Military Review

"Tachanka" Russian infantry

28
The conditions of the "expanded battlefield" have a significant impact on the nature of the combat operations of the formations and military units of the regular armies in local wars and armed conflicts against military units of the enemy, leading an armed struggle by "partisan" methods. By this is meant the absence of a clearly marked line of contact, of combat areas and of a rear zone. Under these conditions, military units and subunits have to perform combat and special tasks, as a rule, independently in various areas relatively far from the rear bases (supply bases), which causes a great extent and vulnerability of communications, command and control and rear facilities.


"Ural" with the memory-23-2 72-th MSE 42-th Guards. MSD, May 2000, Khankala, Chechnya


The machine of the same unit parked in the field park 42-th Guards. MSD, May 2000, Khankala, Chechnya


"Ural" with the memory-23-2 72-th MSE 42-th Guards. Moscow, May 2000, Khankala, Chechnya. Right - the author of the article


The crew of the combat vehicle ... The picture clearly shows the placement of the calculation, weapons and property in the back of the car. Workplaces gunners front covered with bulletproof vests. This machine in a combat position, like most of these machines, had raised sides. 72 th MSE 42-I Guards. MSD, May 2000, Khankala, Chechnya


In such conditions, the enemy seeks to avoid direct clashes with combat units and subunits, and is most active through systematic attacks on columns on communications, raids on rear facilities, command posts, etc.

The most dangerous are the actions of the enemy on communications, with the aim of disrupting the supply of the necessary material and technical means (ammunition, fuel, food, etc.) of units and subunits performing combat and special missions in remote areas or simply based there. Along with this, the adversary is trying to isolate, to the maximum extent possible, the areas of conducting combat and special operations from the inflow of reserves and psychologically exhaust the personnel of the troops.

Here you can cite an excerpt from the combat operations manual, compiled by the most dangerous field commander E. Khattab (destroyed as a result of a special operation in 2002) in 2001 g.:
“... Today we have to deliver powerful blows, trying to avoid big losses among our own. The issue of promoting large columns is the most painful for Russians. They drive infantry everywhere, trying to locate ambushes, try to secure their columns and avoid nervous tension among their soldiers (especially among the riot police) on the march ... ”


In recent years, gangsters have been trying to install almost all land mines not in the roadway, but aside from it - in heaps of garbage, on trees, poles, etc., in order to inflict maximum losses on personnel on top of the combat vehicles. Most commonly used land mines, controlled by radio.

After the explosions of land mines, bandits, especially if the column is small, during the 5-15 mines produce intense shelling of machines of all kinds weapons. Subsequently, whenever possible, they seize weapons, documents, prisoners, and quickly disappear in dense thickets of mountain-wooded areas.
Thus, the experience of local wars and armed conflicts convincingly shows that ensuring the uninterrupted supply of material resources, i.e. free passage of convoys, is one of the most important tasks facing commanders and staffs of all degrees.

In the course of the counter-terrorist operation in the North Caucasus region, the posting of motor convoys was viewed as a specific combat action that required careful support. In a number of cases the Commander and the headquarters of the United Group of Forces (Forces) dealt with this.

The struggle for communications is characterized by great tension, it requires the involvement of a large number of forces and means. For example, during the Vietnam War in 1963 - 1973. Americans were forced to attract for this purpose about 40 - 60% of the personnel of military units and units. A similar situation occurred in the conduct of hostilities by the Soviet army in Afghanistan and Russian troops during the counter-terrorist operation in the Chechen Republic. Everywhere, convoys were the favorite targets of militant attacks.

The Soviet troops in Afghanistan and the Russian units in the Chechen Republic have accumulated a great deal of experience in ensuring the escorting of convoys in various terrain and combat conditions.

One of the most important conditions for ensuring safe posting of columns is reliable direct security.

As a rule, the construction of the marching order of the column was as follows: marching guards, a detachment of providing traffic, side marches (if necessary), the main column, the closure of the column, the rear march.

"Ural" with the charger-23-2 72-th MSP 42-th Guards, mas, the 2000 May, Khankala, Chechnya. In the fighting position the car had lowered sides


"Urals" with the ZU-23-2 commandant company of the Urus-Martan military commandant's office, September 2002, Chechnya. The semi-vans are closed from the inside with thick wooden bars, and the gun mount is covered in front with thick steel sheets and bulletproof vests


KamAZ vehicles from ZU-23-2 commandant company of the Argun military commandant's office, September 2002, Chechnya. The guns are also covered with steel shields.


The ZIL-131 machine of the commandant's company of the Kurchaloi military commander's office, July 2001. The bullet holes (the result of the shelling) and the bullet-proof vest on the door covering the driver are clearly visible on the cab in front of the door.


The main convoy consists of vehicles with a load of materiel, command and staff vehicles (usually on an armored base) to communicate with a higher command, control centers, and also to call, if necessary, artillery fire and (or) aviation support. Direct protection is provided by motorized rifle squads on infantry fighting vehicles (armored personnel carriers, MT-LBs), which follow in a common convoy every 5-10 cars.
However, due to the fact that every day a large number of convoys of various sizes (from 5–10 vehicles to 50–70 vehicles in one convoy) and armored combat vehicles (for various purposes) move along the roads for various purposes (Tanks, BMP, armored personnel carrier, MT-LB) are not enough for their escort and protection. After all, these armored combat vehicles (BBMs) should be applied and applied primarily for its intended purpose - participation in military and special operations, guarding and defending the basic areas of the location of troops, important military and state facilities, as well as serving in numerous watch posts, roadblocks, etc. A very negative role is played by the fact that the number of serviceable and, especially, new armored combat vehicles in the troops does not increase at all. The main reason for this is the same "difficult economic" situation in the country.

But, as evidenced by military история, the Russian army has always found a way out of any, the most difficult situation. Therefore, to cover the columns and fire support of their escort, in the military units of the Armed Forces, and then in some military formations, other troops that are part of the United Group of Forces (forces) in the North Caucasus region, appeared (and in a rather large number of ) all-wheel drive trucks (mainly “Ural-4320”) with ZU-23-2 artillery mounts installed on them. A sort of unique "carts" of the late XX - early XXI century. Along with this, in the autumn of 2002, the author managed to see several times in the location of the units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation a well-armored Ural-4320 with an anti-aircraft machine-gun unit ZPU-14,5-2.

This experience is not something completely new: the Americans began to arm trucks with various firing means to enhance the self-defense of the convoys even in Vietnam, and the Soviet troops in Afghanistan did the same.

The number of such vehicles is really great - in almost every army convoy following the roads of the Chechen Republic, you can see, along with the BMP, BTR or MT-LB, one or two or more vehicles with the ZU-23-2.

Moreover, small columns (from 5 to 10 machines) often do not have any armored vehicles on guard, and are accompanied by a pair of such “carts”.
In most cases, these vehicles are put up at night for temporary firing positions in order to strengthen the fire system of the military commandant's offices or the areas where troops are stationed (nightly standing columns) from attacks or shelling of the enemy.

The experience of the combat use of army all-wheel drive trucks with 23-mm twin anti-aircraft automatic guns mounted on them showed that with a relatively low cost of manufacturing and operating such weapon systems, they are capable of performing combat missions with high efficiency in operations on the plain, in mountainous terrain and in settlements. The participants of the battles, as a rule, note that, along with the powerful striking effect of the twin automatic guns, their fire produced a strong psychological impact on the enemy. This, in many cases, forces the militants to quickly stop the shelling of the column and withdraw from the scene of the attack.

However, statistics show that these armed vehicles, as a rule, suffer relatively small losses. The main reasons for this are high combat skill of calculations, well-established interaction with other fire weapons and the fact that gang members prefer to defeat grenade launchers and land mines with any types of armored vehicles and command and staff vehicles for fire.

Installation of anti-aircraft guns 23-mm automatic guns (as a rule, with the removal of the wheel course) is made, as a rule, by military repair units and units as needed and the availability of appropriate equipment and weapons. Most often, ZU-23-2 are installed on diesel trucks "Ural-4320". This is primarily due to the fact that according to the experience of using trucks in the first and second Chechen campaigns, these machines showed themselves better than others in their class of vehicles: as the most convenient and unpretentious in operation, having the best maneuverability, the safest under mines and land mines front wheels etc.

The ZIL-131 machine of the commandant's company of the military commandant's office, July 2001. The cover of an animal’s skullcap can be seen clearly in front of an artillery vest with armor-mounted vest


KamAZ from ZU-23-2 commandant company of the Argun military commandant's office, September 2002, Chechnya. The original camouflage of the car attracts attention.



"Ural" with the ZU-23-2 commandant company of one of the military commandant's offices, October 2002, Khankala, Chechnya. The upper armor plates of the BMP-1 were used as a front cover for the guns. Characteristic inscriptions are clearly visible on them: in picture No. 11 - Mowgli, Krasnoyarsk, in picture No. 12 - Yekaterinburg, Primorye


Equally important is the fact that these machines have a sufficiently large mass, and the cargo platform (in other words, the body) is of sufficient size to install an anti-aircraft artillery system on it and rests on two driving axles of the vehicle. All this allows you to effectively fire cannons at any angle to the longitudinal axis of the machine.

In 2001 and 2002 the author had a chance to personally see the ZU-23-2 mounted on ZIL-131 and KAMAZ vehicles (all-wheel drive, army version).
According to the stories of some eyewitnesses, there were instances of installing the ZU-23-2 on GAZ-66 vehicles. The author himself personally during his four missions to the Chechen Republic (1996, 2000, 2001 and 2002) never saw such machines.

The installation of this artillery system on the GAZ-66 was not widespread due to the relatively small mass and small body size (loading platform) of this car, which does not allow it to be convenient enough to place an anti-aircraft gun mount, its spare parts, ammunition stock and personal weapon design assets. The low mass and support of the cargo platform on one rear axle leads to a large amplitude of oscillations of the machine, i.e., it does not give an opportunity to conduct steady shooting while firing at ground targets on the sides of the sides.

The art system in the back of the machine is installed so that the angle of fire of the guns in the rear hemisphere was at least 180 degrees. But often, especially when installing the ZU-23-2, in the back of a KAMAZ truck, the shelling angle is usually even greater.

The order of placement and layout on the cargo platforms of the machines are clearly visible in the presented photos. In the front part of the body, approximately on the 1 / 3 of its length, there is an open rear van. Outside it is covered with one or two layers of tarpaulin (awning). On the inner side, on three sides, the walls are covered with thick boards (sometimes with poles). During his last business trip to Chechnya, in the fall of 2002, the author drew attention to the fact that on most of these cars the sides of the van from the inside are covered with thick steel sheets. Moreover, at the present time the gun mounts themselves from the front and back of the gunner’s gunners are also covered with thick steel sheets.

Sometimes, in the absence of steel sheets, the gun mount in the front and the backs of the gunner’s seats are covered with body armor. They almost always hide behind the side windows and car door cabins. In addition, the entire calculation of the artillery during the execution of combat tasks for the protection of columns, as a rule, puts on body armor and steel helmets.

In the van itself, along the side walls, boxes with spare parts (technical equipment, tools and spare parts), duffel bags and mattresses for rest are usually folded (during long trips, personnel have to live and serve, most often, in the back of the car). There, in the van, is ammunition.

The crew of such a machine is usually four to five people (commander, driver, and two or three calculation numbers).

Concluding the presentation of the material, we can draw the following conclusions:
1. The use of medium-sized army all-wheel drive trucks armed with automatic cannons for the direct escort of convoy transporting supplies to military units and units performing combat and special operations in areas of armed conflict proved to be a sufficiently effective measure and fully justified itself.
At the same time, there is an urgent need to install the ZU-23-2 at specially designed, repeatedly demonstrated at the annual exhibitions in Bronnitsy, booked Ural cars of the Miass Automobile Plant. This would greatly enhance the survivability of these mobile fire weapons.
2. Such a massive production and use of this kind of "self-made" mobile fire equipment is a necessary measure, a consequence of a shortage of wheeled armored personnel carriers and special multi-purpose well-armed armored vehicles.
3. Due to the complex military and political situation in the world, the high probability of the emergence and escalation of various kinds of armed conflicts and local wars in different regions, it becomes very urgent to create a sufficient number of multipurpose armored vehicles, including to ensure the security of rear columns in terms of countering irregular formations and / or units of special operations forces.

KAMAZ installation ZU-23-2 accompanies military convoy, Chechnya, February 2002


Contract sergeant, commander of one of the camouflaged KamAZ with ZU-23-2, September 2002, Chechnya


The author of the article on one of the machines of this unit. The picture clearly shows the armor jacket from the BMP for covering the front (with the inscription Primorye) and the cover of the round armored jacket from the BMP, fixed on the back of the gunner’s seat to cover the rear. All the “Urals” with the ZU-23-2 of this commandant company were equipped in this way, October 2002, Khankala, Chechnya


The personnel of the same unit parked during a meal and rest. Mandatory "belonging" of the majority of units of the Russian army was the presence of their dogs, cats. For a Russian soldier, this is the need of the soul — concern for something small and weak ... October 2002, Khankala, Chechnya
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  1. Avenger711
    Avenger711 April 23 2013 08: 39
    +8
    It might be a good option to develop a special convoy patrol machine with a 30 mm cannon and KPVT (it will pierce any light shelter and trees). In fact, the same light wheeled tank, but without trying to push 105-120 mm fool on it. Minus - a small amount, as you can’t settle in a truck.
    1. Rider
      Rider April 23 2013 13: 47
      0
      new BTR-90, just what you ask.

  2. Strashila
    Strashila April 23 2013 09: 06
    +5
    It’s high time for the manufacturers to start production in a small batch. The solution is ready ... tested in business. Make a body platform with an armored housing module, normal protection of the calculation of the gun. Consider the installation as an option not only ZSU 23-2, but also Cornflower.
  3. Canep
    Canep April 23 2013 10: 16
    +2
    I think ZSU23-2 was originally designed with the possibility of firing from a car body. Already very accurately in terms of dimensions, it enters the truck body. The state of individual machine gun and artillery battalions has 3 such carts in an anti-aircraft platoon. And as for the armored housing module, this is know-how.
  4. not good
    not good April 23 2013 10: 25
    +3
    It’s easier to create a standard hinged protection kit separately for the gun, separately for the truck. This will make it possible to book trucks working in dangerous areas with hinged screens and, if necessary, quickly mount the ZSU on any suitable chassis. By the way, for the Urals, I didn’t see any armor hitching in the troops not a single time.
  5. bazilio
    bazilio April 23 2013 10: 35
    +1
    Yes, you want to live and you can’t imagine such a thing. An interesting solution. High mobility, rate of fire is the most for a convoy. Of course, minus weak protection. But even here the soldier’s ingenuity worked — if initially only broniks were used, then they managed to attach armor blocks from the BMP.
  6. Captain45
    Captain45 April 23 2013 11: 41
    +4
    And back in 2000, in the Urus-Martan and Argun commandant's offices there were Urals for transporting l / s with homemade armor: two sheets of 3-5 mm, between them a distance of 5-6 centimeters, covered with sand, on the floor of the body of a sleeper or log, like a mine protection, in one case I saw the floor filled with concrete. Of course, the weight of the truck increased, but the need for inventions was tricky. By the way, on one such truck, the skull of some cattle was attached to the front bumper, as in the photo in the article. And as expected, the cars had personal names like "Mishanya", "Tumbler". I saw standard Ural-"safes" only at the SOBRs that came from Khankala
  7. Andrew 121
    Andrew 121 April 23 2013 11: 51
    0
    Ever wondered if this wonderful machine will be able to break through an American hammer? or other lightly armored vehicles?
    1. castle
      castle April 23 2013 12: 38
      +3
      Americans do not fight on Hummers. These cars are used only as patrol or escort vehicles, or in training and during police actions. And even the SVD 7,62x54R can penetrate lightly armored vehicles. Including certain places on BMP, BMD and armored personnel carriers. And if it doesn't pierce, there is such a thing as a rifle with 9 mm or 12 mm cartridge, and, of course, there are more serious "punches"
      1. ebrd
        ebrd April 23 2013 20: 34
        +2
        Quote: hrad
        Americans do not fight on Hummers. These cars are used only as patrol or escort vehicles, or in training and during police actions. And even the SVD 7,62x54R can penetrate lightly armored vehicles. Including certain places on BMP, BMD and armored personnel carriers. And if it doesn't pierce, there is such a thing as a rifle with 9 mm or 12 mm cartridge, and, of course, there are more serious "punches"

        You personally ,, punched, "from the SVD, well, for example, BMP-2? Under what circumstances? From what distance and at what angle? And what kind of “specific places” are these? What were the consequences of such “breakdowns” --- that the machine was disabled, the crew was hit and unable to carry out the combat mission?
    2. Ghenxnumx
      Ghenxnumx April 23 2013 15: 53
      +1
      Quote: Andrew 121
      Ever wondered if this wonderful machine will be able to break through an American hammer? or other lightly armored vehicles?

      And the armored personnel carrier and MT-LB breaks through, for BMP I will not say, well, but the hammers will be flashed through for sure.
    3. carbofo
      carbofo April 25 2013 18: 55
      0
      She will tear it into a vinaigrette, even medium tanks of the times of the Great Patriotic War can penetrate a 23 mm shell into a sieve.
      http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%A3-23
  8. MAG
    MAG April 23 2013 12: 29
    +2
    A good "lawn mower", but during the shelling of 3 yells in the Vedeno gorge, the crew could not sit on the zu. The Chekhi thrashed exactly on it and after that the pedal made a remote pedal on the rope where it looks during the firing there and shoots! We stood on the zilah and on them the dead batteries after removing the blockage from the roads were set to 3 speed and let's shoot at the mountains there was enough recoil to start
    1. castle
      castle April 23 2013 12: 46
      +3
      Of course I understand, but! To compare or call a Chechen a Czech is an insult to both the Chechen and the Czech! And in the United States, with the light hand of Russian immigrants, they began to confuse the Czechs with the Chechens. wink
      1. MAG
        MAG April 23 2013 12: 52
        +9
        This is just the beginning soon with our supply of americos all its allies in the enemy will write laughing
        1. I'm Russian
          I'm Russian 1 May 2013 19: 07
          0
          Already there is such a case, in Boston ...
  9. castle
    castle April 23 2013 15: 09
    +2
    And we do not favor them here. If you are a guest, then I ask for my favor, but behave as we have decided. If they advise something - thanks, listen, but it's up to us to decide how to live. History has crushed us solidly.
  10. abc_alex
    abc_alex April 23 2013 16: 47
    +1
    But another question baffles me. Over and over again in local conflicts, our soldiers are fencing off variants of self-propelled ZSU 23-2. So why in the end still have not done such a damn thing to the infantry in series? Let not in the form of a finished machine, but in the form of a quickly mounted unit with normal front and side protection?
  11. Mister X
    Mister X April 23 2013 17: 50
    +2
    Quote: Negoro
    It’s easier to create a standard outboard protection kit separately for the gun,
    separately for the truck.
    This will make it possible to book trucks operating in hazardous areas with hinged screens.
    and if necessary, quickly mount the ZSU on any suitable chassis.


    For "bobby" such kits already exist.
    Why not create trucks for trucks?

    Here's how to solve the problem of technology for countering partisans in South Africa



    The same blog posted an article about remaking the all-wheel drive truck Mercedes Unimog
    "Ugly Buffalo".
    Direct link: http://topwar.ru/25963-urodlivyy-buyvol.html
  12. Captain45
    Captain45 April 23 2013 18: 39
    +1
    Quote: hrad
    in the USA, with the light hand of Russian immigrants, they began to confuse the Czechs with the Chechens.

    Well, they not only confuse the Czechs with the Chechens, in the war on 08.08.08, when the announcer in the news on TV announced that Russian tanks had entered Georgia (in English Georgia Georgia), a real panic began in the state of Georgia. What to take from them, mattress covers. that riddle: “Ussaty, striped in the sun warming itself?” If you thought that a tiger, in vain. This is a mattress. Great and powerful Russian language.
  13. Mister X
    Mister X April 23 2013 19: 28
    +3
    There is a modification of the Urals: "Zvezda-ZU" - to accompany the columns.
    Armored cab and baffle for the body, radiator and fuel tank.
    Armament - a spark of KPV machine guns (ZU-2).





    Oddly enough, the manufacturer did not think about protection for calculation.
    The photo posted by the author of the article shows that the guys adapted the hatches from the BMP
    for frontal and rear protection of shooters.
    Or hatches have to cling in place, on their own?
  14. I think so
    I think so April 23 2013 20: 39
    +1
    That's what is needed in the troops, and the designers are developing all kinds of crap like the "Terminator" ... If only they would ask the people who fought ...
  15. stechkinmakarov
    stechkinmakarov April 23 2013 22: 31
    +2
    It can be seen that a self-booked Ural with a ZU-23-2 in the turret. Creativity of Cubans in Angola. The main advantage is the 360-degree circular fire and the protection of the shooters.
  16. stechkinmakarov
    stechkinmakarov April 23 2013 22: 40
    +1
    But this instance is more serious. Everything is in armor. Something similar to our BTR-152 but with the ZU-23-2.
    1. Kars
      Kars April 23 2013 22: 48
      +2
      _________________
    2. stechkinmakarov
      stechkinmakarov April 23 2013 23: 23
      +1
      Our 152 is more serious.
      1. Kars
        Kars April 23 2013 23: 40
        +1
        _________________
  17. stechkinmakarov
    stechkinmakarov April 23 2013 22: 46
    +1
    As an option for using the ZU-23-2 on the BTR-60, the arrows are protected by an armor plate from the rear, but lacks protection from the front. And also the ability to fire on all sides, which is not the "tachanka". Not a bad option for a floating vehicle with such firepower.
  18. shifervals
    shifervals April 23 2013 23: 20
    0
    Under the first picture there is a signature "... 72 MSP ..." Initially, the car belonged to 138 Guards. omsbr, as evidenced by the emblem on the door. With the withdrawal in April-May 2000, we transferred almost all the equipment, with the exception of heavy weapons and rifle fire, to the 291th infantry regiment (military unit 44822) stationed in Borzoi. I can say as a direct participant in the events. We didn’t transfer anything to 72 MSE, which was formed in Naurskaya and Kalinovskaya.
  19. stechkinmakarov
    stechkinmakarov April 23 2013 23: 20
    0
    As an option.
  20. Argon
    Argon April 24 2013 02: 01
    -1
    I’m a supporter of the "undercover" method of protecting communications, although I agree that the situation in Chechnya in particular does not always allow. In essence, the article is brief, objective, well illustrated, plus and respect for the author. Who is interested in the site "courage" has many articles on this topic. Now, about what to do, I think the 23mm caliber is excessive, since even the reinforced chassis of the "Ural" does not hold the "zuha" recoil. No shoots effectively, but the shop must be hit very short, conscripts do not work. Obviously, this option was widely spread due to the "availability" of the ZU-23-2 in the troops. even a class lower, otherwise such a car in the prices of the spirits will be equal to the armored personnel carrier. Consequently, in battle, the appropriate means of destruction will be allocated, the losses will be at the same level if not higher.
  21. Chicot 1
    Chicot 1 April 24 2013 13: 12
    +2
    Trokhs about foreign experience ... They called it like a car in the American manner "gantrucks". They were used in the years of both world wars, and in the wars that followed them ... They were widely used by the Americans in Vietnam to protect transport convoys. Then they recalled this experience in Iraq and Afghanistan ...
    In fact, the appearance of a gantruck is a forced measure. And this is done when there is not enough "purebred" armored vehicles to perform tasks such as escorting transport convoys. And as a rule, it is always not enough ...
    However, in spite of its unpretentiousness, gantrak has always been and are considered. And even more than that, along with self-made ones, "factory" cars began to act in the troops ...

    American dumbbell based on a full-time army truck ...
  22. broker
    broker April 25 2013 05: 45
    0
    This is not an opposition jeep with a machine gun !!!
    1. Starlifter
      Starlifter 22 May 2013 08: 07
      +1
      This is a truck with memory! (Cap)
  23. eplewke
    eplewke 2 August 2013 16: 55
    0
    you can flash anything with such a hummingbird ... Comb the zelenka with bursts, stitch the concrete through and through, and their range is excellent. In general, a formidable weapon ...