Modern coastal anti-ship missile systems are quite powerful systems. weaponscapable of not only solving the tasks of the defense of the coast, but also hitting sea targets at a distance of up to hundreds of kilometers from it. Possessing usually their own means of target designation, high autonomy and mobility, modern coastal SCRC have high combat stability and are difficult to attack even for the most serious enemy. These circumstances were one of the reasons for the current surge in attention on the global arms market to the coastal new generation of SCRCs. Additional prospects are being provided by the possibility of using coastal SCRCs as means of using high-precision rocket weapons for ground targets.
Major foreign developments foreign developments
Today, there is a wide range of coastal SCRCs on the world market, armed with almost all modern types of PKR.
Harpoon (Boeing, USA) - despite its wide distribution in the world, this RCC is used in coastal complexes only in a small amount in several countries: Denmark, Spain, Egypt and South Korea. At the same time, in Denmark, coastal complexes were created independently by rearranging the Harpoon RCC launchers from decommissioned frigates at the beginning of the 90s.
Exocet (MBDA, France) - coastal complexes using the first generation RCC Exocet MM38 were previously in service in the UK (Excalibur complex in Gibraltar, sold in Chile in 1994) and Argentina (improvised, was used during the Falklands conflict in 1982) .), and today are used in Chile and Greece. Coastal SCRCs with more modern Exocet MM40 missiles are in service in Greece, Cyprus, Qatar, Thailand, Saudi Arabia (deliveries were made in the second half of the 80s and 90s) and in Chile (in the latter case made by yourself).
Otomat (MBDA, Italy) - used as part of coastal SCRC, set in the 80-s. Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
RBS-15 (Saab, Sweden) - this complex in the coastal version of the RBS-15K is in service in Sweden and Finland (it was delivered in 80-s), and in Croatia, the RBS-15 ASM is used as part of yy coastal SCRK MOL own production. Saab continues marketing coastal SCRC based on the new version of the RBS-90 Mk 15 rocket.
RBS-17 (Saab, Sweden) - A modified version of the American anti-tank missiles Hellfire. Used with light coastal launchers (PU), which are in service in Sweden and Norway.
Penguin (Kongsberg, Norway) - from the 70-s. This RCC is used in stationary launchers in the coastal defense of Norway. Now the complex is outdated and removed from service.
NSM (Kongsberg, Norway) - the new Norwegian RCC, offered, including in the version of the mobile coastal SCRC. At the end of 2008, Poland entered into a contract worth $ 145 million for the purchase of one coastal NSM division for delivery to 2012. This is the first known contract for the supply of West European-produced SCRCs in the last decade. In the future, it is possible to purchase the coastal version of the NSM and Norway itself.
SSM-1A (Mitsubishi, Japan) - Japanese-made anti-ship missiles, used in Japanese coastal anti-ship missile systems of the 88 type. Not exported.
Hsiung Feng (Taiwan) - the family of RPC, used with 70-s. in the coastal defense of Taiwan in the composition of the same stationary and mobile SCRC. The first version of the SCRC (Hsiung Feng I) is based on a modified analogue of the Israeli RCC Gabriel Mk 2. From 2002, the Hsiung Feng II SCRC, which uses a more long-range missile entirely of Taiwanese design, is being used in the mobile version of Taiwan. Subsequently, the creation of a coastal complex on the basis of the latest Taiwanese supersonic anti-ship missile system Hsiung Feng III is possible. These systems were not exported.
HY-2 (PRC) - Chinese anti-ship missiles (also known as C-201), which is a modified analog of the Soviet P-15 rocket developed by 60. HY-2 coastal PKRKs from the 60s formed the basis of the coastal defense of the PRC, were also supplied to Iraq, Iran, the DPRK and Albania.
HY-4 (PRC) - a modified version of the HY-2 with a turbojet engine, used in the coastal defense of the PRC with 80-s. After 1991, coastal complexes with this missile were delivered to the UAE. Own analogues of this coastal defense missile were developed in Iran (Raad) and the DPRK (American designations AG-1 and KN-01). Today the rocket is hopelessly outdated.
The YJ-62 (PRC) is an anti-ship variant (also referred to as C-602) of the modern Chinese CJ-10 cruise family, similar to the American Tomahawk. The Coastal Mobile SCR C-602 has entered service in recent years, becoming the main coastal defense system of the PKR. No export data available.
YJ-7 (PRC) - a family of light modern anti-ship missiles, which includes missiles from C-701 to C-705. In Iran, a licensed release of C-701 under the name of Kosar, including in the coastal version, and C-704 - under the name of Nasr.
YJ-8 (PRC) is a series of modern Chinese anti-ship missiles, which is known for its C-801, C-802 and C-803 missiles. Onshore mobile systems with C-802 missiles are in service with the People's Republic of China, and in the 1990 – 2000. shipped to Iran and, according to some reports, in the DPRK. It is reported that Thailand is currently planning to purchase these coastal SCRCs. In Iran, a licensed release of C-802 missiles under the designation Noor was organized, the coastal complexes with them were supplied to Syria and the Lebanese organization Hezbollah and were used last in the Lebanese conflict 2006.
The Soviet period
In the USSR, considerable attention was traditionally paid to the creation of coastal SCRCs, since they were regarded as an important means of coastal defense in the conditions of naval superiority of the West. At the same time, in the Soviet Union such complexes were created on the basis of anti-ship missiles not only tactical, but also operational-tactical purposes with a firing range exceeding 200 km.
In 1958, the first Soviet coastal mobile PKRC 4K87 "Sopka" was adopted with S-2 missiles with a firing range of up to 100 km (developed by a branch of OKB-155, now MKB "Raduga" as part of OJSC "Corporation" Tactical Missile Armament "). The same missiles were used in the coastal stationary protected SCRC "Strela" ("Utes"), built on the Black Sea and North fleets... Complex "Sopka" was the basis of the coastal missile and artillery forces of the USSR in the 60s. and was widely supplied to friendly countries, but in the 80s. was finally removed from service.
To replace the Sopka complex in the machine-building design bureau (Kolomna), the mobile coastal SCRK 1978К4 Rubezh using the widely used Navy ПР-40М with a range of ICB “Raduga” was adopted by the Navy of the USSR. . The Rubezh complex was completely autonomous and had integrated on one machine (the MAZ-15M chassis) launcher and the targeting radar “Harpoon”, implementing the concept of a “rocket boat on wheels”. "Frontier", held in 80-s. modernization, still remains the main coastal SCRC of the Russian Navy. In 543-s. in the export variant “Rubezh-E” the complex was supplied to the GDR, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Algeria, Libya, Syria, Yemen, India, Vietnam and Cuba. After the collapse of the USSR, Ukraine received a certain number of systems, and after the collapse of Yugoslavia, its Rubezh-E complexes went to Montenegro, which sold them to Egypt in 80. Now "Boundary" is considered morally and physically obsolete.
As a coastal operational-tactical complex for the Navy of the USSR, the mobile SCRC 1966K4B Redut with supersonic P-44B missiles with a range of up to 35 km developed by OKB-270 (now OAO NPO Mashinostroeniya) was developed and adopted. . BAZ-52MB is used as the base chassis. Subsequently, the Redut was upgraded with the replacement of the P-135B missiles with the more modern 35М3 of the Progress complex, put into service in the 44 of the P-1982B missiles, and then the 35М3 missiles were also re-equipped with the Utes coastal stationary complexes. In 44-s. Redut-E complexes were supplied to Bulgaria, Syria and Vietnam. In the Russian Navy, in Syria and in Vietnam, these systems, despite being outdated, are still in service, and the Vietnamese complexes were updated after 80 by the NPO Mechanical Engineering under the Modern program.
In 80-s. to replace the Redut and Rubezh complexes, the development of a new generation of coastal SCRCs was started on the basis of promising anti-ship missiles (Bastion and Ball complexes, respectively), but due to the collapse of the USSR, they were only able to be brought in recent years. After the start of mass production of these systems, Russia has become a leader in the production of coastal SCRCs and, apparently, will retain this advantage for the next decade, especially given the possibility of promoting even more new Club-M and Bal-U systems to the market.
The operational-tactical coastal SCRC "Bastion" was developed by the NPO Mashinostroeniya based on the new supersonic anti-ship missile of the 3М55 "Onyx / Yakhont" series with a firing range of up to 300 km. The system is offered in mobile (K300P "Bastion-P") and stationary ("Bastion-C") variants, while for export it is completed with YXont K310 missiles with a firing range of up to 290 km. The Bastion-P complex (division) consists of four mobile launchers on the MZKT-7930 chassis (two missiles each), a control vehicle, and also targeting machines with Monolit-B RLK and transport-charging machines .
In 2006, contracts were signed for the supply of one Bastion-P division to Vietnam (estimated value of 150 million dollars) and two divisions to Syria (about 300 million dollars), and the final part of the R & D was actually paid for by the Vietnamese contract . Deliveries of the complex to both customers together with the Yakhont rockets were made by the NPO Mashinostroeniya in 2010,
In 2008, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation issued to NPO Mashinostroenie a contract for the supply of three 3K55 “Bastion-P” systems with Onyx / Yakhont missiles to equip the 11-th separate coastal missile-artillery brigade of the Black Sea Fleet deployed in the Anapa region. At the end of 2009 - the beginning of 2010, two Bastion-P complexes were transferred to the brigade (by the “new look” of the Armed Forces of Russia they are called batteries and consolidated as a brigade in one division), and in 2011 transferred to the third complex (battery).
The Rubezh tactical complex in the coastal missile-artillery troops of the Russian Navy was supposed to be replaced by the coastal 3KXNNXX “Ball” mobile coastal command and control unit using small tactical components created by FSUE “Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau” (main contractor) and enterprises of the “Tactical Rocket Armament” corporation (KTRV) created using the small tactical missile artillery unit 60М3 "Uranus" with a firing range of up to 24 km. The Ball complex consists of four 120С3 self-propelled launchers on the MZKT-60 chassis (eight missiles each), two self-propelled command and control centers (SKPUS) based on the same chassis with the target targeting radar Garpun-Ball, and also four transport-charging machines. The total ammunition complex, therefore, consists of 7930 RCC.
For testing, one “Ball” complex was made in the minimum configuration (one SKPUS, two launchers and one transport-loading machine), which successfully completed state tests in the fall of 2004. This complex was transferred to trial operation of the Russian Navy and is now part of 11- The separate coastal missile and artillery brigade of the Black Sea Fleet, although it does not have 3М24 missile ammunition. But despite the formal adoption by the 2008, the orders of the Ministry of Defense of Russia did not follow orders for mass production of the Ball complex. The complex is offered for export in the Bal-E variant with 3М24Э export rockets, but so far there have also been no orders for it, despite the interest shown by a number of countries.
Another proposal on the shore of the SCRC in Russia is being promoted by OKB "Innovator" (part of OJSC "Concern PVO" Almaz-Antey ") mobile complex Club-M-based cruise missiles Club family (" Caliber ") types 3M14E, 3M54E and 3M54E1 with a range of up to 290 km. The complex is offered for export in a mobile version on different chassis with 3 – 6 missiles on the launcher (including container execution), there are no orders for it yet.
Another project was the proposal of the KTRV (MKB Raduga), presented for the first time in 2006, of a mobile coastal version of the export version of the well-known ship Moskit-E SCRC with supersonic 3М80Э missiles with a range of up to 130 km. The disadvantages of this complex are the cumbersomeness of the far from new missiles, as well as the insufficient firing range. Shore "Moskit-E" has not yet found demand.
Prospects for equipping the Russian Navy
The main promising coastal SCRC for the Russian Navy today is considered to be the Universal Ball-U developed by the leading role of the NPO Mashinostroeniya, which is supposed to use Onyx / Yakhont and Caliber missiles (based on interchangeability) in conjunction with new targeting tools. Apparently, owing to the expectations of the readiness of this complex, the Ministry of Defense of Russia refuses additional orders for the SCRC Bastion and the purchase of Ball complexes with 3М24 missiles.
It should be noted that in case of adopting the Bal-U complex as a unified system of coastal missile and artillery units of the Russian Navy, it will turn out that all the missile armament of these units will be represented only by operational-tactical systems. In this case, in all cases, extremely expensive powerful (with a heavy warhead) supersonic (in the case of the “Caliber” complex - with a supersonic stage) anti-ship missiles, designed to destroy large warships, will be used. The modern coastal tactical complexes of the Russian Navy will be absent in principle. Such a choice can hardly be considered optimal from both a military and an economic point of view.
In the event of a real large-scale conflict, it is unlikely that large enemy ships (for example, American cruisers and destroyers equipped with the AEGIS weapon system, not to mention aircraft-carrying ships) appear in coastal Russian waters, thereby substituting themselves for rocket attacks. The times of the near-sea blockade are long gone, and the attack on Russian territory with naval-based cruise missiles of the US Navy will be able to lead from considerable distances from the coast, obviously exceeding the effective range of existing coastal systems. It is obvious that the invasion of an aircraft carrier strike group and large enemy ships into the Russian near-sea zone will be carried out only after complete conquest of supremacy at sea and in the air and only after the destruction of coastal defense forces during an air-naval operation using high-precision aviation weapons and cruise missiles.
It is also worth saying that the considerable firing range, declared by one of the main advantages of operational-tactical complexes, in the context of a fight with a stronger enemy will be difficult to achieve due to the difficulties of targeting at a considerable distance. The enemy will, if not disrupt, then make it difficult to target the coastal SCRC for a significant distance provided by external means. In the worst-case scenario, coastal SCRC will be forced to rely only on their own radar equipment, the range of which is limited by the radio horizon, which will negate the expected benefits of using expensive long-range missiles.
Thus, coastal SCRCs with powerful operational-tactical missiles, focused on the use mainly in large-scale conflicts against large and “high-tech” sea targets, in reality, in the context of such a conflict, will face significant limitations of efficiency and, quite possibly, will not be able to fully realize their combat potential. Shooting with “Onyxes” at small sea targets in limited conflicts is clearly irrational.
Meanwhile, the modern development of our neighbors' marine forces, as well as the general trends in the evolution of littoral naval combat vehicles, suggest that the role of small combat units (including small combat boats, and, in the future, unmanned combat vehicles) in the war in the near sea zone will increase. Even the US Navy is paying increasing attention to the development of such means. Thus, in the coastal waters of Russia, the most likely conceptual scenario for the Russian Navy is not the presence of “a small number of large targets”, but the presence of a “large number of small targets”. Obviously, the Russian Navy is in dire need of modern weapons systems to combat small and medium surface targets in the near sea zone, especially in the inland seas.
One of the main weapons systems for solving problems of this kind should be considered low-cost subsonic small-sized RPC. Russia has a very successful and spent modern model of such a missile complex in the form of "Uranus" with 3М24 missiles, as well as its coastal version in the form of "Bala".
Neglecting the procurement of these complexes, both ship and coastal, seems completely short-sighted.
The reorientation of the Russian naval forces to the struggle not only with large, but also light and boat forces (at least in the Black, Baltic and Japanese seas) should affect the construction of all the branches and forces of the Navy - both naval and naval forces aviation and coastal missile and artillery units. In relation to the latter, the most optimal prospects are seen in the combination of purchases of operational-tactical coastal anti-ship missile systems "Bastion-P" and "Bal-U" with powerful and high-speed anti-ship missiles "Onyx" and tactical complexes "Ball" with missiles of the "Uran" class. It should be noted that the cost of one Onyx / Yakhont 3M55 missile is about 3-4 times higher than the Uranus 3M24 series missile. The cost of the Bastion-P SCRC battery with a standard ammunition of 16 missiles is approximately comparable (and most likely higher) with the cost of the Bal SCRC battery with a standard ammunition of 64 missiles. Moreover, from the point of view of “clogging” the target channels of modern ship’s air defense systems, a salvo of 32 subsonic missiles is preferable to a salvo of eight supersonic missiles.
In practice, the high cost of the “Bastion” and “Ball-U” complexes is likely to result in restricting their purchases or prolonging the period of their deliveries for a long time. As a result, if the fleet does not resort to the purchase of tactical SCRCs, the Russian coastal missile and artillery units of the Navy and in a decade will be equipped mainly with Redut and Rubezh complexes, which by that time will finally turn into “museum exhibits” with an insignificant military significance. . It should also be pointed out that the 3М24 missiles, as their improvement recently shows, have a large modernization potential, the realization of which will make it possible to significantly increase the flexibility and effectiveness of the use of missile complexes based on them at relatively small costs.
Previously, the material was published in a special issue of the magazine “Arms Export” (publisher - Ruslan Pukhov, director of the AST Center).