NASA may abandon the expedition to Mars and switch to Europe

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For many thousands of years, man gazed into the starry sky and asked himself the same question - are we alone in the Universe? Over time, the technology possessed by mankind, improved. Man could look further and further, the farther mankind could peer into the cosmic depths, the more discoveries it made and the closer it got to the answer to the question about its solitude in the world. The first and most important condition when searching for extraterrestrial life forms is finding the necessary conditions for its origin. To determine these conditions, scientists were forced to turn to the only known forms of life that we have on Earth.

The earth is simply teeming with various living organisms that are spread all over the planet and are able to survive and adapt to even the most unusual places. At the same time, regardless of the habitat, all living things on Earth have a common feature - they can live where there is water. Without water, there is no life on our planet; there is not a single exception to this rule, no matter what conditions a living organism lives in. This fundamental connection between water availability and life today is at the heart of the search for extraterrestrial life. The presence of water on space objects is a guarantee that humanity can find on them and manifestations of life.

Not so long ago, American astronomers advised NASA to search for extraterrestrial life not on the red planet, but on Europe - the satellite of Jupiter, since there may be an entire ocean. It is on Europe that there is the greatest chance of finding extraterrestrial life forms. It is this satellite that we must study first and foremost, and we already have a mission concept that NASA considers to be realizable. About this on the sidelines of the conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Science told Robert Pappalardo - employee of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
NASA may abandon the expedition to Mars and switch to Europe

Currently, the Laboratory of Applied Physics and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University on the instructions of NASA have created a project for a flight to the Jupiter satellite worth 2 billion dollars. According to the scientists, the automatic space station Clipper, which must go into orbit of the gas giant and make several flights around Europe, will have to fly to Europe. So scientists hope to get a global map of the satellite of Jupiter.

If this plan is approved, the Clipper project could be launched as early as 2021. At the same time, the flight of the space station to Jupiter will take from 3 to 6 years. So far, according to Pappalardo, the project is hampered by a lack of funds - earlier NASA made a statement that there was no money for the project to study Jupiter's moon. At the same time, the American space agency has planned to launch a new one to Mars in 2020. Robot, which is similar to what is already working on Mars. At the same time, according to Pappalardo, this strategy is erroneous, because if life once existed on Mars, it disappeared a few billion years ago, but on Europa life can still exist, the scientist believes.

Europe is the sixth satellite of Jupiter, its surface consists of ice, the noticeable youth of which was the reason for the emergence of the hypothesis that there could be an ocean on Europe, and, possibly, life. At the same time in Europe there is a fairly rarefied atmosphere, which consists mainly of oxygen. The satellite of Jupiter has already been investigated several times with the help of automatic probes. In 1979, it was Voyager, and in 1989, it was Galileo.

Europe is somewhat smaller than a single earth satellite. At one time, who discovered him Galileo, named a satellite in honor of the princess of Europe, who was kidnapped by bull Zeus. The diameter of the satellite 3130 km, and the average density of the substance - approximately 3 g / cm 3. The surface of the satellite is covered with water ice. Apparently, under the ice crust there may be a liquid ocean 100 km thick, which covers the silicate core of the satellite. The surface of the satellite is dotted with a network of bright and dark lines, which may be cracks in the ice crust, which have arisen as a result of tectonic processes. Their length can reach several thousand kilometers, and the thickness exceeds 100 kilometers. At the same time, there are almost no craters on the surface of the satellite of Jupiter, which may indicate that the surface of Europe is young - hundreds of thousands or millions of years.

On the surface of Europe, there are no elevations greater than 100 meters, and the estimate of the thickness of the crust ranges from a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers. In addition, in the depths of the satellite it was possible to release the energy of tidal interaction, which maintains the mantle in the liquid state — the under-ice ocean, which may even be warm. Therefore, the possibility of the existence of the simplest forms of life in this ocean is quite real.

Judging by the average density of Europe, silicate rocks should be located under the liquid ocean. In the photographs, which were made in due time by “Galileo”, one can see separate fields having irregular shape and elongated parallel ridges and valleys, which from above look like automobile highways. In a number of places on the surface of Europe one can notice dark spots, which, most likely, are deposits of a substance that was removed from under the ice.

According to the American scientist Richard Greenberg, the conditions for life on the satellite of Jupiter must be sought not in the deep under-ice ocean, but in a large number of cracks. According to him, due to the tidal effect on the satellite, these cracks periodically widen and taper to a width of about 1 meters. At the moment when the crack narrows, the ocean goes down, and at the moment when it expands, the water rises again almost to the surface of the crack. At this time, through a plug of ice that prevents water from reaching the surface, sun rays can penetrate, which carry with it the energy necessary for living organisms.

7 December 1995, the Galileo space station entered the orbit of Jupiter, which allowed scientists to begin unique research on the 4's of its satellites: Ganymede, Io, Calypso and Europe. The conducted magnetometric measurements showed that there are tangible disturbances in Jupiter’s magnetic field near its Calypso and Europe satellites. Apparently, the revealed variations in the magnetic field of the satellites were explained by the presence of an “underground” ocean, which may have a salinity characteristic of the oceans of the Earth. The measurements made suggest that in Europe there is an electrical conductor under the visible surface, while the electric current could not flow through solid ice, which is not a good conductor. At the same time, the gravitational measurements made by Galileo also confirmed the differentiation of the satellite body: the presence of a solid core and ice-water cover with a thickness of up to 100 km.

Currently, many scientists hope to send a scientific mission to Europe, however, as shown storyNASA's budget problems can seriously hinder these plans. So it is not known exactly when humanity will be able to find at least some extraterrestrial form of life in our Universe.

Information sources:
-http: //www.utro.ru/articles/2013/02/18/1101828.shtml
-http: //www.shvedun.ru/jupiter-europa.htm
-http: //zihnata.narod2.ru/zagadki_kosmosa/evropa_sputnik_est_li_zhizn
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25 comments
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  1. +12
    19 February 2013 10: 26
    People! Engage in space exploration, science, not war!
    1. -5
      19 February 2013 15: 12
      So let them take care of "Europe", and in the meantime we will land on Mars ...
      1. +2
        19 February 2013 16: 53
        Yesterday I read in the newspaper AiF that ours are going to begin the development of the moon! TYPE will be sent there by a lunar rover and some other modules ...... the yellow press moistens the bark and powders the brains of an ordinary citizen)
  2. -3
    19 February 2013 10: 28
    After reading the headline, I thought that the Yankees with the money is really bad: they can only launch probes to Europe. smile
    1. calculator
      0
      19 February 2013 10: 55
      Similarly ..... I already thought in Europe that they would find aliens laughing
    2. Cheloveck
      -5
      19 February 2013 17: 34
      Apparently, the space program of the Yankees is slowly dying.
      With new carriers tight things are going, but, most likely, nothing.
      So they are trying to create a good face in a bad game.
      1. infidel2104
        +5
        19 February 2013 19: 08
        But Phobos-soil is a real breakthrough!
      2. Cheloveck
        -5
        19 February 2013 20: 35
        Hmm, gentlemen minus, it would be nice to back up their disadvantages with concrete arguments that the Yankees are successfully developing a new generation of launch vehicles, have promising rocket engines, and do not buy them from Russia, they successfully fly into space in their own spacecraft (at least on ISS) and other, other, other ....
        1. infidel2104
          0
          19 February 2013 23: 19
          This is not the time for the moon race when NASA received 4% of the US budget. If we talk about the crisis, then we must look at it in the context of the fact that space is now in the world for everyone. And in America, against this background, everything is relatively good: probes fly to all planets (even Pluto), their Mars rover is really cool., "Promising rocket engines" - these do not exist at the moment, not a single chemical engine falls under this definition , but on the issue of alternative Yankees are just moving. As for launch vehicles, I think it makes sense to talk only about super-heavy vehicles, and then perhaps if any rocket will fly in the next 10 years, it will be SLS
        2. 0
          20 February 2013 02: 08
          The United States was not on the moon, and did not see them Mars. What say minuscoters about this lol
          1. Beck
            +3
            20 February 2013 10: 28
            Quote: Sirocco
            The United States was not on the moon, and did not see them Mars. What say minuscoters about this


            And why put a minus, useless. It can also be said that Europe did not build a collider. And she created an underground Hollywood and from there the movie drives us about gluons, quarks, Higgs particles, musons and the like rubbish. It is also possible for foolish Americans to say for good reason that Gagarin did not fly into space, but everything was filmed in the Mosfilm pavilions. And Peary did not conquer the North Pole, and wrote his diaries on the ranch.

            Yeah. Why not out of jealousy for someone else’s success?
            1. infidel2104
              +3
              20 February 2013 14: 01
              Beck,
              Yes, these people have funny logic. All Soviet flights are not questioned., Although everything was done in secret, and then TASS just made statements. But the launch of Apollo 11 at Cape Canaveral was watched live by more than a million people, journalists snooped around, and every step of the project participants was monitored. 400000 people worked on the program, in the private sector, and not in closed cities.
  3. -4
    19 February 2013 10: 41
    Space is good, space is necessary. But. We now know less about planet Earth than about the universe. This fact is not disputed. Maybe we’ll study the planet Earth.
    1. Elliot
      +1
      19 February 2013 11: 31
      So you can combine))
  4. SPIRITofFREEDOM
    -8
    19 February 2013 11: 29
    Let them get to the moon even if there is enough finance!
    And then in order to all over the world to climb into the soul of a lot of money is needed
  5. fenix57
    0
    19 February 2013 11: 41
    A meteorite that fell in the Chelyabinsk region showed HOW MUCH, EARTHLANDS ARE VERY IMPOSE FOR THE SPACE! Fussing MICROBES ... compared to SPACE
  6. USNik
    -7
    19 February 2013 13: 22
    Currently, many scientists hope to send a scientific mission to Europe, however, as history shows, NASA's budgetary problems can seriously interfere with these plans.

    Yeah, with their public debt, of course they can go to Europe, to Paris there or Prague ... drinks
  7. Beck
    +7
    19 February 2013 14: 41
    And why irony and sarcasm? By and large, a possible American expedition to Europe is an expedition of all mankind. This is the achievement of the civilization of planet Earth.

    Russia will send an expedition to Mars, this will also be the expedition of all mankind.

    Or we will deny everything that is not ours, and in this way we can even deny the Greek civilization, because we did not create it.
    1. Cheloveck
      0
      19 February 2013 17: 29
      Quote: Beck
      And why irony and sarcasm? By and large, a possible American expedition to Europe is an expedition of all mankind. This is the achievement of the civilization of planet Earth.

      You need to understand that an automaton will be sent there, nothing more. About manned flight is not even a question. Far for the time being for humanity.
      1. Beck
        +2
        19 February 2013 19: 27
        Quote: Cheloveck
        You need to understand that an automaton will be sent there, nothing more. About manned flight is not even a question. Far for the time being for humanity.


        Yes, even a hammer with a nail is still human.
        1. Cheloveck
          +1
          19 February 2013 20: 30
          Quote: Beck
          Yes, even a hammer with a nail is still human.

          Who would argue?
  8. +2
    19 February 2013 15: 54
    The surface of the satellite is dotted with a network of light and dark lines, which may be cracks in the ice crust that arose as a result of tectonic processes.
    Not certainly in that way. The dark fault lines are caused by the tidal action of the giant Jupiter. By the way, the presence of water in liquid form, the absence of craters is also "thanks" to the same forces. Jupiter "plays" with his companions like an accordion player on an accordion.
    The ice thickness is estimated to reach 1-2 km. Something I doubt that by 20-30 humanity will own the necessary technologies.
    the sun's rays can penetrate, which carry with them the energy necessary for living organisms.

    Not at all necessary. Solar energy is not the only possible source of energy for life. An example of this is life on the surface of black smokers. Chemoautotrophic bacteria do without the Sun.
    Quote: Beck
    And why irony and sarcasm? By and large, a possible American expedition to Europe is an expedition of all mankind. This is the achievement of the civilization of planet Earth.


    I totally agree with you. No matter how we argue, fight each other,
    - the exploration of deep space is possible only by Mankind as a whole. And any victory and success is the victory of Man.
  9. Volkhov
    -7
    19 February 2013 16: 00
    Did the Martians drive the Yankees home? The highest mind - quickly realized.
  10. MG42
    +4
    19 February 2013 17: 52
    There is a hypothesis that meteorites brought life to Earth = >>> cosmic bodies that fell to Earth in the distant past could play an important role in the origin of life, as was previously assumed. “Humans have been discovering DNA components in meteorites since the 1960s. The surface of the moon of Jupiter Europ = ocean covered with ice, given the distance from the Sun it should be terribly cold there, but of course there is a probability of life in the water and perhaps life forms other origin than on earth. This is the main goal. If they find different life form means it can be a lot in the universe.
    I would not be so critical that NASA will abruptly abandon its projects on Mars = the "karyuositu" max rover is working successfully.
  11. 916-th
    0
    19 February 2013 21: 54
    In a big secret:
    The answers to earthly riddles must be sought in space! In particular, on the reverse, invisible side of the moon. negative

    Just shh ... don't tell our "sworn friends" about this! Pointing to Europe is the disinformation of our Roscosmos! tongue
  12. 0
    19 February 2013 23: 14
    Refuse Mars and tackle Iran)))
  13. 0
    19 February 2013 23: 59
    By and large, mankind has two ways - either to wallow in wars and strife and end up with a large nuclear Armagedets, or all together master the vast expanses of the solar system ...

    Let’s say if the USA and Russia didn’t confront each other and together carried out some major space exploration project - at least the same expedition to Europe ... It would be beautiful and noble ...

    But the fact is that politicians who control the fate of the world look at astronomers as big eccentrics and space satellites as expensive toys ... :)))
  14. bask
    0
    20 February 2013 00: 34
    Quote: Selevc
    the fact is that the politicians who control the fate of the world look at astronomers as big eccentrics and space satellites as



  15. 0
    20 February 2013 01: 10
    I believe that the issue of not lacking money should not slow down this science in this area.
  16. 0
    21 February 2016 11: 48
    I hope that money will still be found and we will witness the great discoveries in the spirit of the 60-70s.

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