Military Review

Railgun: perspectives of a magnetofugal gun

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Did the Russian scientist Boris Semenovich Jacobi think in the 19th century? having invented a purely peaceful linear electric motor, that his invention in one and a half hundred years will be considered as the most promising weapon XXI century.


The linear electric motor was first used in military affairs as early as 1895 by an Austrian engineer, F. Geft, who suggested launching “spaceships” to the moon using an electromagnetic gun (railgun, as such guns are called abroad), which would accelerate the “projectile” to the required speed in the solenoid barrel. However, it did not go further than the idea, since with the development of technology at that time this project was not feasible. Norwegian K. Brickland, apparently, was the first to realize that such a cannon can be fired not only with space ships at the Moon, but also at targets on Earth. In 1901, he filed a patent

application for electromagnetic gun. Scandinavian 1915 was followed by Russian engineers N. Podolsky and M. Yampolsky, who offered the government a project of an ultra-long electromagnetic tool that could send a projectile to 300 km. However, the Artillery Committee of the Main Artillery Directorate of the Russian Army considered that the proposal was premature. And where to find a power station, which will always be near the instrument?

In 1916, French engineers Fachon and Willeple managed to design a working model of the gun, which accelerated the model of an 50 g projectile to speed in 200 m / s, but the work soon had to be curtailed - the creation of a full-sized instance turned out to be insanely expensive and complicated.

Today, the US military is considering the possibility of installing an electromagnetic gun on space near-earth apparatuses


“In order to further lengthen the gap, which should be accelerated, there is theoretically the possibility of constructing an annular tunnel consisting entirely of solenoids,” wrote German engineer Max Valle, who also took on the design of such a weapon, in 1935.

In such a tunnel it would be possible to force the grenade to turn until it acquires the necessary speed so that during the last treatment by rearranging the "arrow" to send it to the tunnel spur, leading on a tangent, which in this case would play the role of the upper end coiled in a ring electromagnetic gun. Of course, in this case, the air from the ring of solenoids would have to be pumped out, and the trunk process located at the tangent would have to be closed with an airtight cover. With a sufficiently large radius of curvature, there is a theoretical possibility of carrying out such a circular flight of a grenade. Practically, the difficulties lie mainly in the need to overcome the resulting enormous centrifugal force and the impracticability of the “turnout switch”, as a result of which this plan, attributed to the April issue of the French magazine “Je sais tout” (“I know everything”) for 1927. prominent French engineers Masu and Drouet, have to admit impracticable. "

However, this conclusion did not prevent the American inventor Virgel Rigsby in the early thirties to build two working electromagnetic machine guns. The first one received energy from a conventional car battery, and at the expense of 17 magnets, it accelerated bullets along the 33-inch barrel. From where he took the second current, it is not known, but he could spit out 44-caliber bullets (according to other data - 22-caliber) with a speed of 121 m / s. The plans of the inventor as a primary task was to increase this value to 914 m / s. The declared rate of fire was 600 rds / min, although for some reason the weapon at the demonstration fired at a rate of 7 rds / min. Apparently, the whole thing was in the insufficient power of the "batteries", because the idea of ​​a pu-lemeta-railgun did not find a single or any other design in the souls of the American military.

Railgun: perspectives of a magnetofugal gun
This seemed to be an electromagnetic gun in the middle of 20's. last century


The first model of the electromagnetic machine gun of the American inventor Virgela Rigsby


The second model of the electromagnetic machine gun Virgela Rigsby


Soon after the October Revolution, a magnetic bureau was created in Soviet Russia, which was engaged in the creation of an electric gun. At the Committee on Inventions, specialists of the Commission of Special Artillery Experiments (KOSARTOP) tested two samples at once: a magnetofugal (electromagnetic) alternating current gun and an electric gun with direct current. Soon, the Artillery Committee of the Main Artillery Directorate recommended that engineers “start designing electric DC power tools with a 3-inch field gun. There are many favorable circumstances for doing this. ” However, soon KOSARTOP was dissolved, and work on this topic was discontinued.

During the Second World War, engineers in Germany and Japan also worked on the creation of an electromagnetic gun according to the principle of a linear electric motor, in which the role of an anchor was assigned to a projectile. The greatest success was achieved by the German scientist I. Hensler, whose model was able to tell a small projectile the initial speed 1200 m / s. However, fortunately for the allies, neither the full-scale model, nor, especially, the production model of Hensler had time to create.

“Electric tools represent many benefits: long range, expressed in hundreds of kilometers; a shot almost without sound, without smoke and fire; the absence of transverse pressure during firing makes it possible to design an electric gun without a steel thick pipe, as in modern guns, - wrote in 1938 in his book “Russian artillery in world war” E.I. Barsukov. - When fired, the electric tool is not exposed to high temperatures and therefore can be durable; the live power of the projectile is greater than when firing a powder charge, since electromagnetic forces act throughout the mass of the projectile, and not just at its bottom, as happens when a powder charge is fired; rate of fire may be higher than that of ordinary guns, rollback - less.

Flight of a projectile fired from an electromagnetic gun at the US Navy test site in Dahlgren, 2008


Tests of the American electromagnetic gun Blitzer, 2009


All this is true, and electric guns have only one, but a very significant drawback - they require the cost of millions of kilowatts of electricity just before each shot, for the accumulation of which you need a whole powerful power station.

Nevertheless, electric tools, especially those built on the principle of creating an in-the-barrel of a magnetic wave that carries a projectile, probably belong to the future. The range of these guns will depend on the power of the source of electricity and therefore can increase to a huge size, with very little wear tool. The flight range of the projectile will have to be adjusted by selecting the proper amperage. ” Well, it should be noted that E.I. Barsukov was quite right back in 1938.

Currently, designers have come close to equipping modern types of military equipment with electromagnetic guns. So, in the mid-90s. of the last century, General Dynamics Land Systems and the US Army’s armored directorate proposed several options for the further development of the main combat tank M1 Abrams. One of the main innovations was to be the installation of a reserved remote-controlled gun instead of a turret, which, along with the traditional smooth-bore gun, also includes automatic 25-mm and 35-mm electromagnetic guns, each of which has a muzzle energy of 30-40% higher than the same an indicator of conventional tank guns.

Moreover, on January 31, 2008 at the surface weapons research center fleet The U.S. Navy in Dahlgren, Wyoming, tested an electromagnetic gun, which has been under development since 2005. As a result, the kinetic energy of ammunition, dispersed to 21000 km / h (about 6 km / s) in 0,2 s, exceeded the estimated 10 MJ, and the range was 370-400 km. The gun will be equipped with a GPS corrector, which will not allow the projectile to deviate from the aiming point by more than 5 m. It should also be noted that the gun was tested only for a third of its rated power (32 MJ), and in the future it is planned to achieve a power of 64 MJ

However, such a powerful gun requires a large amount of electricity - the current required for the shot is 6 million amperes. Consequently, only a ship can serve as a suitable platform - for example, the advanced destroyer DDG-1000, equipped with a gas-turbine power plant with a capacity of 72 megawatts. Despite the fact that the intensive shooting (more than six shots per minute) due to power consumption threatens to lose speed in battle, American experts are confident that the electromagnetic weapon - the future.

The prospective destroyer DDG-1000, equipped with a gas turbine power plant with a capacity of 72 megawatts, is considered the most likely carrier of an electromagnetic gun
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  1. MilaPhone
    MilaPhone 28 June 2013 07: 59 New
    +9
    Interesting article. Thank.

    That means where Spleen got the words: “A girl with eyes from the blue ice melts under the fire of a machine gun” for his song “There is no way out”. laughing
  2. report4
    report4 28 June 2013 09: 38 New
    +3
    The gun will be equipped with a GPS corrector, which will not allow the projectile to deviate from the aiming point by more than 5 m. It should also be noted that the gun was tested only for a third of its rated power (32 MJ), and in the future it is planned to achieve a power of 64 MJ

    Something does not fit) 32 of 64 is not a third. Yes, and the ability to adjust the trajectory of the projectile at such speeds is in great doubt. Well, 5 meters without a distance at which such accuracy does not speak, in general, about anything.
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 28 June 2013 14: 05 New
      +3
      The most interesting thing here is - what kind of electronics will survive in the shell after overclocking it with all these amps? Here, the mechanical loads on the shell go like an insignificant trifle.
      In general, the whole question is how such a tool is at times, but rather ten times better than all others. Otherwise, building something is stupid wastefulness.
    2. Dioxsin
      Dioxsin 28 June 2013 18: 19 New
      +3
      "As a result, the kinetic energy of the ammunition, dispersed to 21000 km / h (about 6 km / s) in 0,2 s, exceeded the estimated 10 MJ, and the range was 370-400 km." 10MJ is about a third of 32MJ. 64MJ will receive on another installation. 5m at a distance of 370-400km.
  3. NektoRU
    NektoRU 28 June 2013 09: 46 New
    +3
    Thanks to the author for the work. Interesting and informative!
  4. evgenii67
    evgenii67 28 June 2013 11: 34 New
    +1
    Hello everyone! Undoubtedly, these weapons have future ones, much that surrounds us now, literally 10-15 years ago, it would seem a miracle. The article says that the only drawback is that this unit consumes a lot of energy, maybe in 10-15 years we will see some kind of power plant that will satisfy the size and power of the military. Thanks to the author!
  5. Tektor
    Tektor 28 June 2013 14: 35 New
    0
    The only version of the electromagnetic gun is a pulsed explosive electromagnetic generator as part of a projectile or its ejection part ...
  6. Dimanrus86
    Dimanrus86 28 June 2013 14: 59 New
    +1
    In our city, they are also developing something similar, and in the near future they will begin to build the most powerful laser system in the world, at least the project has already been developed and if the allocated funds are not cut, then everything will be OK)
  7. postman
    postman 28 June 2013 16: 14 New
    +2
    Quote: Author

    Did the Russian scientist Boris Semenovich Jacobi think in the XNUMXth century? inventing a purely peaceful linear electric motor

    B.S. Nevertheless, Jacobi (Moritz Hermann von Jacobi) invented a typical electric motor that produces torque, although it was powered by a direct current battery (AC generators were not in our understanding)

    In 1838, Jacobi improved his electric motor and, installing it on a rowing boat, with ten satellites made a small voyage along the Neva at a speed of 4,5 km / h. The current source was a powerful battery of galvanic cells.
    then there was Tesla, and Dolivo-Dobrovolsky finished (so that we use).
    But not the essence theoretically "invented" Emiliy Hristianovich Lenz (Heinrich Friedrich Emil Len)
    In practice, no one knows who
    Page

    Watermelon

    But this is not exactly LAD, it’s all under the strong pressure of Ampere.
    =================
    Reliably (confirmed) proposal for flat linear motors appeared in 1902 citywhen L. Zeden received French patent No. 321691
    Boris Semenovich, by this time, as 28 years old, had passed away
    (February 27 (March 11) 1874)
  8. Fofan
    Fofan 28 June 2013 21: 05 New
    +1
    where are the forum users craving 30-50 analogs of arliberk in the navy of the russian federation? they do not read such articles?
  9. EDW
    EDW 28 June 2013 23: 12 New
    +1
    “Electric guns represent many benefits: ... a shot with almost no sound, no smoke and fire; the absence of transverse pressures during firing makes it possible to construct an electric gun without a thick steel pipe, as in modern guns, ”E.I. wrote in 1938 in his book“ Russian Artillery in World War II ” Barsukov. - When fired, an electric gun is not exposed to high temperatures and therefore can be durable ...

    smile maybe it’s not necessary, but, nevertheless, I recall some nuances.

    not everything is so rosy:
    only low-power desktop models are quiet, the electromagnetic gun is certainly quieter, but the railgun is much louder than the “small things” with the same bullet size.
    the absence of a steel pipe is more than blocked by huge drives; one hit of a fragment (which is not critical for the pipe) will arrange an unforgettable firework,
    the absence of high temperatures is also doubtful - now the efficiency of accelerators is from 10 to 30% and even the 50% loss expected from 64MJ of full power promised in the future is 32MW / s of thermal energy that needs to be removed from the trunk (I apologize for the liberty of transferring units).
    Longevity also did not work out - even if the pressure of the powder gases disappeared, but the friction forces did not go away, but on the contrary increased in proportion to the velocity of the projectile. If we are talking about the railgun, the barrel’s wear will be even stronger, because of the arc of millions of amperes, the gap between the electrodes will increase rapidly and accuracy and range will drop to unacceptable. By the way, the most difficult thing when shooting an em-gun is to move the projectile from its place, here the amers cheated and used powder charges, and only then they accelerated the em-field.
    They also wanted to increase the efficiency using superconductors, but so far this is only realistic for space.
    On Earth, it will be very cumbersome due to monstrous cooling systems.
    here http://forum.dwg.ru/printthread.php?t=17233&pp=1000 five years ago I had to discuss this, I don’t think that there was any breakthrough in this area.
    And the whole Internet is full of competent and not very theoretical calculations and practical crafts http://railgun.org.ua/

    In general, I perceive the idea of ​​a ship with an em-gun as a suitable budget development plan
    (no worse than a flying penguin from lochid martin). In general, let them do, we laugh together,
    we didn’t do anything here, and there’s nothing to catch up and panic.
    1. ISO
      ISO 3 July 2013 09: 36 New
      0
      In fact, in our city of Tomsk, the merchants said that they were telling us this godly smelly railway, yes, we are with our coachmen, and at once we give them a little shake. Well, the transcontinental piece of iron went through novosib ... That's how Novosibirsk became a regional center instead of Tomsk
  10. smirnov
    smirnov 29 June 2013 20: 35 New
    0
    Quality article, thanks !!!
  11. shvindin2012
    shvindin2012 1 July 2013 14: 24 New
    0
    Quote: edw
    “Electric guns represent many benefits: ... a shot with almost no sound, no smoke and fire; the absence of transverse pressures during firing makes it possible to construct an electric gun without a thick steel pipe, as in modern guns, ”E.I. wrote in 1938 in his book“ Russian Artillery in World War II ” Barsukov. - When fired, an electric gun is not exposed to high temperatures and therefore can be durable ...

    smile maybe it’s not necessary, but, nevertheless, I recall some nuances.

    not everything is so rosy:
    only low-power desktop models are quiet, the electromagnetic gun is certainly quieter, but the railgun is much louder than the “small things” with the same bullet size.
    the absence of a steel pipe is more than blocked by huge drives; one hit of a fragment (which is not critical for the pipe) will arrange an unforgettable firework,
    the absence of high temperatures is also doubtful - now the efficiency of accelerators is from 10 to 30% and even the 50% loss expected from 64MJ of full power promised in the future is 32MW / s of thermal energy that needs to be removed from the trunk (I apologize for the liberty of transferring units).
    Longevity also did not work out - even if the pressure of the powder gases disappeared, but the friction forces did not go away, but on the contrary increased in proportion to the velocity of the projectile. If we are talking about the railgun, the barrel’s wear will be even stronger, because of the arc of millions of amperes, the gap between the electrodes will increase rapidly and accuracy and range will drop to unacceptable. By the way, the most difficult thing when shooting an em-gun is to move the projectile from its place, here the amers cheated and used powder charges, and only then they accelerated the em-field.
    They also wanted to increase the efficiency using superconductors, but so far this is only realistic for space.
    On Earth, it will be very cumbersome due to monstrous cooling systems.
    here img http://forum.dwg.ru/printthread.php?t=17233&pp=1000 five years ago I had to discuss this, I don’t think that there was any breakthrough in this area.
    And the whole Internet is full of competent and not very theoretical calculations and practical crafts http://railgun.org.ua/

    In general, I perceive the idea of ​​a ship with an em-gun as a suitable budget development plan
    (no worse than a flying penguin from lochid martin). In general, let them do, we laugh together,
    we didn’t do anything here, and there’s nothing to catch up and panic.

    I certainly understand how much Americans like to spend money on new developments, but in this case we are talking about really promising weapons. With gunpowder potential is fully exhausted
    . The only way they can be developed as well as small arms is the use of new sighting systems. e.g. rifle scope

    If we talk about problems, there are plenty of them for firearms - this is a low flight speed, which has not increased over the past 70 years, this is also a rather low combat efficiency, since a third of the entire load is only gunpowder in the case. Kinetic shells for electromagnetic guns - all of their mass is this whole payload. And because of their enormous kinetic energy, they are superior in effectiveness to all available types of firearms: even armor-piercing subcaliber. I believe that the Americans will finish their project and prove to the world how ravous they were. And in 30-40 years, this weapon will have no equal !!
  12. Tot-enot
    Tot-enot 2 July 2013 00: 42 New
    0
    This is all a theory so far, only laboratory specimens have been actually created that are not suitable for real use due to their enormous size and low reliability (single shots with long preparation and testing of equipment. In addition, the issue of accuracy of firing at long distances has not been solved, GPS correction is only in imagination engineers, they shot only with a blank, to push into which the guidance system with such dimensions and speed the task is still that ......