Military Review

Machines of former allies

More recently, the countries closest to us were our allies, but time has put everything in such a way that now the Warsaw Pact countries have become part of NATO. As you know, the standards we have and they are different, therefore, what armed the armies of these countries is of great interest. We omit the simplest variations on the subject of a Kalashnikov assault rifle, adapted for a 5,56 cartridge, as this weapons you can find information in a series of articles "Relatives of the Kalashnikov assault rifle", and switch to the weapons that were developed in these countries or imported from others.

It’s worth starting, perhaps, with the Czech Republic, since quite recently the designers of this country have managed to prove again to everyone that they are among the best and have not lost their knack for creating the best weapon in the world. When was the last time the question of rearming the Czech army to the place of the new machine claimed the best models of weapons created in Europe and the United States, but the competitive test of weapons had a completely different goal than the choice of a new machine. During the tests, the main shortcomings of the best of the samples of modern machines were identified, and taking into account the information received, the designers started to create their own sample of the machine.

Work on the weapon was completed surprisingly quickly. It is difficult to name the exact reason why the designers managed to create in a record short time a sample of a weapon that surpasses in its characteristics both SCAR and FN416 and other promising at the moment. Most likely, the thing is that the country has long had an excellent base and a school of gunsmiths, and therefore did not make a problem in the shortest possible time to create a sample that fully complied with the new requirements. The name of the new machine CZ805, now this weapon is actively replacing other samples in the army of the Czech Republic.

The main feature of the machine is not that, due to barrels of various lengths, the weapon changes its purpose, but that the machine initially had the ability to instantly change the used ammunition. Of course, it is not difficult to do in any other sample of weapons, but it is not often possible to find an automaton in which this possibility was originally laid when designing weapons. The machine is built according to the scheme of automation with removal of powder gases from the barrel, the barrel is locked when the shutter is turned. The trigger mechanism allows automatic firing of a single, with a cut-off of three rounds and automatic. The most important feature of the weapon is its full bilateralism. The switch of the safety and fire modes is located immediately above the trigger on both sides of the weapon. The shutter handle can be rearranged from the right side to the left, the ejection of the spent cartridges can also be reconfigured to the side convenient for the shooter. Unfortunately, it’s impossible to say that this weapon can boast with a well-thought-out system of quick hand changes. Still, the same switch of ejection of spent cartridges takes time, and sometimes it may not be time.

At the moment, CZ 805 can be considered the main weapon of the army of the Czech Republic. We will not dwell on this weapon in more detail, since relatively recently there was prepared material.

Poland, unlike the Czechs, took the path more simple and did not create weapons completely from scratch, limiting herself to creating her own line of development of a Kalashnikov assault rifle. Although the word restricting is probably not entirely appropriate, since, as a result of their own variant of AK development, they managed to create a truly unique pattern, in which, although the roots of the famous automaton are visible, this is a somewhat different, not quite familiar weapon.

At the moment the machine gun is named Beryl and is the main weapon of the Polish army. Of the remarkable features of this automaton is the combination of AK with individual elements M4, but at the same time the weapon looks quite harmonious and does not look like a mixture of a bulldog with a rhinoceros. As a result of adaptation for the 5,56x45 cartridge, the weapon received slightly different characteristics than the Kalashnikov assault rifle. In addition, despite the preservation of the main components of the AK, this machine was able to fire with a cut-off 3 cartridge, which also affected its effectiveness. However, this possibility was introduced by the Poles in their later versions of the Kalashnikov, so it’s impossible to distinguish it as an innovation.

Machines of former alliesThe weapon received several attachment strips for additional devices. Picatinny-type attachment plates allow the rifle to be equipped with a grenade launcher, an optical or night-sight, and so on. The machine has 4 versions that differ in barrel length, one of which is intended for sports use and is deprived of the possibility of automatic fire.

This weapon has become the most widespread in the Polish army, but lately Polish gunsmiths have come close to the question of creating their own set of “soldier of the future”, which includes Beryl, but it is planned to replace it with another, more effective sample. It is not yet known for certain what kind of weapon it will be, but some individuals have let it go, that work is being done not only in the direction of the weapon itself, but also of the ammunition, moreover, of an ammunition-less ammunition. The Poles are counting on such ammunition and plans to make it the main NATO patron, but, in my opinion, such plans will never be realized, since too many weapons will have to be replaced with new samples, except that the Polish sleeveless ammunition will be compatible with weapons under 5,56х45, very doubtful. In addition, we should not forget that the introduction of such a cartridge in NATO is a lot of money, which, naturally, no one has the desire to give. In general, no matter how brightly the prospects of creating a new weapon and a new cartridge look, all these are just plans and most likely they will remain as such, just as the Beryl machine gun will remain in service with the Polish army for a long time. More information about the weapons and how the Kalashnikov assault rifle developed in Poland can be found here. this article.

In addition to the Beryl machine gun, other samples can be found in the Polish army, but the old G36, HK416 and SCAR are not of Polish origin. All this is present in very small quantities in the Polish army. Naturally, this weapon is not massive, it is in service in very small quantities and far from everywhere, so you should not take it into account.

Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary are content with their own Kalashnikov assault rifles, and not everywhere they are “sharpened” under the patron of 5,56х45. So, for example, in Bulgaria, almost all samples under 5,56 are duplicated in the caliber 7,62, under the domestic ammunition 7,62х39. In addition to these samples, European and American weapons are being actively purchased, which takes large sums from the countries' budget or makes them get into huge loans. In general, they try to resort to the purchase of foreign weapons extremely rarely, improving and expanding the capabilities of their machines, and constantly working on the creation of new models, but so far without success.

Summarizing everything written above, I would like to separately note the fact that the Kalashnikov assault rifle found use in NATO countries. Naturally, it is not suitable for individual tasks, but as a cheap and at the same time reliable model for mass weapons is an ideal weapon, albeit someone else’s production and for someone else’s cartridge.
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  1. avt
    avt 25 February 2013 09: 34
    Plus set, but hosh as hosh but it will be not enough! laughing The author somehow taught that he has tastier articles! So a little good
    1. scrabler
      25 February 2013 10: 59
      I plan to do full reviews, all in one article, if you start sculpting, then a whole book will work out) it’s right, for a snack wink
      1. anatoliy73
        anatoliy73 25 February 2013 22: 43
        I realized that the article is yours. Since now a little "not in the subject" - I have ceased to be regularly interested in the "shooter" since the beginning of the XNUMXs, I wanted to ask - what, the Czechs have any benefit from acquiring the Baryshevsky "mechanical laser" (that is, a family of lasers) smile removed, al everything stalled from them? It seems that some kind of weapon family was developed, it seems? winked hi
    PROXOR 25 February 2013 09: 54
    Rolled up in plastic, all kinds of mu..ey hung, but the essence is this: Kalashnikov assault rifle can not be replaced !!!
  3. Octavian avgust
    Octavian avgust 25 February 2013 09: 54
    The best Kalashnikov assault rifle, and the rest of his clones!
  4. Sasha 19871987
    Sasha 19871987 25 February 2013 10: 00
    apparently we are waiting for the continuation)
    1. Akim
      Akim 25 February 2013 10: 14
      sasha 19871987,
      Well no. None of the former Warsaw Pact Countries can boast of anything. Of the allies, only in torn Yugoslavia, Croats released their samples during the Civil.
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny 26 February 2013 02: 27
        It seems that still the Armenians are making their Kalash modifications. Serbs also kind of riveting something. China is not disclosed in the article.
        1. Akim
          Akim 26 February 2013 06: 02
          And was China the creator of the USSR? In my opinion he was the enemy number 2.
          1. Marek Rozny
            Marek Rozny 26 February 2013 21: 23
            When we passed AK production technology to them, they were still allies.
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. bazilio
    bazilio 25 February 2013 11: 22
    "So, for example, in Bulgaria, almost all samples under 5,56 are duplicated in caliber 7,62, under domestic ammunition 7,62x45."Cyril, here you are a bit sealed)))
    Thanks for the review.
    1. scrabler
      25 February 2013 11: 56
      Thank you for correcting, smile
      1. KORESH80
        KORESH80 26 February 2013 09: 07
        according to their characteristics and SCAR and FN416

        FN is probably SCAR here, but 416 is HK.
  7. bazilio
    bazilio 25 February 2013 12: 13
    What is remarkable. Czech ChZ-805 is a new product. But it still applies the principle of automation with the removal of gases from the bore. That is, the machine itself is new, but the automation scheme is classical, it will turn 100 soon)) and it seems to me that the next 50 years will be used for at least XNUMX years.
    If you look, at present, only such a scheme of automation is really used, plus a half-free shutter with rollers a la Hekler Koch, plus automation with gas removal directly to the shutter group (M16) and that’s all. Well, you can still remember the automation with locking the barrel by a skew shutter (FN FAL). I wonder when they come up with something fundamentally new?
    1. Akim
      Akim 25 February 2013 12: 39
      To invent a new principle of automation - it is necessary to invent a fundamentally new cartridge, and not become attached to the standard. So while this scheme is the most successful.
    2. scrabler
      25 February 2013 12: 52
      There are many developments, both modern and old, from the middle of the last century, only they are difficult to implement, and in principle they have no advantages over common schemes, or it is so small that it is not advisable to establish the production of such weapons.
      Automation on the basis of the Barnitske (Barnetzke) principle, where the powder gases discharged from the barrel bore with their pressure do not allow the shutter to move, is quite an acceptable option not only for pistols, but also for machine guns, in my opinion, it is strange that they did not even try to apply it. It would have turned out to be an expensive weapon, of course, and in the original there would have been no reliable locking of the barrel channel, but could have been combined with a scheme with a short stroke of the barrel. As a result, it would turn out that the movement began already after the bullet took off from the barrel, although of course such a weapon would lose exactly to models with a fixed barrel, but there would be a plus in the form of a significant reduction in recoil when firing.
      One could try schemes where the shutter does not move in a straight line, but rotates around its axis ... In general, it can be distorted, but it still doesn’t work that way - once you get a weapon of the twenty-second century.
      1. bazilio
        bazilio 25 February 2013 17: 15
        Yes, here I agree. It's just time to come up with something fundamentally new. I understand that in this case they will not switch to other physical methods of projectile throwing (electronic magnetic impulse, etc.), it is useless to wait for radically new designs and solutions. It’s just time already))) In 34 years, AK will turn 100 years old. Currently, the most modern models use the principles of automation of the first half of the 20th century. Do not consider it whining, just curiosity longs for something new)))))))
      2. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 26 February 2013 03: 33
        Yes they did. The same Germans for Volkssturm under the Kurzpatron. But the gas braking system is not only expensive to manufacture, but also very sensitive to the quality of the powder.
    3. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 26 February 2013 03: 31
      More. Claire Brothers. if sclerosis doesn’t change me, they patented a gas outlet back in 1887 ...
  8. zmey
    zmey 25 February 2013 14: 32
    The Czechs "pleased" - they took constructive solutions from several samples and blinded their own.
    After Galil, the Polish automatic machine looks like a slightly improved version. IMHO.
    1. castle
      castle 25 February 2013 18: 20
      Who knows how, that knows how, and who does not, that either envy and criticize or try to teach.
    2. scrabler
      25 February 2013 19: 26
      Apparently, either I put it inaccurately or you misunderstood, but even there was no talk of copying. During the tests, the main flaws of the weapon were found, which the designers eliminated already in their sample.
  9. andrey903
    andrey903 25 February 2013 14: 47
    Again ahead of us, find 3 differences from the AK-12
  10. Larus
    Larus 25 February 2013 16: 15
    A review of some sort of castrated -
  11. busido4561
    busido4561 25 February 2013 17: 36
    Cognitive information.
  12. DuraLexSedLex.
    DuraLexSedLex. 25 February 2013 20: 52
    To the author "+" for the Old, BUT MALAWAT !!!!!
    Therefore, the gag =)))))))


    1 Serbia:
    In the second half of the twentieth century in Serbia, which at that time was part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the state-owned enterprise Zastava mastered the production of licensed Soviet Kalashnikov AK-47 assault rifles under the designation Zastava M64, and subsequently the development and production of their modifications M70, M77, M92, including M80, M85, M90 chambered for 5,56x45 mm NATO cartridge.

    Zastava M21

    In 2004, taking into account previous developments and in order to replace the M70 and M92 family assault rifles in service with the Serbian army, the Serbian state-owned enterprise Zastava oružje presented its new development - the 21x5,56 mm NATO assault rifle Zastava M45. The choice of 5,56x45 mm NATO cartridge was influenced by the desire of Serbia to join the North Atlantic bloc, within which this ammunition is standardized.

    Like previous options, the Zastava M21 assault rifle is another modification of one of the most popular small arms systems in the world - the Kalashnikov assault rifle.
    Zastava M21S

    By design, from the point of view of all mechanisms, the Zastava M21 assault rifle is a copy of the Kalashnikov assault rifle with a gas automatic engine, store powered and air-cooled barrel, with the possibility of single and automatic firing. The device and functioning of all nodes and mechanisms of M21 are identical to the corresponding elements of the AK-47.

    Zastava M21S

    However, the new weapon has undergone a number of design innovations.

    Design changes are primarily associated with a change in the caliber of the weapon on a 5,56x45 mm cartridge.

    Unlike previous modifications, the Zastava M21 assault rifle uses modified mechanical sights.

    At the same time, the installation of optical instruments and auxiliary equipment of the NATO model is provided for on the new weapon, for which the rifle is equipped with a Picatinny rail mounted on the receiver cover. Dovetail-type machines are also produced, which are equipped with special adapter brackets with Picatinny strips.

    The machine gun received a new pistol grip and forend. M21 M21S M21C
    Caliber, mm 5.56x45 NATO
    Length, mm
    - butt decomposed
    - butt folded
    Barrel length, mm 460 375 325
    Weight, kg 3.85 3.75 3.6
    Shop count 30 cartridges
    firing range, m 600 500 400
    Rate of fire,
    rds / min 560 - 680

    The trunk channel of the Zastava M21 is chromed.

    The barrel itself is equipped with a new original flash suppressor and mount for a bayonet-knife.
    1. DuraLexSedLex.
      DuraLexSedLex. 25 February 2013 20: 53
      For convenience, the rifle arrow is equipped with a duplicate firing mode switch (the main one is identical to that in the Kalashnikov assault rifle) located on the left side of the weapon at the pistol grip. This design, borrowed from the Israeli Galil rifle, allows you to control the switch with the thumb of your right hand, without changing the grip of the weapon. Latin letters indicating the switch positions are made using tritium, which, according to manufacturers, simplifies the use of weapons in low light.

      To reduce weight, the weapon was equipped with a polymer butt, folding on the right side of the weapon. Moreover, the shape of the butt allows you to fire from the machine even when the butt is folded.

      It is possible to install a 40-mm grenade launcher on the rifle, which comes with a special butt for the butt.

      Zastava M21C

      Automatic (assault rifle) Zastava M21 is presented and is available in several versions:

      - Zastava M21 - the basic version with a barrel length of 460 mm.
      - Zastava M21S - version with a shortened trunk to 375 mm.
      - Zastava M21C - compact carbine with a barrel length of 325 mm, designed for use by special forces.
      - Zastava M21SB - an export version of the Zastava M21S rifle, equipped with a folding stock of a complex design with an adjustable cheek piece, a carrying handle (made like the Belgian FN FAL rifle), as well as additional guides for attaching various accessories.

      Assault rifles (assault rifles) Zastava M21 and their variants are made in Serbia. The armed forces of Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia were adopted, as well as used by units of Serbian peacekeepers in Iraq and Afghanistan.

      Material is dug on the Internet)))))))
  13. DuraLexSedLex.
    DuraLexSedLex. 25 February 2013 21: 02
    2 Hungary

    In 1981, the Hungarian People's Army (Magyar Nyphadsereg) began re-equipment from 7.62x39 mm assault rifles to a 81x5.45 mm caliber NGM-39 assault rifle.


    NGM-81 is a licensed copy of the Soviet AK-74 assault rifle, the production of which was established by the Hungarian company Fegyver Gaz Gazkeszulekgyar (FEG) in Budapest in a short time.

    By design, from the point of view of all mechanisms, the NGM-81 is an exact copy of the Kalashnikov AK-74 assault rifle, but the Hungarian designers made small changes.

    It differs from the Soviet model NGM-81 in the use of wood for the manufacture of stock, forend, forearm and pistol grip for fire control with a protruding base (a characteristic feature of all Hungarian assault rifles created on the basis of Soviet models), as well as the presence of a reinforced slotted flame arrester, which increases the accuracy of fire , especially when firing continuous fire.

    Caliber, mm 5.45x39 5.56x45
    Length, mm 940/700
    Barrel length, mm 415
    Weight unloaded, kg 3.07
    Shop count 30 cartridges
    starting speed
    bullets, m / s 900/920
    Effective range
    firing, m 500
    Rate of fire,
    rds / min 650

    The barrel was made by cold forging, and its survivability was increased with the introduction of a chrome coating of the barrel channel.

    New assault rifles began to enter service with the motorized rifle troops of the Hungarian army. However, Hungary’s withdrawal from the Warsaw Treaty Organization and its further orientation towards the North Atlantic bloc necessitated the unification of the armaments and equipment of its army in accordance with NATO standards, including the ammunition used.

    As a result, in 1990 a new model NGM-81 was created and adopted by the Hungarian army in Hungary (with a fixed butt and folding down-forward butt), but already under the 5.56x45 mm NATO caliber and with a groove pitch of 229 mm. The ammunition in this sample is supplied from standard 30-charge magazines compatible with the American model M16 rifle.

    The production of the Hungarian copy of the AK-74 was discontinued, as a result of which only a small number of machine guns NGM-81 of 5.45x39 mm caliber were produced, and instead production was launched to produce a variety of NGM-81 chambered for 5.56x45 mm.

    And the most delicious !!!!!
    3 Bulgaria
    For me, a very interesting sample))))

    In the mid-1990s, Bulgarian designer Georgy Delchev Bakalov developed a new machine, having registered a patent for this weapon on September 27, 1996.

    Bakalov’s assault rifle received the designation ShchKB (Shchurmova Karabina Bakalova - Assault Karabin Bakalova). The main advantage of this weapon was that the machine gun could be produced under Soviet (Russian) cartridges of 7,62x39 mm, as well as under cartridges of 7,62x51 mm and 5,56x45 mm of the NATO standard.

    By design, the ShchKB is another modification of the Kalashnikov assault rifle, created according to the “bullpup” scheme and, from the point of view of the basic mechanisms, is a copy of the Soviet AK.

    Bakalov’s assault rifle consists of 72 parts and is more than 60% unified with Kalashnikov’s weapons (AK-47, AKM, RPK).

    Automatic weapons works by removing powder gases from the bore.

    However, in addition to the bullpup layout and related changes, the ShchKB, unlike the AK-47, received significant innovations.
    1. DuraLexSedLex.
      DuraLexSedLex. 25 February 2013 21: 05
      The barrel was increased to 450 mm.

      Used a new compensator-flame arrester, shoulder rest, forend.

      At the top of the receiver is a handle for carrying weapons on which various types of sights (optical, night infrared, collimator) can be mounted. Open sights in the form of a mechanical sight have four positions: for a distance of 100-200 meters, 300, 400 and 500 meters (the length of the sighting line is 330 mm).

      On the Bakalov assault rifle, the installation of an LCC, a bayonet-knife, as well as a 40 mm grenade launcher is provided.

      The machine can conduct single and automatic fire, and, at the request of the customer, can be equipped with a device that allows you to shoot in fixed bursts of three shots.

      Caliber, mm 7.62x39 7.62x51, 5.56x45
      Length, mm 740
      Barrel length, mm 450
      Weight unloaded, kg 3.5
      Shop count 30 cartridges
      Muzzle velocity, m / s 750 (for 7.62x39)
      Aiming range, m 500
      Firing rate, rds / min 600 - 900

      In the second half of the 1990s, in the Bulgarian city of Kazanlak, at the local Arsenal arms factory, tests of the ShchKB were carried out. Based on the test results, it was concluded that the Bakalov submachine gun surpasses the AK-47 in certain tactical and technical indicators (primarily increasing the initial velocity of the bullet, barrel length and reducing the mass of the weapon), but is inferior in reliability when used in difficult conditions (dust, sand , rain, etc.). In general, the ShchKB received a relative coefficient of the technical level - 0.84, while the AK-47 - 0.93.

      Bakalov’s assault rifle did not cause serious interest among the military, was not accepted for service, and on April 22, 2005, the Minister of Defense of Bulgaria Nikolai Svinarov submitted a written refusal to adopt this system.
  14. georg737577
    georg737577 26 February 2013 17: 39
    "- surpasses both SCAR and NK416 in its characteristics" - I wonder which ones? NK 416 is an excellent machine ...
  15. georg737577
    georg737577 27 February 2013 00: 51
    It would be more correct to call the article "Automatic machines of future enemies" ... Allies, their mother ...
  16. Gunslinger
    Gunslinger 15 August 2013 09: 36
    A sort of Czech version of SCAR. A successful compilation of various solutions and trends common to modern models of assault rifles.