexpectedly helped the NSDAP to find a new chance” (Fest I. Decree. Op. - C. 587). “To reflect ... a blow, Papen ... invited Hitler to a secret meeting at the villa of Baron von Schroeder” (Preparat GD Ibid.). “14 January 1933 met Hitler with Schroeder, Papen and Kepler, where Hitler’s program was fully approved. It was here that the question of the transfer of power to the Nazis was finally resolved ”(Rubtsov. Ibid.). “Hitler, sobering up with a cold shower with which he was doused with elections, agreed to join the coalition government, which he still stubbornly refused, and serve as head of the quartet - rather, according to von Papen and his friends, as a false head - who wanted to overthrow the republic.
From now on, Baron von Schroeder and his syndicate of investors began to pay all party debts: with a stroke of a pen, absenteeists handed the Nazis a new bunch of keys to the banking grid - they gave Hitler an unlimited "credit." January 17 Goebbels wrote in his diary: "The financial situation has suddenly improved." At the same time, asked by a single American journalist about a possible deadline for the Schleicher regime, who was in his country house, Schacht confidently answered: "Three weeks." ... Indeed, the quartet, led by Papov's junta and supported by massive intervention by foreign capital, took exactly three weeks to bribe, brush and convince the rest of the German establishment, especially its last bastion, field-marshal Hindenburg, and finally remove Shleikher (Preparata GD Ibid.).
On January 22, in a Ribbentrop villa in an atmosphere of strict secrecy, Hitler met with the son of President Hindenburg, Oscar, an adjutant and father’s confidant. “Among those present were Papen, Goering, Frick and presidential aide Meisner. Oscar Hindenburg and Hitler retreated for an hour. According to the first, Hitler spoke mainly and only that he was destined to save Germany from the Reds. Hindenburg and Meisner were the first to leave. Oscar all the way, while they reached the city by taxi, was silent and only said goodbye to Meisner: “There’s nothing you can do, you’ll have to include the Nazis in the government.”
According to Meisner, Hitler was then able to make a favorable impression on the son of Field Marshal, although another version is possible. Hitler could, for example, threaten Oscar with a public scandal involving the so-called Junkers Foundation, which was created six years ago to help the ruined land nobility. Funds from this fund were widely used by the field marshal himself, taking 620 thousands of marks from it. Not wanting to pay inheritance tax, Hindenburg donated his estate to his son, without even paying a fee for processing the transaction. This gave every reason to bring the president to court. And even if he had been acquitted, he would have failed to restore his reputation.
The next day, the president took an explanation with the indignant Schleicher, who learned about the conspiracy behind him. Threatening a military coup, the Chancellor-General demanded that the Reichstag be dissolved and the elections postponed. Hindenburg, whom he was rather tired of, refused to comply with Schleicher’s demands, and he resigned. Later Papen, Oscar and Meisner came to the field marshal, again offering the candidacy of Hitler. "Well, you have to fulfill an unpleasant duty and appoint this Hitler as chancellor," the old man grumbled discontentedly.
(Toland D. Adolf Hitler // http://rushist.com/index.php/toland-adolf-gitler/682-toland-10).
“For about four years, the economy of the capitalist countries was in a state of complete disorganization. With particular force, the crisis hit the main country of the capitalist world - the United States of America. The gigantic destructive power of the crisis manifested itself in a sharp drop in industrial production. The total output of American industry compared with the pre-crisis level of 1929 in 1930 amounted to 80,7% in 1931 - 68,1, and in 1932 - 53,8%. The period from the summer of 1932 to the spring of 1933 was the time of the greatest deepening of the crisis. And only in the spring of 1933 the level of US industrial production began to rise slowly, marking the transition of the economy into a phase of depression ”(Economic history of foreign countries: Textbook: 3rd ed., Ext. And revised. - Minsk: Interpresservis; Ecoperspective, 2002 .-- S. 285).
The Great Depression fulfilled its task only in part - “January 30 1933, Hitler was sworn in by the Reich Chancellor. Papen became vice chancellor in an office in which there were only two Nazis - Frick and Goring. The rest were blue blood aristocrats ”(Preparata GD ibid.).
As practice has shown, the collapse of the American economy had its limits, beyond which the radicalization of America itself was becoming unsafe for the ruling class. It is for this reason that Hitler's rise to power in Germany is almost synchronized with the arrival of Roosevelt in the United States, who promised to end the economic chaos in America. Having lost all elections in 1932, and not wanting to bring the matter to a complete collapse, Hitler was forced to agree to become part of the coalition government.
Thus, even in the conditions of the most severe economic crisis, Hitler could not come to power by legal means, through elections, and stand at the head of a one-party Nazi cabinet. All that the curators, the transatlantic Dallas and the home-grown Papen, were able to achieve, was to push through his protege through a power struggle, forcing Hitler to subdue his ambitions and lead the coalition cabinet.