May 27 Vladimir Putin held a meeting in Sochi, which was dedicated to the construction of high-speed railways. The head of the Russian Railways, Vladimir Yakunin, proposed in the near future to build in our country almost 7 thousand kilometers of roads with a speed of more than 140 km / h and more 4 thousand kilometers of roads with a speed of more than 200 km / h. The primary task is to connect the high-speed highway Moscow and Kazan. The price of the issue is almost 1 trillion. rubles. According to the head of the Russian Railways, the implementation of this project can give a serious impetus to the country's economy. First of all, it will allow residents of the province to travel to the capital to earn money.
The construction of high-speed highways looks quite reasonable, if we consider that according to the results of 2012, the average commercial speed of freight trains in Russia was 9,1 km / h. This is not only several times lower than in the world's largest economies, but also lower than the speed of movement of experienced cyclists. At the same time every year the situation only gets worse, and the low speed of movement of freight trains can put an end to plans to turn our country into a bridge between Asia and Europe.
Even in their best years, the “freight train” went on the Russian railway at a speed of no more than 11,6 km / h or 280 km. per day, which is significantly inferior to the speed indicators of other major economies of the world. So in Germany and China, the average train speed is 50-60 km / h, in the USA it is about 45 km / h. According to Anatoly Fedorenko, who holds the post of head of the department of logistics infrastructure management at HSE, the share of transportation costs in the final cost of products in Russia is 20%, while the world average is 9-10% and in China - 13 %
By the end of last year, the speed of freight trains in Russia has fallen below that of 40 years ago. In 1970-s, the average commodity composition went at a speed of 229 km per day, whereas in 2012, this figure was only 219 km. The industry has demonstrated its worst results in 1980-1990s. So, for example, in 1997, the average commercial speed of the “freight train” (this time included not just travel time, but also the cost of loading, unloading and parking the train) was 8,3 km / h. In the 2000-s, these figures increased, but since 2010, they began to decline again.
For this reason, there is nothing strange in the construction of new high-speed railways, it can only be welcomed. Today, many developed countries follow the same path. In his report, Yakunin referred precisely to international experience. In the People's Republic of China, France, Japan, high-speed highways connect large industrial centers. At the same time, in Russia, most of the roads should link the capital, in which there is a redistribution of profits from the sale of natural raw materials, with regional centers that are not in the best economic situation. And the cost of travel on existing trains to St. Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod is significantly higher than in Europe and China, so it’s too early to talk about new branches as an accessible type of transport.
On the whole, Putin supported the idea of the Russian Railways to build a high-speed transport network, proposing to work out a direction from Moscow to Rostov-on-Don and Adler. Travel time on this route could be reduced to 8 hours. According to the president, this direction is quite in demand, even despite its seasonal nature, although it is planned to make a year-round resort center out of Sochi. In any case, the priority at this time is the direction of the Urals. The priority task is to build a road from Moscow to Kazan, which should go through 5 subjects of the country, including the city of Vladimir, Cheboksary and Nizhny Novgorod, said the head of the Ministry of Transport of Russia Maxim Sokolov.
This direction is particularly promising in the light of further work on the continuation of the high-speed highway to Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, and further towards China, said First Vice-President of Russian Railways Alexander Misharin. At present, China is considering the possibility of creating a high-speed railway line from Beijing to London. At the same time, there is an 2 construction option - through the territory of the Russian Federation or bypassing it.
By the beginning of the World Cup 2018 of the year, which will be held in Russia, it is planned to build a pilot section of the high-speed Moscow-Kazan railway, which trains will travel at a speed of 350 – 400 km / h. As a result, travel time can be reduced from about 11,5 to 3,5 hours. According to Yakunin, the construction of this highway requires 928 billion rubles, or 1,16 billion rubles for each kilometer of the road. At the same time, according to the Minister of Transport, this amount can be adjusted depending on inflation and project documentation.
The government is ready to share the financial risks of implementing a pilot project with investors. The state is ready to invest 70% of investments in infrastructure development, while the 30% business is to develop a super-infrastructure, i.e. trains, all the arrangements that are there, said Vladimir Yakunin. Proceeding from this, the state grand will amount to 650 billion rubles, and at the operation stage a state subsidy of 315 billion rubles will also be required for 4's years. With the construction of this line, the domestic business can count on receiving orders for construction - 270 billion rubles and equipment - 100 billion rubles.
According to Yakunin’s calculations, Russia's revenues less expenses are estimated at 5,3 trillion. rubles, annual budget revenue - 6,88%. According to Yakunin, the high-speed highway (VSM) is a completely new technology for our country, so a preferential taxation can be introduced for it - resetting the VAT and optimizing the property tax. Such measures could increase the profitability of the project.
In the future, high-speed trains “Lastochka” and “Sapsan” will go from Moscow to Sochi and Yekaterinburg. Line Moscow - Ekaterinburg should be ready for the 2020 year. Its length will be 1,5 thousand km, and the total amount of construction in the spring of the year 2012 was estimated at 1,5 trillion. rubles, i.e. approximately 1 billion rubles per kilometer. However, earlier estimates amounted to 2,24 trillion. rubles, so that JSC "Russian Railways" still managed to reduce the cost of construction.
In addition, the construction of the Moscow-Kazan high-speed railway with a length of 800 km may be cheaper than a similar Spanish road. Creating a railway line from Barcelona to the French border, which is 7 times less than the length of the track (131 km) cost 3,7 billion euros or 149 billion rubles. Currently, immediately 2 of the country's largest banks: Sberbank and VTB have already confirmed their interest in participating in the construction of high-speed rail lines, the head of the Ministry of Transport said. However, it’s still early on the choice of participants. First you need to prepare all the project documentation for the project and its financial model. According to Vladimir Yakunin, the preparation of project documentation will take at least 8 months.
Ticket prices for high-speed highways in the south of Russia and in the Volga region should be affordable “for the overwhelming majority of citizens,” Vladimir Putin said during a meeting in Sochi. In turn, the head of the Russian Railways said that the fare for passengers on the new high-speed highways will be in the range from 1 to 10 rubles per kilometer, depending on the route and class of cars.
If we take into account these figures, the cost of a ticket on a pilot route from Moscow to Kazan, the length of which is 800 km., Will have to be from 800 to 8 000 rubles. At the same time, the Russian president noted that the development of high-speed rail traffic should be accompanied by significant investments in transportation security, including technological, fire and anti-terrorism security.
Plans before 2030 year
The head of the Russian Railways proposed to build an 2030 km in the country for 6922 in the year. lines of highways and 4253 km. high-speed lines. According to Vladimir Yakunin, if these projects can be implemented, the 100 million inhabitants of Russia will live in the area covered by the high-speed railway network. In 2012, the interdepartmental working group developed a plan for the development of high-speed rail traffic, which is expected to launch the high-speed Moscow-St. Petersburg highway by 2017. With its launch, the train will cover the distance between the two capitals in 2,5 hours, developing in some sections a maximum speed of up to 400 km / h. The projected traffic volume on this line will be more than 14 million people per year. The cost of construction of this railway line is 696,2 billion rubles.
In addition, according to the plan, it is recommended to develop railway communication in Russia at a speed of up to 2020-160 km / h on routes: Moscow-Minsk (to Red, with extension to Warsaw and Berlin), Moscow-Kharkov-Adler, Moscow-Yaroslavl , Moscow - Kiev (to Suzemka) and Omsk - Novosibirsk.
In the next decade (before 2030), it is planned to significantly accelerate the movement of passenger trains to 350-400 km / h from Moscow to Minsk, with extensions to Warsaw and Berlin, from Kazan to Samara and from Moscow to Kiev. Also, up to 2030, it is planned to link high-speed highways (up to 160-200 km / h) from Saratov, Yekaterinburg from Chelyabinsk, Saratov from Samara and Volgograd, Samara from Saransk and Penza, Novosibirsk to Krasnoyarsk, Barnaul, Kemerovo and Novokuznetsk , Khabarovsk - with Vladivostok.
Currently, there are only 3 high-speed rail lines in Russia: Moscow - St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg - Helsinki and Nizhny Novgorod - Moscow. According to Vladimir Putin, the passenger traffic on them constantly increased, and there was no doubt about the effectiveness of this type of transport. At the same time, many experts recognize that the transport system is far from the only problematic branch of the Russian economy. It is necessary to build new high-speed railways, but not to the detriment of other problematic industries.