The head of the presidential administration of the Russian Federation, Sergei Ivanov, said that to infinity an agreement to ban medium-range and shorter ground-based missiles cannot exist. In an interview with the Russia 24 TV channel as part of the St. Petersburg Economic Forum, Ivanov noted that recently this type of weapon began to develop in countries neighboring Russia. According to the head of the presidential administration, Americans this class weapons Neither was needed now nor now, because theoretically with his help they could only fight with Mexico or Canada.
So what are the medium range ballistic missiles (MRSD)? Why is Russia now unable to have them and what advantages will it be given to the adoption of the BRSD?
MISSING THE ROCKET ERA
Older people have the edge of teeth stamped: "The American military intensifies the arms race." However, now that previously closed information on the development of strategic weapons has become publicly available, it turned out that all this was true, but incompetent propagandists who were stupidly absurd. It was the Americans who created the first nuclear bomb, its first carriers - the “flying fortresses” B-29, B-50, B-36, the world's first jet strategic bombers B-47 and B-52. The United States also holds a palm in the creation of the BRSD. Another question is that here the difference in terms was not in four years, as with the atomic bomb, but was calculated in months.
The “grandmother” of the BRSD of the USA and the USSR was the famous German ballistic missile V-2, designed by the SS navigator, Baron Werner von Braun. Well, in 1950, Werner von Braun, in collaboration with Chrysler, began work on the Redstone rocket - the development of the V-2. Flight range - 400 km, starting weight - 28 tons. The missile was equipped with a W-3942 thermonuclear warhead with a power of 3,8 Mt. In 1958, the 217 Division of Redstone missiles was redeployed to West Germany, where it took up combat duty the same year.
The Soviet response to Redstone was the P-5 rocket. Draft P-5 was completed in October 1951. The weight of the warhead with a conventional explosive according to the project is 1425 kg, the firing range is 1200 km with a probable deviation from the target in range ± 1,5 km and lateral ± 1,25 km. Alas, the P-5 rocket did not initially have a nuclear charge. She had a high-explosive warhead or a warhead with radioactive substances "Generator-5". I note that this is the name of the warhead, but in a number of documents the whole product was so named. From September 5 to December 26 1957, three P-5 launches were made with the “5 Generator” warhead.
In accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR from 10 on April 1954, the development of the R-1М rocket with a nuclear charge began on the basis of the Р-5 rocket in OKB-5. The firing range remained unchanged - 1200 km. The head part with a nuclear warhead in flight was separated from the body. The probable deviation from the target in range was ± 1,5 km, and the lateral ± 1,25 km.
2 February 1956 was operated on "Baikal". The P-5M rocket carried the nuclear charge for the first time. Having flown about 1200 km, the head part reached the surface in the area of the Aral Karakum without destruction. The shock fuse triggered, causing a nuclear explosion with a power of about 80 CT. By the USSR Council of Ministers Decree of 21 on June 1956, the R-5M rocket was adopted by the Soviet Army under the symbol 8К51.
Redstone and P-5M can be considered the “mothers” of medium-range ballistic missiles. Von Braun, at Chrysler, in 1955, began to develop the Jupiter MRSD, commissioned by the US Army. Initially, the new rocket was conceived as a deep modernization of the Redstone rocket and was even called Redstone II. But after a few months of work, she was given the new name “Jupiter” and the index SM-78.
The launch weight of the rocket was 50 tons, the range 2700 – 3100 km. "Jupiter" were completed with combat units MK-3 with nuclear warhead W-49. The weight of the nuclear charge 744 - 762 kg, length - 1440 mm, diameter - 500 mm, power - 1,4 MT.
Even before the decision on adopting the Jupiter missile (it was adopted in the summer of 1958), on January 15, the formation of the 1958 squadron of strategic missiles began, and a little later another 864 squadron began. After thorough training, which included conducting a combat launch from standard equipment on the test site, the squadron was transferred to Italy (“Joey” base, 865 missiles) and Turkey (“Tigley” base, 30 missiles). The Jupiter missiles were aimed at the most important objects in the territory of the European part of the USSR.
The US Air Force, regardless of the 27 army of December, 1955 of the year signed a contract with Douglas Erkraft to design its own Thor. Its weight is 50 tons, the range 2800 – 3180 km, KVO - 3200 m. The Thor missile was completed with the MK3 warhead with the W-49 nuclear charge. The weight of the nuclear charge 744 – 762 kg, length - 1440 mm, diameter - 500 mm, power - 1,4 Mt. The production of combat units W-49 was launched in September 1958.
Four squadrons of Thor missile systems with 15 missile ammunition in each were based in the southern part of England (York, Lincoln, Norwich, Northampton). A total of 60 missiles were placed there. Part of this type of missile systems in 1961 was transferred to the operational leadership of Great Britain, where they were placed at missile bases in Yorkshire and Suffolk. They were considered NATO’s nuclear weapons. In addition, two squadrons of Thor missile systems were deployed in Italy and one in Turkey. Thus, in Europe, by the middle of 1962, there were 105 Thor missiles deployed.
OUR RESPONSE TO GOD THE SKY
The response to the "Jupiter" and "Thor" were Soviet missiles P-12 and P-14. 13 August 1955 of the year was adopted by the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On the creation and manufacture of missiles P-12 (8K63) with the beginning of flight design tests - April 1957 of the year."
The R-12 rocket had a detachable monoblock warhead with a charge of 1 Mt. In the early 60s, the R-12 rocket developed a cluster-type chemical warhead "Fog". In July 1962, during operations "K-1" and "K-2," R-12 missiles with nuclear warheads were launched. The purpose of the tests is to study the effect of high-altitude nuclear explosions on radio communications, radars, aviation and rocket technology.
2 July 1958 of the year issued a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers on the development of a ballistic missile P-14 (8K65) with a range of 3600 km. The lead developer was appointed by OKB-586. The start date of the flight test is April 1960. 6 June 1960 of the year at the Kapustin Yar launch site made the first launch of the P-14 rocket. Its flight tests ended in December 1960 of the year. By a decree of the Council of Ministers on April 24, the 1961 of the combat missile system with the R-14 missile was adopted by the Strategic Missile Forces. Serial production of P-14 missiles was carried out at plant number 586 in Dnepropetrovsk and plant number 166 in Omsk. In September, the 1962 of the year launched the P-14 missiles with a nuclear warhead.
The design and operation of the first-generation MRBR of the United States and the USSR had much in common. All of them were single-stage and had liquid jet engines. All started from open stationary launchers. The principal difference was that the Soviet MRBR were based solely on their territory and could not create a threat to the United States. And the American MRBDs were stationed at bases in Europe and Turkey, from where they could strike across the entire European part of Russia.
Such an imbalance was broken by the decision of Nikita Khrushchev to conduct Operation Anadyr, during which the 1962 rocket division under the command of Major General Igor Statsenko was secretly delivered to Cuba in 51. The division had a special staff, it consisted of five regiments. Of these, three regiments had eight launchers of missiles R-12 and two regiments each with eight launchers of missiles Р-14. A total of P-36 and 12 P-24 missiles were to be delivered to Cuba.
About a third of US territory from Philadelphia via St. Louis and Oklahoma City to the Mexican border was within range of the P-12 missiles. P-14 missiles could hit the entire territory of the United States and part of the Canadian territory.
For 48 days from the moment of arrival (that is, 27 of October 1962 of the year), the 51 Division was ready to launch missiles from 24 starts. The preparation time for launching missiles ranged from 16 to 10 hours, depending on the time of delivery of the missile heads, which were stored separately.
A number of liberal historians claim that Operation Anadyr was Khrushchev's adventure. I am not going to argue with them, but only note that for all Russian emperors from Catherine II to Nicholas II, the arrival in Turkey of the troops of any European power would be a casus belli, that is, a pretext for war.
During the negotiations, the United States and the USSR reached an agreement whereby the Soviet Union removed all missiles from Cuba, and the United States gave a guarantee of non-aggression to Cuba and removed the Jupiter medium-range missiles from Turkey and Italy (total 45 pieces) and Thor missiles from England (60 units). Thus, after the Cuban crisis, the MRBD of the USA and the USSR found themselves in their own territories. “Torahs” and “Jupiters” were stored in the United States until 1974 – 1975, while Р-12 and Р-14 remained on combat duty.
"PIONEERS" COUNTRY COUNCILS
In 1963 – 1964, the P-12U modified missiles began to be installed in protected Dvina-type mines, and P-14UM - in the Chusovaya mines. The survivability of the P-12U Dvina and P-14U Chusovaya mine launchers was low. The radius of their destruction in the 1 megaton bomb blast was 1,5 – 2 km. Combat positions of mine launchers were group: four for P-12 and three for P-14, located at a distance less than 100 m from each other. Thus, one explosion in the 1 megaton could destroy three or four mines at once. Nevertheless, the security of rockets in mine installations was significantly higher than in open installations.
According to the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR from 4 in March 1966, the development of the new generation of rocket 15I45 "Pioneer" began at the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering (MIT). The launch weight of the rocket is 37 t, the range is 5000 km.
Self-propelled launcher for the complex "Pioneer" was developed in the design bureau of the plant "Barricades". The six-axle vehicle MAZ-547В was taken as a chassis. The rocket was constantly in the transport and launch container made of fiberglass. The rocket launch could be carried out either from a special shelter in the main position, or from one of the field positions prepared in advance in geodesic terms. For the launch, the self-propelled launcher was posted on jacks and leveled.
The flight tests of the 21 September 1974 of the year began at the Kapustin Yar launch site and continued until January 9 of the 1976 year. 11 September 1976, the State Commission signed an act on the adoption of the complex 15Ж45 into service with the Strategic Missile Forces. Later, the complex received the pseudonym RSD-10. It is curious that the Council of Ministers Resolution No. 177-67 on the adoption of the complex was adopted six months earlier - March 11 1976.
Serial production of 15IX45 missiles "Pioneer" was conducted from 1976 year at the Votkinsk plant, and self-propelled launchers - at the plant "Barricades". The first regiments of the Pioneer missiles deployed in Belarus took up combat duty in August 1976. From these positions, in the range of the Pioneer missiles, it turned out not only the whole of Europe, but also Greenland, North Africa to Nigeria and Somalia, the entire Middle East and even northern India and the western regions of China.
Later, the Pioneer missiles were also placed beyond the Ural Range, including near Barnaul, Irkutsk and Kansk. From there, the entire territory of Asia, including Japan and Indochina, was within range of the missiles. The 15IX45 missiles were organized into regiments that were armed with six or nine self-propelled missile launchers.
Chinese ballistic missiles in the parade
19 July 1977, the MITA began work on the modernization of the rocket 15Ж45 "Pioneer". The upgraded complex received an index 15Х53 "Pioneer UTTH" (with improved tactical and technical characteristics). Rocket 15Ж53 had the same first and second stages as 15Ж45. The changes affected the control system and the aggregate-instrument unit. The KVO was brought to 450 m. The installation of new, more powerful engines on the aggregate-instrument block allowed us to increase the area of dilution of warheads, which made it possible to increase the number of targets hit. The firing range has been increased from 5000 to 5500 km. From 10 in August 1979 of the year to 14 in August of 1980, flight tests of the 15Ж53 rocket in the amount of 10 launches were conducted at the Kapustin Yar test site. Decree of the Council of Ministers on April 23 1981, the complex "Pioneer UTTH" was adopted.
In 1980-ies, a new upgraded rocket was developed, called the “Pioneer 3”. The missile was equipped with a new warhead, which had a significantly smaller QUO. A new self-propelled launcher for the "Pioneer-3" created in the design bureau of the plant "Barricades" based on the six-axle chassis "7916". The first launch of the rocket took place in 1986 year. The Pioneer-3 missile system successfully passed state tests, but was not put into service because of the signing of an agreement on the elimination of medium-range missiles.
The number of Pioneer missiles of all modifications increased at a rapid pace. In 1981, there were 180 self-propelled launchers of the complexes. In 1983, their number exceeded 300, and in 1986, 405 units.
PISTOL, PRESENTED TO THE TEMPLE
The American response to the Pioneer MRSD was the Pershing-2 MRBD. Its starting weight was 6,78 t, firing range - 2500 km. At both levels of the Pershing-2 rocket, solid propellant engines from Hercules were installed. Troop tests of the Pershing-2 missiles were conducted by the US Army from July 1982 to October 1984. During tests from Cape Canaveral, 22 rockets were launched.
The missile was intended mainly for the defeat of command posts, communications centers and other similar targets, that is, primarily for disrupting the work of the command and control systems. A small missile QUO was provided by the use of a combined flight control system. At the beginning of the trajectory, an autonomous inertial system was used, then, after separation of the warhead, a warhead flight correction system using radar maps of the terrain. This system was turned on in the final part of the trajectory, when the warhead was transferred almost to horizontal flight.
The radar mounted on the warhead received an image of the terrain over which the warhead was moving. This image was transformed into a digital matrix and compared with the data (map) laid before the start into the memory of the control system located on the warhead. As a result of the comparison, the movement error of the warhead was determined, from which the on-board computer calculated the necessary data for the flight control authorities.
The Pershing-2 rocket assumed the use of two types of warheads - the usual power up to 50 kg and penetrating into the ground. The second variant was distinguished by a large elongation and high strength and was made of high-strength steel. With the speed of approach of the head part to the target 600 m / s, the head part went deeper into the ground by about 25 m.
In the 1983 year, the Pershing-2 rocket began the production of W-85 nuclear warheads. The weight of the nuclear warhead was 399 kg, length 1050 mm, diameter 3130 mm. Explosion power variable - from 5 to 80 CT. The transport launching system M1001 of the rockets "Pershing-2" was created on a six-wheeled wheeled chassis. It consisted of a tractor and a frame semi-trailer, which, in addition to the rocket, housed power supply units, a hydraulic drive to give the rocket a vertical position before launch, and other equipment.
On December 8, 1987, Presidents Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan signed an INF Treaty in Washington. At the same time, Gorbachev said: “The decisive prerequisite for the success of these transformations is democratization and publicity. They are also a guarantee that we will go far and that the course taken is irreversible. Such is the will of our people ... Humanity is beginning to realize that it has been conquered. That wars must be ended forever ... And, noting really historical the event is the signing of an agreement, and even being within these walls, one cannot but give credit to many who have put their minds, energy, patience, perseverance, knowledge, devotion to duty to their people and the international community into it. And first of all, I would like to name Comrade Shevardnadze and Mr. Schulz ”(“ Bulletin of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR ”No. 10 of December 25, 1987).
According to the treaty, the US government should not strive to "achieve military superiority" over Russia. How fulfilled is this promise? The main question is whether this treaty is beneficial for Russia? The numbers speak for themselves: the USSR eliminated 608 launchers of medium-range missiles and 237 launchers of short-range missiles, and the Americans, respectively 282 and 1 (no, this is not a typo, really one).
RUSSIA IN THE RING
What has changed in the quarter of a century that has passed since the day of signing the agreement on the liquidation of the BRSD? Almost immediately after signing the treaty, Israel adopted the Jericho-2B ballistic missile with a firing range of about 1500 km. By 2000, Israel was armed with more than 100 of such missiles placed in closed mines. And in the 2008 year, the BRSD “Jericho-3” entered service with a range of 4000 km. The missile is equipped with two or three separable warheads with nuclear charge. Thus, the entire European part of Russia with the exception of the Kola Peninsula was in the radius of action of the Israeli missiles.
In addition to Israel, Iran, India, Pakistan, North Korea and China have acquired the perimeter of the Russian borders of the BRSD. Their missiles can hit large areas of the Russian Federation. Moreover, of these countries, only Iran does not yet possess nuclear weapons. It is curious, but, according to official statements of the White House and the Pentagon, it was Iranian missiles that forced the USA to create a huge missile defense system both on its territory and in Central Europe and in the World Ocean.
To date, the PRC has hundreds of MRBMs of the type “Dun Fyn-4” (4750 km), “Dun Fyn-3” (2650 km), “Dun Fyn-25” (1700 km) and others. Part of the Chinese MRBM is installed on wheeled mobile launchers, and some - on railway launchers.
But the six states on the perimeter of the borders of Russia, possessing MRBD, are only one side of the coin. Even more important is the second side, that is, the threat from the sea. Over the past 25 years, the balance of forces at sea between the USSR and the USA has changed dramatically. By the year 1987, it was still possible to talk about the parity of naval armaments. In the United States, the Tomahawk system, deployed on surface ships and submarines, was just unfolding. And now the US Navy has 4 thousand Tomahawk type cruise missiles on surface ships and another thousand on nuclear submarines. In addition, the United States Air Force is capable of using approximately 1200 cruise missiles for one sortie. Total in one salvo - at least 5200 cruise missiles. The range of their 2200 – 2400 km. The weight of the warhead 340 – 450 kg, quadratic probable deviation (CEP) 5 – 10 m. That is, the Tomahawk can even get into a certain Kremlin office or apartment on Rublevka.
By 1987, the Soviet 5-th operational squadron, armed with dozens of cruise missiles with nuclear warheads, kept under fire the entire south of the Mediterranean coast of Europe: Rome, Athens, Marseille, Milan, Turin, and so on. Our coastal mobile Redut missile systems (range over 300 km) had launch positions in southern Bulgaria, from where they could hit the Strait zone and a large part of the Aegean Sea with special charges. Well, now the exit of Russian ships in the Mediterranean Sea has become a rarity.
It's hard not to agree with Ivanov - the question of denouncing the INF Treaty has matured. How to technically conduct the denunciation, we were shown the United States, 12 June 2002, leaving the ABM Treaty.
What could be the capabilities of the 21st century infantry fighting system? Recall a recent story. According to the Decree of the USSR Council of Ministers of 21 on July 1983 of the year No. 696-213, the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering began to develop the small-sized ICBM Courier 15ZHNUMX. The launch weight of ICBMs is 59 tons, length - 15 m, diameter - 11,2 m. Firing range - over 1,36 thousand km. Two mobile launchers were developed on the four-axle chassis MAZ-10 and five-axis MAZ-7909. The Courier could be accommodated in any railway carriages, on river barges, in the bodies of Sovtransavto trailers and were supposed to be air transportable. Thus, the Courier rocket, manufactured at the Votkinsk plant, after installation on a launcher simply disappeared for spacecraft and spy planes. From March 7929 to May 1989 from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, four test launches of the Couriers were carried out. Alas, in accordance with an agreement between the leadership of the USSR and the USA from October 1990 of October 6, the USSR stopped developing the Courier, and the Americans stopped the Midgetman (Karlik) ICBM weighing 1991 tons and 18 m in length.
Well, the new MRSD will have much smaller weight and size characteristics than the "Courier". They will be able to be transported and launched from conventional truck trucks that drive our roads, from ordinary railway cars, from river self-propelled barges. To overcome the missile defense, the new MRBD can fly along the most exotic variable trajectories. The combination of hypersonic cruise missiles with ballistic missiles is not excluded. In addition to the action on ground targets, the MRBM will also be able to hit naval targets - aircraft carriers, cruisers of the “Ticonderoga” type - carriers of cruise missiles and even submarines.
Actually, this idea is nothing new. Another 24 of April 1962 of the year was adopted by the Council of Ministers decision, which provided for the creation of a ballistic missile with a homing warhead capable of hitting moving ships. A P-27K ballistic missile (27K-4) was created on the basis of the P-18 missiles, intended for firing at surface naval targets. Rocket R-27K was equipped with a small second stage. The launch weight of the rocket was 13,25 t, length - about 9 m, diameter - 1,5 m. Maximum firing range - 900 km. The head of the monoblock. Control in the passive trajectory area was conducted according to the information of the passive radar sighting device processed in the on-board digital computer system. The targeting of a combat unit to mobile targets was carried out by their radar radiation by double switching on the second-stage propulsion system in the extra-atmospheric part of the flight. However, for a number of reasons, the anti-ship missile P-27K was not put into service, but only into trial operation (1973 – 1980 years) and on just one K-102 submarine reworked according to the 605 project.
By the year 1987 in the USSR, work was successfully carried out to create an anti-ship ballistic missile based on Pioneer UTTH.
What is not done in the USSR, made in China. Now it has been adopted by the mobile BRSD "Dun Fyn-21", which at a distance of up to 2700 km can hit enemy surface ships. The rocket is equipped with a radar homing head and a target selection system.