Military Review

Sikorksy S-97 Raider - High-Speed ​​Multi-Purpose Rotorcraft

At the end of 2012, the famous American helicopter maker, Sikorsky, began assembling the 2's prototypes of a high-speed combined reconnaissance helicopter, also called a rotary wing, S-97 Raider. The development of this rotary-wing machine is in the interests of the American army. According to representatives of the manufacturer's company, the assembly of the first two prototypes of the S-97 Raider is planned to be completed in the middle of the 2013 year, and the first tests of the new machines will start in the 2014 year.

Rotary S-97 Raider is created on the basis of a high-speed prototype of a company called X2. This model, in addition to coaxial rotors, is equipped with a pushing tail rotor and wings of a small footwell to create lift. According to the estimates of the project developers, their offspring can reach speeds of more than 460 km / h. In service with the US Army, the new S-97 Raider helicopter may replace the outdated Bell OH-58 Kiowa Warrior reconnaissance helicopters, which were in service with the US Army during the Vietnam War.
Sikorksy S-97 Raider - High-Speed ​​Multi-Purpose Rotorcraft

The company sent its proposals on the promising Sikorsky S-97 Raider helicopter, based on the Sikorsky X2 concept, sent to the US Army Ground Forces Command in March 2010. The raider, like the helicopter demonstrator, has the same layout. At the same time in the combat version of the helicopter immediately on the pilot's cabin on the 2-x crew members in the assault assault variant will be located on the 6 paratroopers (reconnaissance), and in the reconnaissance-assault variant, a special weapons compartment and an additional fuel tank. It is worth noting that the American designers almost went the way of creating the concept of “flying BMP”, taking into account the very high modern requirements for maneuverability and speed of the machine.

According to the estimates of the developers of this project, the implementation in practice of all the developments that were obtained during the tests of the demonstrator X2, which lasted for 2 years, will significantly improve flight performance cars. According to them, the combat version of this unit will satisfy or exceed all the requirements that are imposed on it by the command of the US Army. According to Dag Shidler, director of the program for developing a new combat vehicle, the Sikorsky S-97 Raider helicopter will allow the US Army to successfully carry out combat operations in high-altitude areas, where today no other helicopter in the world can operate with the same efficiency.

Of particular note is the fact that during the testing of the prototype X2 its design has undergone a number of changes. In particular, the configuration of the tail of the machine was changed: the designers mounted an additional stabilizer on the lower keel of the 2, having a total area of ​​0,46 square. meters (before that, to increase the helicopter’s travel stability, each of the end washers of the helicopter’s main horizontal tail assembly was increased by 0,28 square meters). The decision to increase the area of ​​the main stabilizer could be considered ideal, but such a change would lead to a serious reworking of the whole structure and a longer time-consuming process. In addition, aircraft designers have improved the machine control system. According to the creators, all of this has made it possible to reduce the load on the helicopter pilot and make the machine more manageable, especially during high-speed flights.

When certain individuals belonging to the Ministry of Defense of Russia wanted to “criticize” the combat effectiveness of the Russian coaxial-helicopter helicopters created in the Kirov Design Bureau. Kamov (for example, the famous Ka-50 helicopter), their main argument, in addition to the fact that “a two-story helicopter cannot be a combat one”, was that nowhere in the west are pine-tree helicopters used in this capacity. However, now this situation seems to be coming to an end, and this argument may soon lose its relevance. When in the West 1990-s, referring to the Soviet experience in building the Ka-50 helicopter, the 2-I wave of research of coaxial helicopters began, this was not accepted by everyone. But after the company Sikorsky Aircraft has developed a program coaxial-demonstrator X2, the veil flew from almost all interested parties. In the near future, co-axes, albeit not quite in the form of helicopters, may appear in service with the American army.

In any case, movement in this direction seems more than obvious, and given the ability of the United States to finance any promising developments, one can be sure that the project will be brought to its logical conclusion. On January 13, 2013, Sikorsky Aircraft and Boeing entered into an agreement in response to a request from the Applied aviation technologies on their development of the United Army Multipurpose Technological Demonstrator. The multipurpose rotorcraft, already known as the S-97, will be based on the X2 rotorcraft, according to both well-known companies.

We have to admit that this pattern of engineering looks somewhat unusual. The S-97 is equipped with two coaxial screws located close to each other, but it is moving forward not with their help, but with the help of the rear pusher screw. As a result, it is possible to eliminate the excess complexity of the design of a coaxial helicopter - at the cost of developing a separate mechanism that is responsible for the horizontal movement of the machine. It is reported that the experimental machine was able to reach speeds in 486 km / h, but this is not a record for the development of the Sikorsky company. Similar speeds in the 70-s of the last century managed to reach the helicopter S-69.

But now we are talking about the helicopter, and not about the usual helicopter. Today, all the normal layout of helicopters have fundamental limitations that prevent the increase in flight speed. It is known that the efficiency of the rotor, by definition, is lower than that of a fixed aircraft wing. It is for this reason that classic helicopters can never see the flight speeds that are available to modern aircraft, and they cannot maintain a high cruising speed. The rotor, which creates not only lifting force, but also thrust for translational motion, as well as losses to parry the reactive moment — all of these design solutions are effective only when taking off and landing from the patch, but not for quick flight ahead. So nowadays, after receiving an order for a sortie, the reaction speed of the attack link of the helicopters is equal to the speed of the same link of the Ju-87 attack aircraft, which were used by the Germans even 70 years ago.

It is for this reason that the aircraft designers from the Sikorsky company, starting from the technical appearance of the S-69B and the X2 prototype, used in the new model a streamlined fuselage, a coaxial rotor and a pusher propeller in the tail section of the car. The diameter of the main rotor is just over 10 meters, the maximum take-off weight is just over 5 000 kg. It may be noted that at first glance it is not so much for a two-seater combat helicopter.

Although the Sikorsky S-97 Raider is now called a multi-purpose vehicle, which will most often be used as an armed reconnaissance aircraft, some experts believe that in this case it’s rather a disguise of true intentions in case the project fails or there are technical difficulties. . Currently, the US Army has a large number of UAVs that are cheaper than the alleged rotorcraft on the basis of X2. Therefore, reconnaissance helicopters on its base for the US military are not the most necessary thing, while the interest of the army special forces in the novelty is quite understandable. This vehicle is ideally suited for transporting a small reconnaissance and sabotage group into the shallow rear of the enemy, and if necessary, the helicopter can provide airborne support to the paratroopers.

The impact potential of the novelty should not be underestimated: thanks to the relatively simple piloting (the movement of the rotorcraft forward is not due to the use of rotors), this device promises to make it capable of making unmanned flights under remote control from the ground. In this embodiment, without a landing on board, a rotorcraft will be able to carry more than a decent combat load. However, so far, the entire armament of the aircraft is reduced to a fleet of unguided rockets or Hellfire anti-tank systems, as well as a mobile turret with an 12,7-mm M2HB machine gun (500 ammunition ammunition). In this case, the main player on the battlefield S-97 Raider will never be, because he does not have a corresponding reservation. The trend is made precisely on the speed with a combination of some shock opportunities.

Representatives of the company Sikorsky promise that the S-97 Raider will be able to develop a cruising speed of the order of 426 km / h, and the maximum range can be 1300 km. And that and another indicator for such a machine looks more than solid and radically exceeds the performance of all modern combat helicopters in the world.

Although the aircraft due to the transport of paratroopers to the 6 is indeed becoming multi-purpose, some questions still arise. In particular, concerning the rotorcraft wing vulnerability. It may be higher than that of functional analogues, due to the greater number of screws and the relatively close arrangement of the bearing coaxial screws, which may lead to their overlap. To clarify these circumstances can only real use of the new machine in combat conditions.

Anyway, there is still time before the tests that are to start in 2014, and it is still difficult to say something concrete about the fate of this project. In this case, a similar machine in the American army has a free niche, which it can take. The world's only commercially produced convertiplane V-22 is too cumbersome and difficult to solve some tasks that require vertical take-off and landing in combination with high speed, and classic helicopters are slow enough for them.

Information sources:
-http: //
-http: //
-http: //
-http: //

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Alikovo
    Alikovo 7 March 2013 09: 42
    amers praise that they were the first to create a helicopter (with Sikorsky), but Sikorsky
    in 1909 he created in Russia, and in 1922 he emigrated because he did not believe in his idea.
    1. Zerstorer
      Zerstorer 7 March 2013 09: 51
      Leonardo Da Vinci also painted a lot of things. And including a helicopter. The question is not who first came up with, the question is who first realized the idea at the proper level and ensured mass application.
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 7 March 2013 10: 17
        Quote: Zerstorer
        the question is who first realized the idea at the proper level and ensured mass application.

        It is logical

        Sikorsky, USMC Korea.
        1. Sirocco
          Sirocco 7 March 2013 16: 07
          Gentlemen, let's not do writing work, That Sikorsky, that Mil that Kamov, TALENT. Cars are good for everyone. I just want to separate the grain from the chaff. Are such speeds possible in helicopters?
    2. Vadivak
      Vadivak 7 March 2013 09: 55
      I don’t know how anyone, but I’m sincerely sorry that Sikorsky left for the staff of the special services Anatnta interested in a talented designer and knowing Sikorsky's devotion to the throne through his agent brilliantly performed an operation on the memory of his son in early 1918, one of his former employees, who worked for the Bolsheviks, came to him home at night, and said: "The situation is very dangerous. I saw the order for your execution." After that, Sikorsky calmly went through Murmansk to France where he was building a more powerful Ilya Muromets, and no one saw the order of execution.
      1. Capt.stryker
        Capt.stryker 8 March 2013 12: 03
        Quote: Vadivak
        Anantha special services interested in a talented designer and knowing the loyalty of the Sikorsky throne through his agent brilliantly conducted an operation

        and here the notorious "State Department" is to blame! Why are you all this nonsense! Sikorsky was not needed in the West by ANYONE! No special services of the Entente took him out of Russia!
        1. Vadivak
          Vadivak 8 March 2013 15: 49
          Quote: Capt.Stryker
          What are you coming up with nonsense here! No one needed Sikorsky in the West!

          You, Aleksandr Andreyevich, demonstrate your incompetence in other areas, Sikorsky built a bomber to the French in 1918, this is a well-known fact, and they didn’t need it when the war ended, but today it and the market economy are needed tomorrow reduced
    3. Capt.stryker
      Capt.stryker 8 March 2013 11: 54
      Quote: Alikovo
      but Sikorsky back in 1909 created in Russia,

      Which never flew. But in France in 1907, helicopters were already able to take off the ground, the first of them Breguet
      The first vertical flight in history took place on August 24 (according to other sources, September 29), 1907, and lasted one minute, for the sake of truth it is worth noting that the flight took place on a leash, without a pilot and was not controlled. The helicopter, built by the brothers Louis and Jacques Breguet under the direction of Professor Charles Richet, took off by 50 cm. The device had a mass of 578 kg and was equipped with an Antoinette engine with a capacity of 45 hp. Gyroplane had 4 rotors with a diameter of 8,1 m, each screw consisted of eight blades, paired in the form of four rotating biplane wings. The total thrust of all screws was 560-600 kg. The maximum flight altitude in hovering mode - 1,525 m was achieved on September 29. There is also evidence that in 1905 the Frenchman M. Leger created an apparatus with two oppositely rotating screws, which could take off from the ground for some time.

      and the second Cornu
      The first person to fly in a helicopter was the French bicycle mechanic Paul Cornu. On November 13, 1907, he was able, on a helicopter he designed, to climb vertically into the air to a height of 50 cm and hang in the air for 20 seconds.

      So learn the story! And do not ascribe to Russia a non-existent primacy.
      Quote: Alikovo
      and in 1922 he emigrated because they did not believe in his idea.

      And this is nonsense! Read the book by Vadim Mikheev "God" of helicopters, maybe there you will find the true reason for the emigration of Igor Sikorsky!
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 8 March 2013 15: 54
        Quote: Capt.Stryker
        And this is nonsense!

        Looks like you're a smart guy
        1. Capt.stryker
          Capt.stryker 8 March 2013 16: 58
          Quote: Vadivak
          Looks like you're a smart guy

          It looks like I'm one of the few here who does not drink vodka "pro-Kremlin uryapotsriotic", and therefore always sober!
          1. Kaa
            Kaa 8 March 2013 17: 05
            Quote: Capt.Stryker
            I’m one of not many here ...... always sober

            Without pointing a finger at anyone .... "a drunk will sleep it off - a troll - never!"
  2. Snegovok
    Snegovok 7 March 2013 09: 46
    Well, such a niche, outwardly it doesn’t look very bad.
  3. GreatRussia
    GreatRussia 7 March 2013 15: 38
    Helicopter Mi X-1 is a high-speed helicopter offered by Mil from Russia. Verto belongs to the same program as his rival Kamov Ka-92, for the design of a helicopter with aircraft capabilities of which the Russian government will allocate about 1,3 billion dollars.

    Mi X-1 is designed to create a new generation of middle class helicopters with a cruising speed of ≈500 km / h. His conceptual design and early specification were presented at the 2009 Heli Russia exhibition in the suburbs.

    Helicopter Kamov Ka-92 is a high speed coaxial helicopter. Designed by Kamov factory from Russia. Ka-92 is the main competitor of Mi-X1, the developers of high-speed helicopters that are on par with aircraft. And the Russian government will allocate about $ 1,3 billion for the development of a high-speed helicopter of the best project.

    Verto Ka-92 - is part of the program of the Russian company of helicopters, designed to create a new generation of mid-range helicopter. Its preliminary design and some technical data were presented at the 2009 Heli Russia exhibition in the Moscow region. Putin was given the desktop of the Ka-92 during a short visit by MAKS. Chief Designer of the plant. Kamova Sergey Mikheev said that development would take at least 8 years. They want to start the first tests in 2014.

    Ka-92 will be represented by a coaxial rotor system, which is a hallmark of Kamov's products. Like the Mi-X1, the pushing screw will be used on the Ka-92, but Kamov uses two coaxial screws instead of one (like Mil).
  4. Sirocco
    Sirocco 7 March 2013 16: 04
    their offspring are able to reach speeds of more than 460 km / h. Gentlemen, is there anyone who specializes in the aerodynamics of helicopters? How about a stall at such speeds? from the rotor blades. Especially pushing from behind. Can anyone explain? Somewhere I heard that for those reasons it is impossible to achieve such speeds on a turntable.
    1. Passing
      Passing 7 March 2013 21: 46
      The horizontal "thrust" of the helicopter is created by the same blades as the vertical one, but the speed of rotation of the blades is limited by the threshold of the speed of sound at the ends of the blades, so there comes a moment when there is no longer enough thrust to maintain the helicopter in the air and at the same time at an even higher speed.
      In the rotorcraft scheme, the horizontal thrust is no longer limited, although the limitation of the supersonic flow around the tips still remains, but the thrust of the "helicopter" blades is no longer spent on horizontal flight, i.e. this threshold is shifted to much greater flight speeds.
      PS: all of the above about the coaxial scheme, for the classical scheme, everything is somewhat more complicated, but we will not delve into the wilds.
  5. Black
    Black 7 March 2013 17: 45
    Quote: Alikovo
    and in 1922 he emigrated because they did not believe in his idea.

    From 17 to 25, a lot of bright minds left the Bolsheviks. Despite the fact that science was one of the priority tasks for them, but, despite their obligations to science, they did not really think about how it should be organized and supported. And the real brain drain went. (and many in the camps ended their days, such as the father of electronic television B.L. Rosen).
    But the catastrophe of the 20s is nothing compared to the state of affairs in modern Russian science. The policy of the new Russia in the first 20 years has led to the fact that the destroyed scientific and technological potential of the Soviet Union is unlikely to be restored. The scientific personnel remaining in Russia are rapidly aging. In 2005, the average age of academicians of the RAS was more than 70 years. This can still be understood, but the fact that the average age of doctors of science is 61 years old and of candidates 52 years old is disturbing. If the situation does not change, then by 2016 the average age of researchers will reach 59 years. Such a picture develops both in the system of the Academy of Sciences, and in the system of higher education and in industrial research institutes. So in 10-15 years, serious science may simply disappear from us.
  6. fzr1000
    fzr1000 7 March 2013 19: 33
    That's what I found in 2009

    Work has begun in Russia to create a high-speed helicopter of the future. It is already called - by analogy with the new T-50 fighter - "fifth generation helicopter". This was stated by Andrey Shibitov, executive director of Russian Helicopters. Shibitov did not specify the technical characteristics of the new aircraft, only noting that the company "is actively working on the concept of a fifth-generation combat helicopter."

    However, as the Russian Helicopters company explained to Izvestia, the media that disseminated this information did not quite understand them correctly. "The fifth generation helicopter" is more of a figurative expression. The news is that the Kamov and Mil firms have begun joint work on the Ka-92 and Mi-X1 high-speed helicopters. Prior to that, three models of high-speed helicopters were developed in modern Russia - the Mi-X1 Mil design bureau, as well as the Ka-90 and Ka-92 Kamov design bureau. The Ka-90 will presumably be able to reach speeds of over 800 km per hour thanks to a by-pass jet engine. In 2009, it was reported that these projects are being carried out within the framework of the federal target program for the development of Russian helicopter construction. At the same time, the estimated time for the creation of machines was estimated at five to eight years.

    The designers hope to achieve such high-speed performance due to the new control system (pushing screw with a variable thrust vector) and the screws themselves of the modernized design. New cars will make available virtually any region of the country. Moreover, unlike airplanes, they do not need special airfields.

    The creation of such helicopters is exactly the case when there is much to hurry. The American firm "Sikorsky" has already lifted into the sky a prototype of the first such machine - the X1 helicopter. There are plans to create a second option - X2 for army intelligence. This single-engine vehicle, operated by one pilot, will have a cruising speed of 460 km per hour. The helicopter made its first flight in 2008. According to Shibitov, the prototype "received serious comments on the gearbox and transmission," and these technical problems have not yet been eliminated.

    As Russian developers say, both of their prototypes are currently being "blown" in a wind tunnel. In the future, on the basis of these machines, one will be chosen, but rather, ideas will be combined in some third machine. Structural elements, the technical ideas of which, possibly, will form a new generation military helicopter project.

    In the long term, the highest priority is the program to create a high-speed helicopter. At present, Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant and Kamov OJSC have

    Mi-X1 and Ka-92 are undergoing pre-design work. They are funded by the developers and the management company, Russian Helicopters.

    According to Sergey Mikheyev, general designer of Kamov, it will take 7 years to develop a breakthrough project with a stage of readiness for serial production and funding from the state. The general directors of the defense industry complex "Oboronprom" and "Russian Helicopters" are in solidarity with his point of view. And domestic developers are confident in their strengths and capabilities in design and production. “Despite the existing difficulties, the company will solve all the strategic tasks that have been set before us,” said A. Reus.
  7. fzr1000
    fzr1000 7 March 2013 19: 56
    But about Sikorsky

    Sikorsky proposed a different solution to the problem of a drop in lift - the concept of the leading blade, in English it is indicated by the abbreviation ABC.

    A helicopter with ABC technology can safely continue to accelerate - even after the lift on the back side disappears, on the upcoming side it will continue to grow. The concept has already proven its viability on the Sikorsky S-69 experimental helicopter. Using two jet engines creating horizontal thrust, the vehicle accelerated to 518 km / h, relying on the lifting force of the advancing blades of the coaxial screw.

    When the tips of the helicopter blades approach the speed of sound, the resistance to rotation increases sharply. This could be the next speed limit for a helicopter. The rotational speed of the Sikorsky X2 rotors is automatically reduced, starting at a speed of 390 km / h. At maximum speed, which is 474 km / h, the deceleration will be 20%. The fact that the horizontal flight speed is not determined by the rotors and the lifting force is used as efficiently as possible allows the rotors to rotate very slowly, and the helicopter to fly very fast.

    Sikorsky X2 control system - fly-by-wire. None of the controls has a mechanical connection with the actuators - the pilot only gives commands to the computer that controls the servos. Electronic control made it possible to implement an active vibration suppression system, intelligent pitch and rotor speed control, a unified system for monitoring the technical condition of the machine, and a simple transition to autorotation in case of engine failure. All propellers are driven by a single LHTEC T800 turboshaft motor with a capacity of over 1000 kW. The overall pitch is controlled by electric drives built into the hubs of the jointless rotors. By the way, the screws themselves are made of composite materials and are characterized by an improved ratio of lifting force to resistance due to the innovative shape and profile. The X2 coaxial screw sleeve will be enclosed in an aerodynamic fairing, which significantly reduces the aerodynamic drag of the machine at speeds above 400 km / h.

    Company president Jeff Pino claims the X2 will revolutionize the helicopter industry. But is it?

    Again, on the X2 helicopter, a complex transmission was used that distributes power between the coaxial bearing and pushing screws. How will she behave in operation? How vulnerable will it be in combat conditions? How much will it all cost in the series? There are no answers to these questions yet.

    Gennady Nechaev

    22th of October 2010
  8. homosum20
    homosum20 7 March 2013 21: 11
    Thanks to our bald leader, Sikorsky emigrated to America in 1919. Well, how many military-technical problems do we have because of this?
    Let's not choose bald leaders!
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 7 March 2013 22: 17
      So we don’t choose them, they will climb the patles by force ...
  9. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 7 March 2013 22: 42
    Interesting. Sikorsky's firm still has not been able to repeat the coaxial scheme in its pure form, to ensure translational motion. That is, Kamov’s company is the only manufacturer of classic coaxial helicopters!
    A push screw circuit will certainly help. But still,
    Quote: fzr1000
    Ka-90 is supposed to be able to reach speeds over 800 km per hour
    this is believed more (taking into account the experience of the Kamov firm) than the fact that the X-2 will squeeze out 500 km.h!
    Especially considering the recent experience of Amer (the F22 is falling apart and decaying, the F-35 does not fly) there will be an unbelievable prodigy of hawed loot!
    1. fzr1000
      fzr1000 7 March 2013 22: 54
      About Ka-90. No one in the world has such a concept, not even the Americans. This is a completely new technical scheme. The helicopter rises from the ground with the help of hard and shortened propellers. It picks up speed of 400 km / h, then a turbojet dual-circuit engine is turned on, which accelerates the car to 700-800 km / h.
      The propellers are then automatically folded into a case on the "back" of the helicopter. When it is necessary to sit down, the propellers unfold again, the jet engine turns off, and the car lands normally. Controversy has erupted over the power plant, it will be a combination of a GTE and a turbojet engine (in this case, the GTE driving the rotor will "hang" as a dead weight in most flight modes) or a turbojet engine with power take-off for the rotor in takeoff mode.
      1. Windbreak
        Windbreak 8 March 2013 12: 12
        Quote: fzr1000
        Then the propellers are automatically folded into a case on the "back" of the helicopter
        and how will lifting force arise in this mode?
        1. fzr1000
          fzr1000 8 March 2013 13: 18
          Due to the thrust of the turbojet engine, probably. I believe more in the option with less speed and a pushing screw.
      2. Capt.stryker
        Capt.stryker 8 March 2013 12: 12
        Quote: fzr1000
        About Ka-90. No one in the world has such a concept, not even the Americans. This is a completely new technical scheme. The helicopter rises from the ground with the help of hard and shortened propellers. It picks up speed of 400 km / h, then a turbojet dual-circuit engine is turned on, which accelerates the car to 700-800 km / h.

        Something like that American the concept was written back in the early 80s of the last century in one of the Soviet popular science magazines, maybe "Tekhnika-Molodyozhi" - I don't remember exactly.
      3. WS
        WS 8 March 2013 18: 18
        The comment is useful, but the turbojet engine is a type of gas turbine engine, maybe TVAD (Turbulent)
  10. dsf43rewdsg
    dsf43rewdsg 8 March 2013 01: 43
    Imagine, it turns out that our authorities have complete information about each of us. And now she has appeared on the Internet in free use at Just enter your name and surname and there you and the address, and the place of work, correspondence in the social. networks, and even found my intimate photos, I can’t imagine where it came from ... In general, I was very scared. But there is also good - the data can be deleted, I used it myself and I advise you ...
  11. xmel2003
    xmel2003 8 March 2013 16: 44
    This is not a helicopter. No wonder they coined the term for this machine. I think this is the implementation of a gyroplane on a modern technical level. Correct if not right.
  12. Andriuha077
    Andriuha077 8 March 2013 17: 18
    Fine cars
    Both Americans and Mi with Kamov-92
    In essence, a new look at jumping gyroplanes.