Military Review

Does the Russian Armed Forces need radio-technical systems for long-range radio navigation?


In order to ensure traffic safety in air, land and sea transport, as well as solving a number of special tasks on the basis of Government decrees, a long-range radionavigation support system (DRNO) was created in the Soviet Union.
DRNO is designed to create conditions for combat use aviation in theaters of operations, operational directions and in military-geographical areas, as well as aircraft navigation during all types of flights.

The main objectives of DRNO are:
ensuring the resolution of combat missions by aviation in the tactical, operational and strategic depth of the enemy;
ensuring the solution of combat training tasks by aviation associations, formations and units;
providing flights of aircraft on the best routes, over the orientation-free terrain, waters of the seas and oceans;
flight safety of aircraft.
The use of long-range radio navigation equipment provides the following tasks for aircraft aviation:
the use of aviation weapons;
air reconnaissance;
overcoming the enemy's air defense zone;
interaction with ground forces and forces fleet.

Currently, the main means of the DRNO Aviation of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are radio engineering systems for long-range navigation (RSDN). RSDN are designed to determine the location of moving objects at any time of the day and year with unlimited bandwidth in a given area of ​​coverage.

The high efficiency of these systems has been confirmed by more than 30 years of experience in their operation, including in conditions of local armed conflicts in Afghanistan and the North Caucasus, where in conditions of mountainous and non-oriented terrain RSDN were often the only means of correcting flight-navigation complexes for solving problems air navigation and combat use.

Consumers RSDN are all types of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. In addition to the Ministry of Defense, the users of navigation information generated by RSDN are the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Federal Border Service, the Ministry of Transport of Russia. In addition, the NRF stations operate in the State system of a single time and reference frequencies.

The structure of the ground station RSDN includes:
control and synchronization equipment;
radio transmitting device with power from 0.65-3.0 million Watts (per pulse);
common industrial equipment (autonomous diesel power plant with 600-1000 kW power, air conditioning, communications, etc.);
the center of service of uniform time of high accuracy - SEV VT. It is equipped with a complex of equipment that creates, stores and broadcasts to the transmitting device for emitting temporary second marks on the air. The basis of CEB VT is the atomic frequency standard, which generates highly stable electromagnetic oscillations with relative instability 1х10-12. Time keepers form time sequences: seconds, minutes. five minutes, etc. The time stamps of the station are “tied” to the national time scale. These signals are used when launching spacecraft, in navigation, geology, geodesy, etc.

Currently deployed and operated the following radio systems for long-range navigation:
1. Phase RSDN-20 "Route".
2.Systems RSDN "Chaika":
- European RSDN-3 / 10;
- Far Eastern RSDN-4;
- Northern RSDN-5.
3.Mobile systems RSDN-10 (North Caucasus, South Ural, Trans-Baikal, Far Eastern).

The first long-range radio engineering system, in the former USSR, RSDN-3 / 10, was created after the modernization of the RNS Meridian and Normal. It was commissioned as part of the Air Force at the beginning of the 70 of the last century.

The RSDN-3 / 10 includes 5 distant radio navigation stations (DRN): three stations are located on the territory of the Russian Federation (the settlement of Karachev, the settlement of Petrozavodsk, the settlement of Syzran), one station in Belarus (n P. Slonim) and one station on the territory of Ukraine (settlement Simferopol).
After the collapse of the USSR, the RSDN-3 / 10 operates in accordance with the intergovernmental Agreement on Long-Range Radio Navigation Support in the Commonwealth of Independent States of 12 in March 1993. According to Article 2 of this Agreement, its participants recognized the need to preserve the radio navigation systems operating in their territory, as well as the existing order of their activities.

The analogue of the domestic VDN (Chaika) abroad is the Loran-C radio navigation system (RNS) (USA).

Beginning of 90's last century was marked by the rapid development of satellite navigation systems (SNA). Global Positioning System (Navstar GPS) was created in the USA. In the Soviet Union, the global navigation satellite system (GLONASS) called "Hurricane" was widely developed. SNA was distinguished by high accuracy in determining the coordinates of moving objects (dozens, and in some cases, units of meters), the creation of a global radio navigation field, the possibility of obtaining three-dimensional coordinates on board a moving object. RSDN parameters were more modest: the accuracy was 0,2-2,0 km., They had a limited working area. For example, the working area of ​​the European RSDN-3 / 10: the water area of ​​the Barents Sea - the water area of ​​the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains - Germany. The SNA, thanks to its unique parameters, created the impression that the time of the ground RSDN has passed. However, after the tests of the SNA for noise immunity and stability of work, disappointing results were obtained. The fact is that in determining the location of objects in the SNA noise-like signals are used. Suppress such a signal in the area of ​​aviation does not represent a great technical complexity. It seemed that the output in the integrated use of these two types of navigation: European experts went down this path. They created the Eurofix control and correction technology, a system for sharing RSDN and SNA. We go our own way. And so, in the area of ​​the village of Taymylyr, a unique structure was destroyed, transmitting an antenna of 460 height m. Almost the Ostankino tower beyond the Arctic Circle. Instruments and equipment are simply abandoned. The creation of an exploded object was spent 175,2 million (Soviet) rubles.

As it became known, the subsoil of the Arctic Ocean is fraught with enormous reserves of natural resources. One can foresee the struggle of the polar states (and not only them) for these riches. It is clear that navigational aids in this region will play a decisive role in the future. Therefore, means of radio navigation support in the Arctic region should be maintained.
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  1. avt
    avt 13 June 2013 09: 01
    “We are going our own way. And so, in the area of ​​Taimylyr settlement, a unique structure, transmitting antenna 460 m high, was destroyed. Almost Ostankino tower in the Arctic Circle. The hardware and equipment are simply abandoned. 175,2 million (Soviet) rubles were spent on the creation of the exploded object. "---------- request What we do not store, lost crying. Previously, it was called a simple Russian word - Wrecking.
    1. chaushevski
      chaushevski 13 June 2013 12: 32
      and why do we need this antenna the whole world is changing war will soon be electronic already in the forest no partisans break through anything the Chukchi can do something
      1. olegff68
        olegff68 13 June 2013 16: 07
        Quote: chaushevski
        and why do we need this antenna the whole world is changing war will soon be electronic already in the forest no partisans break through anything the Chukchi can do something

        For example, in the USA such objects are not destroyed but also modified, because they understand the vulnerability of GPS.
        1. chaushevski
          chaushevski 14 June 2013 05: 57
          Well, I see you are a connoisseur of the United States from Russia
    2. T-100
      T-100 13 June 2013 15: 32
      “We are going our own way. And so, in the area of ​​Taimylyr settlement, a unique structure, transmitting antenna 460 m high, was destroyed. Almost Ostankino tower in the Arctic Circle. The hardware and equipment are simply abandoned. 175,2 million (Soviet) rubles were spent on the creation of the exploded object. "---------- What we have we do not store, having lost crying. Previously, it was called a simple Russian word - WARMING.

      That is not a clear idea. Everyone shouts that it’s time for us to throw out the obsolete (for example, about T-64), and when they dispose of it (the same T-64) they begin to whine: A unique structure, it’s still useful, why destroy it, you can put it into operation, but to whom he
      But will be needed ???
      1. fartfraer
        fartfraer 13 June 2013 15: 40
        probably "whining" from the fact that we can easily destroy, but in return something is still little put and built. We were still in service with the T-62 regiment (quite recently, in 2006), and even now they have remained on the campaign.
        if instead of this destroyed structure they put somewhere a new one, more powerful and adapted to modern circumstances, then it’s not a question, but if they just broke it, but instead bought a new gelding for an official (yes, there’s not one there, it seems, a whole fleet of vehicles can be taken) then and begins "whining" (as you call it) or indignation (as I could call it)
    3. VAF
      VAF 13 June 2013 16: 14
      Quote: avt
      Previously, it was called a simple Russian word - Wrecking.

      Only +! soldier

      At the time of my dismissal, Ie. The year 2000 in our country was NOT the best radio-technical means of navigation !!!
      Yes there are disadvantages:
      1. Volume and consequently vulnerability.
      2. The effect of interference.

      But .... these systems were used in all wars and armed conflicts (Afghanistan and Chechnya, I won’t go for Georgia, didn’t participate, but 100% could not do without RSDN).

      It was with the use of the RSDN that the "famous term" "navigation B \ M" appeared (at the request of Gromov, it was urgently developed, tested and put into operation) on the IBA and FBA aircraft.

      Of course, the author is +, but where does such data on accuracy come from? Accuracy of calculation and determination of coordinates with RSDN is no more than 10 meters !!!

      By the way, back to yesterday's topic on the Tu-22M (2 and 3). The best corrector NK-45 is precisely the RSDN, navigators constantly monitor the numbering errors in flight ("discrepancies" and if they are within the limit = + -200m, then they do not touch the NK at all, but if it is more, then the NK correction is only according to the RSDN.
      The aircraft is equipped with ADNS equipment, which includes the PUiVD (the installation and data input console, it is truthfully installed so ugly that ... in short, it’s almost impossible for the navigator to use it) and the PSC (target coordinate converter).
      if it is simple, the navigator "flashes" the same way as the NK drive is "flashed", ie. all PPMs and targets .. receives private orthodromies and the LSP and S remaining to the PPM or target are constantly displayed on the SCC.
      Plus, to any airfield, the end of the runway and the point from the landing site at D 40-50 km are "stitched" and please ... landing approach only from ADNS (to an unlit airfield that is not equipped with RSTO and SP airfield, any road, etc.) etc.)
      Almost the same GPS, only has some restrictions on coverage.
      Yes, and a drawback .. from 11 to 13 of each month on RSDN held .. regulatory work!
    4. Savva30
      Savva30 15 June 2013 19: 35
      right, because the transmitting antenna does not bring either gas or oil ... And then those in power don't see x ... they see, the mind overshadows dual citizenship and a plane tucked in an emergency.
  2. MAG
    MAG 13 June 2013 09: 37
    And what then stands in Pechora? missile defense radar? I saw her bandura above the trees and works.
    1. VAF
      VAF 13 June 2013 17: 48
      Quote: MAG
      And what then stands in Pechora? missile defense radar? I saw her bandura above the trees and works.

      To answer your question you need a photo of these antennas! +! wink

      After all, RSDN are of types from 3 to 20, including mobile "chains" and everywhere different sizes of antennas!
      Here's an example of stationary photos !!! height from 150 meters and above !!!

      1. MAG
        MAG 13 June 2013 20: 33
        I learned it is called "Daryal" and will soon be replaced by "Voronezh"
  3. cpk72
    cpk72 13 June 2013 11: 44
    Sorry to tears. Having looked at the date of the video, I downloaded it on 02.05.2010. Serdyukovschina in action.
  4. a.hamster55
    a.hamster55 13 June 2013 11: 50
    This equipment is acceptable in peacetime for practicing training tasks. In wartime, you must immediately turn off !!!
  5. urich
    urich 13 June 2013 11: 53
    I would not want to indiscriminately find fault: "Everything is lost!". There is no information in the presented article why the decision was made to blow up the object (maybe those state did not allow its further safe use). Although, as experience shows, we do it first, then think. I would not be surprised if it turns out that the decision to destroy was made by Serdyukovism. Then this fact should be considered by the prosecutor's office and added to the already initiated case.
    Breaking is not building ... Not hard ... Save and modernize - brains are needed! When will they appear among officials making such decisions !?
  6. kind
    kind 13 June 2013 11: 56
    Therefore, the means of radio navigation support in the Arctic region should be preserved.

    Not only saved, but also modernized and multiplied.
  7. Volkhov
    Volkhov 13 June 2013 12: 24
    In the mid-80s, he perceived the army as a "doo * ak ship" - it was in the order of things to store wagons of ammunition and hundreds of tons of gasoline opposite an unguarded hill on 1 hectare. A possible war was perceived as an inevitable defeat - everything turned out to be even worse, it didn't even take a war to defeat.
    Now the belief is growing that the remnants are preparing to surrender to the enemy, destroy complex industries, take out brains and money, under patriotic songs.
    For the legal registration of surrender, the outbreak of a limited war, loss and the design of new borders are likely. Zionism will pay off the Nazis by Russia?
    1. chaushevski
      chaushevski 13 June 2013 12: 30
      I would have written a bream for you, the fraterok is cheap, just whining and you can do nothing else I like you saw nothing but whining you can’t work, you want something to change me everything is in our hands a rag
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 13 June 2013 12: 50
        You’re right, of course, you have to do it, but you wanted to get as convinced as possible - there are not so many people in the illusions. Well, you have to consider your post a popular request.
      2. fartfraer
        fartfraer 13 June 2013 15: 27
        chaushevski, but tell me what to do? just give life examples.
        my friends and I are making horizontal bars in the city at our own expense, we hang pictures of Russian artists in schools at our own expense, but we can’t do anything else.
        so come on, teach us poor people how to achieve a change in the existing order.
        Well, what about the cheapness of the "fraerk" sorcerer, so he is an order of your upbringing, because he ignored your rudeness.
        1. Volkhov
          Volkhov 13 June 2013 17: 56
          The fact of the matter is that after several attempts it came to understand that you first need to understand the structure of civilization, otherwise everything is reminiscent of a child’s watch repair - disassembly and unnecessary details.
          At the moment, there is an understanding of 2 systems (Zionism / Nazism) and another physics - they own the nation, partially Zion, Russians are not needed between the chairs and both, that is, they need to create their own third system, not cannibalistic, like theirs.
          1. fartfraer
            fartfraer 13 June 2013 18: 01
            Well, I understood your views. Something like the statements of General Petrov. (If I understood correctly). Personally at the moment it seems to me that this topic is not realizable. Well, not with my generation and yours for sure.
            1. Volkhov
              Volkhov 13 June 2013 19: 35
              Without the realization of the "theme" the next generations may not exist - they will dissolve in other nations, like emigrants of the 20s.
              1. fartfraer
                fartfraer 13 June 2013 19: 55
                Well, for many representatives of Tomsk youth, I’m calm in this plan. You can’t even imagine what kind of attendance on the horizontal bars. Many people don’t smoke, but this is not the only point. I see patriotism in them, not flashy tapes on May 9, but real. explain, but I believe that in spite of everything we break through.
                1. Volkhov
                  Volkhov 14 June 2013 00: 19
                  At 25, he also pulled himself up by 30, a parachute, mountaineering, but this is not enough - the enemy has science, you can’t jump to the moon with your feet, you need a system that includes sports.
                  In the old tales of Leskov, there is an example of such preparation - 6 old men taught a child from 3 years to 15 from morning to evening (Dobrynya Nikitich) - 72 languages, military affairs, state administration - and this is only a warrior, scientists trained longer.
                  The Nazi has a similar system - we are just savages in comparison with them, we do not have a system of reaction to information, except for the cop one.
                  1. fartfraer
                    fartfraer 14 June 2013 07: 16
                    Well, we don’t do education. Sport, art (paintings there in schools, etc.) are done, but there are no programs in terms of education yet, although it’s good that we opened a museum of Slavic culture.
                    can you have any thoughts?
                    1. Volkhov
                      Volkhov 14 June 2013 09: 10
                      Try to study historical ornaments - these are not random drawings, grandmothers drew them for embroidery according to special drawings (canons). There are more than modern physics (mainly field interactions), the call signs of the Gods.
                      It is understood only in part, but interesting. The Nazis collected them everywhere.
                      Ornament - Ohr for the cop - divine for memory, judging by the roots of words.
  8. gribnik777
    gribnik777 13 June 2013 12: 48
    Does the Russian Armed Forces need radio-technical systems for long-range radio navigation?

    Very strange question in the title.
    Hope for the satellite, but don’t be bad.
  9. knn54
    knn54 13 June 2013 14: 36
    As complementary (backup) systems, they are JUST necessary. In some countries they create REGIONAL RSD (B) N systems that “bring / adjust” signals from satellite navigation systems.
    True, one has to put up with the bulkiness of ground-based equipment and antenna systems that reduce the survivability of the complex. For Ukraine (given the size of the territory in longitude and latitude), mobile RDSN-10 can be used, but if there is a high-precision ZONAL correction system, accounting (atmospheric pressure, relative air humidity and absolute temperature) most significantly affects the propagation conditions of radio waves, surface conditions of the area, features of a specific geographical area of ​​use.
  10. a.hamster55
    a.hamster55 13 June 2013 18: 17
    But if you want the enemy to see you with the help of your own technology, then you can not turn it off.
    1. fartfraer
      fartfraer 13 June 2013 19: 16
      rockets appearing that are new to the emission of air defense radars, probably following your logic, you need to abandon the air defense?
  11. crambol
    crambol 13 June 2013 22: 50
    For many years he walked the Atlantic with the Laurent and Decca navigation systems. It was very good to work with them. comfortable and reliable (if of course the head is on the shoulders). I believe that our analogs of these systems are necessary, as an addition to satellite ones, just as no one canceled the sectarian.
  12. Starover_Z
    Starover_Z 14 June 2013 01: 45
    Full height antenna
    Yes, the mess continues. While we are "breaking spears" here, somewhere else something "unnecessary" is being demolished. In 2003, we closed the system of tropospheric multichannel radio relay stations "Horizon" TRRL "SEVER" and partially and selectively blocked some antennas and then blocked the antenna of one of the subscribers of our communication system.
    There aren’t enough words, but you won’t apply rich Russian here - moderators will not miss.
    Of course, why would the caretaker have any antennas in the Arctic, to demolish, to "save" money. And what kind of work did it take to design it with reference to the area, deliver and assemble ?! .......
  13. GEO
    GEO 14 June 2013 22: 14
    Breaking does not build ... It's a shame ...
  14. kelevra
    kelevra 18 December 2013 16: 47
    Such a hope for GLONAAS, and in case of unforeseen situations what to do if GLONAAS is cut down. You need to have in reserve, as a fallback, these are exactly the stations!
  15. Rfs
    Rfs 1 November 2016 15: 26
    Stations successfully continue to work for the benefit of our interests, several sensible men saved them from reduction, all are still alive and well, God bless you, good health and thanks for the saved systems.