Military Review

Iranian air traffic control

Iranian air traffic control

The background for the confrontation between the United States and Israel was the state of the Iranian armed forces, which came to the center of attention of many Internet resources and the media.

Iranian Air Defense and Combat Aroused A Lot of Discussion aviation. Iranian authorities understand the weaknesses of their Air Force, focusing on military action "from defense." In addition, much attention is paid to the improvement and development of air defense systems.

The Iranian authorities are not smiling to be on the same list with Iraq, Yugoslavia and Libya, so they are anxiously watching their air borders. After the last local clashes, it became clear that Western coalitions were starting conflicts with the suppression of air defense weapons and massive bombing and rocket attacks on key infrastructure and troops control points.

Even international sanctions do not stop Iran from trying to buy modern air defense systems abroad. Also, work is underway to improve the already used funds, as well as the creation of national designs.

An important component of the Iranian air defense system is the radio engineering troops (RTV).

There are several components of the aerial reconnaissance and warning system. For obtaining and issuing data on the used means of air attack for air defense systems, a network of ground-based radars is used, which are reduced to radar posts (RLP). These posts are on the dangerous directions of the state border. Iranian civil airports use 18 radars, which also monitor the air situation, transferring data to a single data exchange system.

Satellite image of Google Earth: the layout of the position of ZRK (triangles) and stationary radar (blue diamonds)

During the Iran-Iraq war, the Iranian RTV was based on American radar: AN / FPS-88, AN / FPS-100, with AN / FPS-89 radio altimeters, mobile three-coordinate radar AN / TPS-43 obtained simultaneously with the Hok air defense system, as well as several British Green Ginger radar systems Type 88 (S-330) and radio altimeters Type 89.

Currently, these stations are being decommissioned due to physical deterioration. Replacement stations are purchased abroad, developing and producing their own.

American AN / TPS-43 on the M35 family truck

At the beginning of the 90-x, along with the delivery of the Russian C-200VE air defense missile systems, the early-warning radar "Defense-14", which was the development of the P-14 one of the most widespread radar stations in the USSR, was received.

To accommodate the radar used six large vans semi-trailers. The system can be minimized and deployed in 24 hours, which makes it conditionally mobile in modern combat conditions.

The station provides three modes of spatial viewing. "The lower beam" - an increased range for the detection of the enemy at medium and low altitudes. The “upper beam” is an increased upper limit of the detection zone by the angle of the terrain. “Scanning” - alternately switching on the lower and upper rays.

The detection range of a fighter-type air target is at least 300 km at an altitude of 10 thousands of meters. The station is served by four people.

The main purpose of the "Defense-14" - is the detection and tracking of air targets, including those using the "stealth" technology. After determining the state affiliation, target coordinates are given to the indicators and devices mated to the radar.

For the placement of the system uses six transport units. The complex includes an antenna-mast device, various equipment, as well as an autonomous power supply system on two semi-trailers. It is also possible to connect to the industrial network. In 1999, the digital radar station installed a digital center, increasing protection against passive interference, asynchronous interference and also reflections from local objects.

Together with the radar "Defense-14" the radio altimeter PRV-17 works, which determines the distance to the target, the height, speed and direction of its movement.

The device operates at altitudes up to 85 kilometers, and the detection range with a target height of 10 thousands of meters is 310 kilometers.

The data on the parameters of the detected target, obtained from the PDF-17, are automatically transmitted to the air defense system operators.

Perhaps the most valuable acquisitions of Iran’s air defense were the Russian Sky-SVU radar, which Iran showed during the exercises and parade in the 2010 year.

Radar 1Л119 "Sky-SVU" works in the meter range. This is a modern and mobile radar equipped with an active phased array antenna. It has good noise immunity, long-range operation.

The main purpose of this type of radar is automatic detection, as well as tracking of various targets in the sky, including subtle, using "stealth" technology. Even with 50% radiation power, the system can detect and escort UAVs with an effective dispersion area of ​​0.1 m. over distances of more than a hundred kilometers.

The detection range of a fighter-type air target is 360 km with a flight altitude of 20 thousands of meters. The deployment and collapse time of a station is up to thirty minutes.

Recently, Iran received modern decimeter Russian radar - low-altitude three-coordinate station of circular review "Casta-2Е2". This seriously strengthened the radio engineering troops of the Iranian air defense.

Satellite image Google Earth: Iranian radar "Sky-SVU"

According to the official website of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern OJSC, the station’s purpose is to control the airspace, as well as determine the azimuth, range, route characteristics and flight altitude of air objects, including flying at low and extremely low altitudes, conditions of intense reflections from underlying surfaces, meteorological formations and local objects.

Detection range of air targets with EPR 2 sq.m. The station at an altitude of 1000 meters is 95 kilometers. The station collapses and turns around in about twenty minutes.

In addition to Russia, the supply of modern radar is engaged in China. One of the newest stations in the Iranian arsenal is the JY-14 radar, which was developed by experts from the East China Electronic Engineering Institute in 1990. Such radars can detect and accompany multiple targets within a radius of 320 kilometers. This data is transmitted to the air defense batteries. Also, the radar has the means to combat interference, which are provided to work in a tough electronic warfare.

The radar uses a flexible mode to switch the operating frequency, which contains a different frequency 31, a wide band of operating frequency parameters for noise tuning, and a linear frequency compression algorithm. This station can simultaneously monitor hundreds of targets, transmitting the coordinates of each to the missile air defense batteries in a fully automatic mode. Iran received a radar of this type about ten years ago.

It is worth noting that Iran is actively working on the development and creation of its own radar. The first was a copy of the AN / TPS-43 US radar. This three-coordinate radar has good mobility, detecting targets at distances up to 450 kilometers.

Radar "Caste 2EX2" in traveling condition at a parade in Tehran

In the Iranian version, a semi-trailer is used to transport the station.

Also, Iran has a large number of mobile radar TM-ASR-1 \ Kashef-1 and Kashef-2, which created the organizations of the electronics industry of Iran. Since the middle of the 90-ies produced two-coordinate radar TM-ASR-1. The detection range of these radars is 150 km, and their appearance resembles the Chinese radar YLC-6. The deployment and collapse time of a station is 6-8 minutes with up to one hundred simultaneous targets.

Antenna Iranian copy radar AN / TPS-43

Recently, Iran has shown an option radar upgraded. It was named Kashef-2, another chassis, and a new folding antenna.

Also in service with Iranian air defenses there are mobile long-range radar systems operating in the meter range of local development. Their name is Matla ul-Fajr, and the manufacturer is the Organization of the electronics industry of Iran. Outwardly, they look like the old Soviet radar P-12. The first modifications of “Matla al-Fajr” began to be delivered at the beginning of the 2000-s.

Radar Matla ul-Fajr on exercises

The main purpose of the radar data is to track large areas of airspace, detecting and accompanying various targets, including those that are hardly noticeable at a distance of up to 330 kilometers.

According to the Iranian Air Defense Command, these new radars have come to replace Western models (apparently American stationary radars AN / TPQ-88 \ 100), and they cover almost the entire territory of the Persian Gulf.

The organization of the Iranian electronics industry and the Isfahan University of Technology have developed a new radar meter range, which detects targets at distances up to 400 kilometers. In the media, they were called Matla ul-Fajr 2, but the official name may be different.

Radar Matla ul-Fajr-2 at the exhibition of the achievements of the Iranian military-industrial complex, which was visited by Iranian Rahbar Ayatollah Khamenei in 2011 year.

In the summer of 2011, the “Exhibition of Achievements of the Scientific and Defense Jihad of the Armed Forces” was held, at which a new radar with PAR was presented, supposedly called Najm 802. The appearance of this radar is similar to the Russian three-coordinate decimeter-range station "Gamma DE".

While there is no information about its entry into service, but most likely this radar is already being tested.

Iran has new electronic intelligence capabilities that can detect targets from their radar emissions. A few years ago, an exercise was held with the participation of the Russian radio electronic reconnaissance stations 1L122 Avtobaz.

The main purpose of the reconnaissance complex is a passive search for emitting radars, including side-impulse radar, armored radar and low-altitude flight radar. The station gives out on the automated point the angular coordinates of all the radar stations, their class, number of the frequency range.

This complex provides a non-contact impact, which significantly reduces the capabilities of attack aircraft to detect and attack ground targets, and also distorts the readings of aviation radio altimeters, UAVs, cruise missiles, which can cause the failure of all electronic equipment.

It is possible that this complex took part in the forced landing of an American reconnaissance drone at the end of 2011.

The maximum exploration range of the complex is 150 kilometers, and the coagulation and deployment time is 25 minutes.

Currently, Iranian air defense and PTB are in the process of reorganization and re-equipment, they are not able to organize a continuous protection zone over the territory of the country, only important centers and regions hide behind. But significant progress has been made in this area, and considerable intellectual and material resources are being invested in the development of defenses against air attacks. Even now, Iran, if it cannot repel aggression, it will inflict serious losses on the attackers.

Based on:–-rakety-pushki-i-avtobaza/
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  1. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 17 July 2013 07: 42
    Although Iran has it, it all starts with Malov!
    1. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB 17 July 2013 11: 07
      Therefore, it is also not in the ruins of Iran ...
    2. Civil
      Civil 17 July 2013 20: 03
      it’s probably scary to know that they’ll attack ... and there are no forces and opportunities, we must also prepare
    3. Dezzed
      Dezzed 17 July 2013 23: 02
      probably with my mind I didn’t come out very well. I can’t understand what some people love so recklessly with Arabs and Persians? What do they send you dates for free?

      you don’t need to write to the place of the Jews. I already know him. I just don’t really understand what you have there. the main thing your Arabs / Muslims soak and foreign kind of like brothers get
      1. alicante11
        alicante11 18 July 2013 07: 50
        The enemy of my enemy ... well, further in meaning. Is it clear? In general, it would be nice if they first overwhelm you and the West, and then we - them. Only the best option is for you to fill up each other.
  2. AVV
    AVV 17 July 2013 08: 20
    Iran needs to develop air defense, otherwise they are next on the list for the USA and Israel !!!
  3. Isk1984
    Isk1984 17 July 2013 11: 13
    We are always confident that Iran is the next target after Syria, and that if we are all mistaken, the US top does not have many ways out of the systemic crisis, gigantic debt, such as after Syria, that they don’t attack us, and that logic doesn’t work here, they have already brought a lot to senility ...
  4. bo-754
    bo-754 17 July 2013 12: 55
    Iran is like a mosquito bite, unpleasant, but bearable!
  5. Leisure
    Leisure 17 July 2013 13: 14
    "Exhibition of achievements of scientific and defense jihad of the armed forces", as well as jihad for the harvest, sports jihad, drummers of industrial jihad. One jihad, we can only dream of peace.
  6. gregor6549
    gregor6549 17 July 2013 17: 29
    Judging by what is shown in the pictures, Iran has mainly radar equipment developed back in the days of the USSR, represented mainly by two-coordinate radars of circular visibility and PRV, today it is pretty outdated and hardly able to provide timely detection of air targets and their stable tracking in conditions of intense interference created by modern electronic warfare equipment. And the security of these funds from anti-radar missiles is also a big question. Caste 3x coordinate radar can be called very conditionally since the accuracy of determining the height of the CC provided by this station is of the order of 900m.
    How much Iran managed the Najm 802 radar with the PAR, which it has been developing for a long time (since about 2007 of the year), and to what degree of readiness this radar is difficult to say, because no data. But on average, from the beginning of the development of such radars to their serial production, it takes years 10
    1. Bongo
      17 July 2013 19: 43
      "Sky-SVU" and "Casta" are quite modern radars. We have much older ones in our own armed forces.
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 18 July 2013 05: 22
        The radar station that is known as "SV Sky" in the picture. This radar is a continuation of the line of P12 and P18 meter-range radars, was assigned for development in 1981, and put into service in 1986. So it cannot be called very modern, although such radars work well for low-flying targets (in the absence of interference, of course) ... Radar "Casta" is basically the development of the decimeter old woman P19 and it was made in about the same years. Both radars can somehow determine the altitude level of a detected target, but it is unlikely to ensure that the altitude of this target is measured with acceptable accuracy. It hardly makes sense to compare these radars with even more ancient ones, which, according to you, are still in service with Russia. we are not talking about Russia, which has more modern radar systems, including radars with phased array and AFAR, but about Iran and its ability to withstand (possibly already in the near future) more modern than Iranian radars, air defense systems (aircraft, missiles, etc.) e) and the means of electronic warfare that Israel, the United States and their allies have. While this ability is in question, although these radars can deliver certain troubles to the attacking side. Here, after all, not everything depends on the technique, but also on those who use it for its intended purpose. Iraq, after all, also had enough similar radars, but they did not help him in any way. were suppressed and knocked out from the very beginning of the operation
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 18 July 2013 05: 29
          Quote: gregor6549
          Here, after all, not everything depends on technology but also on those who use it for its intended purpose.

          Very accurately noticed. Yugoslavia is an example ...
    2. alicante11
      alicante11 18 July 2013 07: 52
      And the security of these funds from anti-radar missiles is also a big question

      That’s why they bought passive radars in order not to substitute active ones for PRR strikes.
  7. Bongo
    17 July 2013 18: 01
    The beginning of the article, unfortunately, was distorted by my "co-author", it should have been like this:
    Against the backdrop of confrontation with the United States and Israel, the state of the armed forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran is in the center of attention of the media and various Internet resources.
    Particularly discussed are Iranian air defense and combat aircraft. Understanding the weakness of their air forces, the Iranian leadership is focused on the conduct of hostilities "from defense", paying great attention to the development and improvement of air defense systems.

    In addition, the photographs for some reason are not in the order, in some places "out of place", the performance characteristics of the radar are cut from the article.
  8. Dezzed
    Dezzed 17 July 2013 22: 54
    Suppose comrades from Tehran see bourgeois aircraft. and what will happen next I would like to know?

    what do you want to fight back when aviation, in principle, is ceremonial, but you cannot go far on one (not the most powerful) air defense. in the end, as it were, they also crush him.

    I think at the moment, Iran must make sure that no one flies to it instead of spending collective Rials on non-serious things.
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 18 July 2013 08: 00
      And this is impossible. Unless immediately surrender and crawl collectively on their knees at the feet of the Jews. I think that to hell with you, not carrots.

      70's air defense - 80's have basically one problem. EW is choked, after which PRR is affected. If you solve this issue, then even the C-125 can safely shoot down any NATO aircraft. I think that one of the options for solving this problem is what the Persians use. I was glad that they still have passive radars that can track the actions of enemy aircraft without fear of being detected by radiation. In addition, we purchased new mobile radars that can be used for target designation in electronic warfare conditions. So the only radar of the old systems will only highlight the target for the launched missiles. Of course, not a child prodigy, but it will be difficult for your pilots to pirate like in Iraq, Libya or Yugoslavia. And if they solve the issues of highlighting the goals then ...
  9. Passer
    Passer 18 July 2013 00: 26
    If the presented samples do not exist in a single copy, then, in principle, Iran has a good potential for conducting radar reconnaissance.
    Of the presented Soviet-Russian-made equipment, perhaps only the P-14 "Oborona" can be called outdated (unfortunately, I am not familiar with PRV-17 and I cannot say anything about it), the author exaggerated a little, saying about the long detection range of the "Defense" the range is only 300 km, and at a distance of more than 100-150, targets begin to smear on the screen of the ICO up to 3 cm and more, but with all its shortcomings, due to its characteristics (it works in the meter range), it can really detect targets built using technology Stealth.
    There is only one question left: how is Iran with the means of interception?
    1. Bongo
      18 July 2013 02: 48
      The data on "Defense" were taken from the developer's website, perhaps under ideal conditions, a radar installed on a hill really gives such a range for large targets, this is not quite a P-14, although it was made on its basis. PRV-17 was developed simultaneously with the "defense", I once found PRV-11. But according to reviews, the altimeter is not bad.
      You can read about the Air Force and Air Defense of Iran here:
  10. 0255
    0255 18 July 2013 22: 08
    Iran alone will not be able to fight back. Let Russia forget about Obama and, in addition to the radar, deliver A-50, MiG-35, Su-30, Su-35 planes (he doesn’t care for the Chinese, let them bring their J-20 to mind) and the S-300 air defense system.
    The old F-4 Phantom and F-5 Tiger, which have exhausted their resources, in the event of an attack by NATO, will do nothing, and the new Iranian fighter Kakher-313 is no one knows what. Iranian MiG-29s will repeat the fate of their Iraqi and Yugoslav "relatives" - they will be taken in number
  11. Amapok
    Amapok 3 August 2013 20: 54
    Air defense: "We don't fly ourselves and we don't give to others."