Military Review

"1200 Object". Wheel rival future BMP-1

As you know, when creating the very first Soviet infantry fighting vehicle, the BMP-1, several machines were developed at once, differing from each other in layout, propulsion and even undercarriage. As a result, a tracked vehicle became a new type of equipment in the Soviet army. However, wheeled and even combined wheeled-tracked armored vehicles competed with it. All the designs submitted for the competition during the comparative tests showed their advantages and disadvantages. As a result of their comparison, the military chose the tracked vehicle “Object 765” / BMP-1, developed in Chelyabinsk GSKB-2.

"1200 Object". Wheel rival future BMP-1
Experienced BMP "object 765"

A full-fledged alternative to the crawler "Object 765" can be considered the draft wheel armored vehicle "Object 1200", created in the design bureau of the Bryansk Automobile Plant. According to the results of the first years of operation of the BTR-60 wheeled armored personnel carrier, the Bryansk engineers decided to develop a wheeled armored vehicle. In addition, they already had some experience in creating such a technique. The wheeled chassis with the formula 8х8 found able to provide all the necessary technical and combat qualities. In addition, the wheel propulsion promised the possibility of unification with the existing technology. The development of the 1200 Facility began in 1964, under the direction of F.A. Rozova

Despite the possibility of unifying a large number of parts and units of the undercarriage, when creating a new “1200 Object”, the achievements of the BTR-60 project were almost not taken into account. That is why the welded armored corps of a promising infantry fighting vehicle has characteristic recognizable lines. The car body was proposed to be welded from rolled sheets with maximum thickness (frontal part) in millimeters 60. Thus, the armor provided protection of the crew and units from bullets and shell fragments. In this case, a frontal projection could withstand the fire of large-caliber machine guns. Only bulletproof booking was due to the then views on the appearance of modern war and the requirements for promising technology.

The internal layout of the Bryansk BMP is quite interesting. In the future, something similar was used on some foreign machines. In front of the hull, under the cover of thick frontal armor, they placed the jobs of the driver and commander. Immediately behind them were three landing places. In the middle part of the corps they placed the combat compartment with a turret, behind which were the engine-transmission and main landing compartments. The engine and auxiliary units were located on the left side of the stern of the machine. The remaining volume of the stern was taken under the seats for four fighters with weapons. Embarkation and disembarkation was to be carried out through one stern door and two hatches in the roof. The front volume of the troop compartment was connected to the rear with a narrow passage.

The basis of the power plant of a promising infantry fighting vehicle was to become a UTD-20 diesel engine with a capacity of 300 horsepower. The transmission transmitted torque to all eight drive wheels. The latter were equipped with hydropneumatic suspension and a swap system. An interesting feature of the chassis of the “Object 1200” was the fact that the driver could change the clearance of the car depending on the conditions by adjusting the pressure in the shock absorbers. Especially for movement on water in the rear of the car placed two water cannons, borrowed from a floating tank PT-76. Their intake windows were on the sides, exhaust pipes - in the aft sheet of the hull.

With a total combat mass of the new BMP of the 14 ton order, the 300-strong engine provided it with a specific power of about 21-21,5 horsepower per ton. Thanks to this, the “1200 Object” could accelerate on a highway to a speed of 90 kilometers per hour and cross water obstacles at a speed of about 10 km / h. Fuel enough for 500-kilometer march on the highway.

The combat module was the same for all infantry fighting vehicles participating in that competition. It was a single-seater turret with an 73-2 Thunder X-mm smooth-bore cannon with 28 rounds of ammunition. A PKT machine gun of the 40 caliber of a millimeter (ammo cartridges - 7,62 cartridges) was paired with a gun. In addition, the tower had a launch guide for guided missiles of the anti-tank complex 2000K9 "Malyutka". Inside the fighting compartment, up to four such missiles were placed in the styling. After launch, preparation for the new was carried out manually from the tower.

In 1965, the Bryansk auto-builders assembled the first and, as it turned out later, the last prototype of the 1200 Object infantry fighting vehicle. Since the towers of all the combat vehicles submitted to the competition, including the 1200 Object, were almost the same, their firepower was not compared. This fact has saved time and effort on the installation of weapons. Therefore, the "Object 1200" received a simplified tower, in which instead of guns, machine guns, ammunition and weapon control systems installed their weight imitators. It was in this form that the Bryansk infantry fighting vehicle overcame routes and transported test-soldiers.

The characteristics of the “1200 Object” were generally considered acceptable, however, it was not without complaints. Soldiers who participated in the tests as a "payload" complained about the narrowness of the troop compartment. Firstly, the paratroopers, who were sitting at the commander and driver's places, were not too comfortable to leave the car through the stern door. The BMP sitting in the stern was no easier: due to the specific placement of the engine and water cannons on the sides, the passage and door were not wide enough and comfortable. Other competing vehicles were at least as good as the Bryansk “120 Object”, or even surpassed it.

Yet the main problem of the perspective BMP was wheeled chassis. It was better tracked when driving on prepared roads, but on rough terrain or on water, the balance of power changed. The wheels simply could not provide the car with patency at the level of tracked competitors. In addition, the wheel suspension was too sensitive to the conditions. So, during the test swims in the sea water, some details of the brakes were quickly soaked and become unusable. Another problem associated with movement on water was the adhesion of wet wheels to the surface of the shore. Coming out of the water, the “1200 Object” could only drive ashore with a relatively slight slope.

According to the results of comparative tests of all the armored vehicles submitted to the competition, the most interesting and promising were the tracked “Object 765”, later called BMP-1. Although he lost at the maximum speed (about 60-62 km / h on the highway and up to 7 km / h on the water), the combination of road performance on the ground and on the water was much better. For example, caterpillars with special grids allowed literally to disperse to climb on a fairly steep slope of the coast, and on rough terrain did not allow the car to get stuck.

Comparative tests of several variants of a promising infantry fighting vehicle clearly showed all the advantages of tracked vehicles. The "1200 object" remained in a single copy, which did not even receive weapons. It has been preserved to the present day and is now kept in the tank museum of the Kubinka town near Moscow. The theme of wheeled infantry fighting vehicles did not receive any development, and such a running gear for many years remained a characteristic feature of the domestic armored personnel carriers.

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  1. klimpopov
    klimpopov 4 March 2013 09: 31
    Come on, here you go what you need! After all, everything passed! All developed. And now ALL modern foreign analogues are very similar to this most interesting machine.
  2. avt
    avt 4 March 2013 09: 41
    Ayayayayay! This is what. The author wants to say that generals should not be allowed to go to exhibitions abroad until all museums in the country are visited? laughing How do you get the army on wheels for mobility? Aaaaaaa, I understand they are about other ,, wheels "! Article +
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 4 March 2013 09: 49
      Here I am about the same. All passed, we all know. And the feeling that they simply erased 70 years from history, and now, as small children and schoolchildren, we’ll break our foreheads ...
    2. Azaleptin
      Azaleptin April 28 2016 17: 13
      The roads of the bourgeois are very good. Here is a wheeled vehicle to the border of the former USSR and will be able to, and then what ..? All and get stuck in the swamps of Belarus and Bryansk.
  3. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 4 March 2013 09: 51
    Good review. A plus. At that time, the concept of wheeled infantry fighting vehicles was unclaimed. But the idea is not dead. The car is similar to the BTR-90 ...
  4. Syrdon
    Syrdon 4 March 2013 10: 56
    like Stryker, very much so.
    1. AlNikolaich
      AlNikolaich 4 March 2013 16: 14
      Quote: Syrdon
      like Stryker, very much so.

      More likely a striker on her ...
      1. Skuto
        Skuto 4 March 2013 20: 11
        So the striker was copied from the B1 Centaur (Italian: Centauro)
        1. Glenn witcher
          4 March 2013 23: 59
          The Stryker is a continuation of the Piranha 8x8 line, or rather a very deep modernization of the LAV-25 (Piranha for the USMC).
  5. Chicot 1
    Chicot 1 4 March 2013 11: 39
    There is nothing new under the sun...

    N-yes already ... Everything is new, it is well forgotten old. The car is more than interesting, and in my opinion has not lost its relevance in our days. In addition, it seems to me more acceptable for the battlefield than the Nizhny Novgorod (Arzama) armored personnel carriers. It is a pity that further work on it was stopped. Of course, I could be wrong, my conclusions are completely subjective ...

    But let's wait for Boomerang. Moreover, the wait is not so long ...
    1. bask
      bask 4 March 2013 14: 27
      Object ,, 1200,, It’s just FANTASTIC. So ahead of the time. Diesel 300 l / s
      Absolutely innovative machine. Would take it instead of the BTR-60. I can’t even imagine what armored vehicles we had now.
      If we compare ,, Object 1200 and BTR-82,, By installing on a wheeled infantry fighting vehicle, modern communications, a gun, sights. An object created 45 years ago in all respects will bypass, the latest BTR-82.
      PATRIA AMV 100%

      Piranha -4

      1. sanek45744
        sanek45744 4 March 2013 14: 40
        by the way, many of our developments were ahead of their time! but the thinking of the military and party workers, unfortunately, who lived yesterday, did not always give a green light !! it’s a pity! in fact, all the Western news we thought up before and didn’t realize (( (
        1. bask
          bask 4 March 2013 14: 59
          Quote: sanek45744
          Many of our developments were ahead of their time! but the thinking of the military and party workers, unfortunately, who lived yesterday, did not always give a green light !! very sorry!

          GAZ was a giant. Having its own lobby in the Central Committee. And BAZ was just a branch of ZIL
          Naturally, the BTR-60, which was sinking in all respects, was accepted. Not anyone did not want to look ahead. They called the BMP only on GS
          Yes, the Object 1200, the equipment is at least not outdated. And as a maximum of such APCs, we now do not have in Russia. It is only being created.
          1. sanek45744
            sanek45744 4 March 2013 15: 13
            I expressed this idea not only on this topic, but in general about the situation as a whole! Many projects were closed in Soviet times and amers came in the 90s and they all watched it! I don’t read it in 90 _x on Yakovlev’s KB the amers arrived, they messed up some kind of joint venture there and then in a strange way they got x35 very similar to our Yak 141, the project of which was minimized !!!
    2. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 4 March 2013 15: 59
      I googled the trochs here. And now ... I grabbed the picture ... winked Take a closer look ... Predatory? .. Predatory! .. And this is a machine that was developed more than half a century ago !!! ... fellow

      "Object 1200" (side view, port side) ...
  6. Rrrrr
    Rrrrr 4 March 2013 15: 27
    Very nice car. +. How far other states technically lagged behind us, only in the last two decades, taking advantage of our openness, we have slammed many developments and implemented them. The USA, Europe, and not to mention the appendages of the old type of Israel and the new type of Georgia at the time of the development of this machine were figuratively similar to the natives. So my Russian-speaking foreign aggressive bite your elbows that separated, and who had left earlier. Unfortunately, many with whom I talked and communicate still regret ... They can’t return (
    1. bask
      bask 4 March 2013 18: 18
      Quote: Rrrrr
      the development of this machine was figuratively similar to Aboriginal people. So my Russian speakers are foreign

      Rrrrr Exactly in the 60s when, appeared, Object 1200 ,,,, Looks like the natives. !!!!
      60-x -1

      In the 70s 1977-2

      In the 80s -3

      And went LAV, Stryker, IT'S IN the 90s
  7. Explore
    Explore 4 March 2013 16: 57
    It would be better to accept both objects. There would be two types of propulsors for different theater or different tasks. And already for half a century we have been riding the BTR-60/70/80 series, using them not for their intended purpose (i.e. not as conveyors, but as full-fledged fire support vehicles) ...
    1. Skuto
      Skuto 4 March 2013 20: 13
      Well, why two?
      IFVs must move with tanks, tracked vehicles with tracked vehicles.
  8. bask
    bask 4 March 2013 19: 13
    Quote:] Object 1200. " Wheel competitor of the future BMP-1 [/ quote

    ,, Object 1200 ,, a competitor, most likely BTR-60/70/80 82 / Or rather, AN EXPRESS LEADER ..... AT LEAST NOW ON THE CONVEYOR. !!!!
    q1vuKdvrEWzgLJal [/ img]

    And the BTR-60 .. you believe that it was released in the 60s
  9. Mr. Truth
    Mr. Truth 5 March 2013 00: 11
    BMP wheels are not needed, but the APC should be wheeled. And it should be the armored personnel carrier, and not good chassis with 4-ton towers.
  10. b-612
    b-612 5 March 2013 01: 23
    looks very cool, especially considering the creation time
  11. v.nosov100
    v.nosov100 April 21 2015 05: 02
    Here the damned capitalists, once again stole our domestic achievements. And how far our designers looked, ahead of all 45 years.