"Ruk-Zuk rifle" by Ritter von Mannlicher

46
"Ruk-Zuk rifle" by Ritter von Mannlicher
A still from the film “The Green Van” (1983), where we see the main character with a Mannlicher in his hands


“While Grishchenko was scratching behind his ear, the front sight of his manlicher stopped just at the level of Volodya’s chest. The man aiming at Volodya with a Mannlicher lay beyond the threshold of the room. Having woken up from the concussion, he rummaged around himself. His hand first felt someone's cold face, then the butt. He pulled it towards him and stuck his finger into the hole at the bottom of the magazine. The finger entered the hole to the depth of one cartridge case. “Four rounds in the magazine,” the man thought. Is there a cartridge in the barrel? It was impossible to click the shutter - the one who stood at the entrance could hear and jump to the side. But the rifle is on safety; therefore, there is a cartridge in the barrel. The man in the room quietly released the safety and pressed his cheek to the butt.”
“Green Van”, A. Kazachinsky

History weapons. Finally, in a series of articles about Ritter von Mannlicher’s weapons, we came to the M1895 rifle (German: Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M.95 - “M95 Infantry Repeating Rifle”), which used an improved version of his revolutionary straight-bolt bolt, very similar to the one he used in the M1890 carbine.



It should be noted that it was by no means the result of any “insight” of its creator, but, on the contrary, it was the fruit of his gradual, long and persistent work from one sample to another and their consistent improvement. Technologically, the rifle turned out to be more complex than other types of rifles adopted for service in the early 90s of the 1898th century. But, on the other hand, she was distinguished by high fighting qualities. Thus, it was the Mannlicher that the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II loved to shoot in his park. True, at the very end of the First World War, Austria-Hungary began producing Mauser rifles rather than Mannlicher rifles, and all because the XNUMX Mauser was more technologically advanced in production and required less metal. But, be that as it may, no one criticized the already produced rifles; on the contrary, their convenience and reliability were noted. By the way, among the officers of the Russian Imperial Army in the pre-war years, it was customary to scold this rifle for the hole in the magazine through which the used pack was removed. Like, dirt will get inside through it. But as it turned out, they scolded in vain: as the dirt got in, it fell out through this hole.


Mannlicher rifle M95. Army Museum, Stockholm

Austrian troops nicknamed it "ruk-zuk-rifle", which colloquially means "back and forth". Its main producers were the companies ŒWG in Steyr and FEG in Budapest. The rifle was originally chambered for the 8x50mm R round-nose cartridge, but in the 1930s it received the more powerful and long-range Spitzer 8x56mm R cartridge.

The M1895 rifle was unusual primarily in that it used a direct action bolt, as opposed to the more common bolt action of the time. It had a twin-lug rotating head, similar in design to the Mauser rifle bolt, but with a pair of helical grooves cut into the body, which converted the back and forth movement of the handle and bolt body into a rotating movement of its head. The protrusions on the bolt body were located relative to the helical grooves in such a way that the first 20 mm of the bolt body stroke moved its head back only 3 mm, which ensures the initial removal of the spent cartridge case from the chamber. It turned out that a shooter with such a rifle made one less movement than a shooter with a bolt-action rifle. Therefore, the Mannlicher rifle had a higher rate of fire (about 20-25 rounds per minute) compared to other rifles, although this advantage required good care. During army testing in 1892, the rifle withstood all the “torture” to which the military subjected it, including firing 50 rounds without any lubrication.


Straight action bolt of the M95 rifle. Auckland Museum, Australia

The rifle was loaded using a five-round pack, which, when loading the magazine, was inserted into it from above through the bolt and held in the magazine until it contained at least one cartridge. When the last of the five cartridges was inserted into the chamber, there was nothing left to hold the pack inside, and it simply fell out of the lower hole under the influence of gravity. There was a button at the front of the trigger guard that allowed the shooter to remove a partially or fully loaded packet from the magazine while the bolt was open to unload the weapon. In this case, the clip will be thrown out of the rifle quite energetically, since the entire force of the pusher spring will press on it. The rifle was not designed to be loaded in any other way than using a stack, meaning it was impossible to insert cartridges into its magazine one at a time.


Diagram of the M95 rifle

The rifle was initially adopted by the Austro-Hungarian army and was used throughout the First World War, and after the war was used by both the Austrian and Hungarian armies. The main foreign user was Bulgaria, which acquired large quantities of weapons from Austria-Hungary starting in 1903 and continued to use them during the Balkan and both World Wars. After the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, many M1895 rifles were transferred to other Balkan states as war reparations.


Bayonet for the M95 rifle. Army Museum, Stockholm

Some of these rifles were used in World War II, especially by second-line soldiers, reservists and partisans in Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy and, to a lesser extent, Germany. After the war, many were sold as cheap surplus into the hands of African guerrillas in the 1970s, and some were exported to the United States as sporting and collectible firearms. The M1895 bolt served as the model for the ill-fated Canadian M1905 Ross rifle, although the later M1910 used complex interrupted threads instead of two solid lugs.

The M1895 was originally chambered in 8mm M.1893 (8x50mm R Mannlicher). Between the world wars, both Austria and Hungary converted most of their rifles to fire the more powerful 8x56mm R cartridges. Yugoslavia converted its captured M1895s to fire 7,92x57mm Mauser cartridges, with a clip rather than a burst , food. This modification was designated M95/24 and M95M. The M95/24 is often incorrectly attributed to Bulgaria, but the 8x57mm cartridge was never the standard cartridge of the Bulgarian army.


Bulgarian soldier with M95 rifle on the battlefield of World War I

The sights had a graduation of 300-2600 steps (225-1950 m). The carbine (official designation in German: Kavalerie Repetier-Carabiner M1895; "M1895 Cavalry Repeating Carbine") also fired the 8x50mm cartridge and replaced the M1890 carbines. The carbine's sight had a graduation of 500-2400 steps (375-1800 m). Although it originally did not have lugs to attach a bayonet, during World War I a lug was installed on the barrel to mount it as cavalry units were found to be ineffective.


Russian Cossacks also did not disdain captured Mannlicher rifles!

After 1938, Hungarian soldiers in rifle companies were re-equipped with the new 35M rifle, but most of the soldiers (machine gunners, supplies, sappers, artillerymen, messengers, etc.) were still armed with Mannlichers. In mid-1940, the Royal Hungarian Defense Forces had 565 thousand rifles in service. Of these, 105 thousand were new 35M, and the rest were... Mannlichers. During 1941, 30 thousand 95M rifles were modernized for new cartridges. After 1941, only the 35M (and its version chambered for the Mauser cartridge) were produced, so the number of Mannlichers in the Hungarian army was constantly decreasing. In addition to losses, significant wear and tear on already quite old rifles that had served for decades also played a big role in this. But the Mannlicher still remained an almost exclusive type of rifle in some formations, for example, in sapper and artillery units.


Painting by Yaroslav Veshin “On the knife!” This is the battle cry of the Serbian infantry. There is a known curious episode of the Civil War in Russia, when during the assault on Kazan by white units in 1918, a group of Red Serbs, who were in a chain of Red troops defending the approaches to the Kazan Kremlin, suddenly shouted “To the knife!” rushed at... the Red Army soldiers fighting next to them and thereby contributed to their defeat by the Whites

This led to numerous problems during the 1945 battles, as the weapon began to experience frequent bolt jams, primarily due to thermal expansion. And when a soldier tried to force open the lock, its old metal could crack. After 1945, several copies of the Mannlicher, despite their wear and tear, were still used in the restored military, border and police units. It is noteworthy that more 31M rifles survived in neighboring countries than in Hungary itself, where large volumes of weapons were confiscated and destroyed after the events of 1956. Nevertheless, Mannlicher's M95 rifle has come a very long and glorious way, and its design influenced many other small arms.
46 comments
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  1. +4
    April 21 2024 06: 22
    By the way, among the officers of the Russian Imperial Army in the pre-war years, it was customary to scold this rifle for the hole in the magazine through which the used pack was removed. Like, dirt will get inside through it. But as it turned out, they scolded in vain: as the dirt got in, it fell out through this hole.
    – I agree with the officers of the Russian imperial army. I never liked burst loading. Did the dirt fall out of this hole on its own? Oh well! How about sprinkling some sand and clay on the cartridges? Where are the guarantees that after the dirt falls out of the magazine, the cartridge with clay and sand can be sent into the chamber?
    That's not the main point. During the civil war in China in the 20-30s, the conflicting parties quite widely used French Berthier rifles, with a stack-loading Mannlicher magazine. The Chinese were a little short on cartridges, but there were literally no packs for rifles at all. The Mosinka magazine can be loaded with one cartridge at a time and without a clip. Rifles with burst loading without bursts became single-shot.
    1. +10
      April 21 2024 06: 28
      Quote: Old electrician
      Did the dirt fall out of this hole on its own?

      I didn’t write this, it was written by General Fedorov, a well-known authority in the field of weapons, in his book “In Search of Weapons.”
      1. -1
        April 21 2024 14: 25
        I didn’t write this, it was written by General Fedorov, a well-known authority in the field of weapons, in his book “In Search of Weapons.”
        The author's classic argument. How about thinking for yourself?
        1. +6
          April 21 2024 18: 06
          Why think for yourself when there is an interesting source. Fedorov was the founder of our weapons science. His book “In Search of Weapons” is a most valuable historical monument. Why invent something? This is silly. However, I noticed that for you, trying to trick me with at least something gives great pleasure.... Well, I can’t forbid anything that gives you joy. I get it, you can't deal with fiber cables all the time. Narrow specialization is a way of self-enslavement, and over time this is not very pleasant. I would like to expand my intellect wider.
          1. +1
            April 21 2024 19: 23
            Quote: kalibr
            Why think for yourself when there is an interesting source

            The author is burning! wassat
          2. 0
            April 21 2024 19: 55
            I get it, you can't deal with fiber cables all the time.
            Vyacheslav, I’m already tired of explaining. that I don’t deal with fiber optic cables. Optoelectronic methods are different. In particular, NVGs. And they are far from the only ones. Your narrow specialization is a sacred belief in authoritative sources. Just like Plekhanov in his dispute with Lenin, who argued that since Marx said that the proletarian revolution is possible only with a large number of the proletariat, then in the Republic of Ingushetia we must sit and wait. Lenin had a different opinion: “Marxism is not a dogma, but a guide to action.” What I mean is that anyone can have unintentional errors and inaccuracies - I have repeatedly found them in a number of textbooks by respected authors. If you want, I'll give you examples.
            1. +5
              April 21 2024 20: 13
              Quote: Aviator_
              What I mean is that anyone can have unintentional errors and inaccuracies - I have repeatedly found them in a number of textbooks by respected authors.

              This is undeniable. But I myself did not shoot with a Mannlicher, so I am forced not to have my own opinion, but to be content with Fedorov’s opinion. Here in the history section there is material about Japanese armor. And there I refer only to my eyes and hands.
    2. +6
      April 21 2024 06: 29
      Quote: Old electrician
      but there were literally no packs for rifles at all.

      Yes, this is why pack rifles are bad.
      1. +3
        April 21 2024 12: 33
        The American Garand generally had them disposable and were thrown away after the cartridges were used up.
        The pack is constantly in the store until the cartridges are completely used up, and after that it is automatically ejected through an open window at the top of the receiver when the bolt is open. To speed up reloading, after the last shot fired, the bolt frame remained in the rear position due to the action of the bolt stop, while the empty cartridge pack was automatically thrown up, making room for the next pack of cartridges.
      2. +1
        April 21 2024 13: 18
        Nice flaw!
        What did those who were armed with this rifle do when they had cartridges and a complete absence of new “packs”?
        And have similar cases been described?
        1. +3
          April 21 2024 14: 13
          Quote: hohol95
          And have similar cases been described?

          I haven't met.
        2. +1
          April 21 2024 22: 44
          IMHO, it was possible to shoot one cartridge at a time by loading “directly into the chamber”:

          https://youtu.be/xJEQR5j_nP8
          or "from the feeder"

          https://youtu.be/pwaejr-2b3s
          1. +1
            April 21 2024 23: 24
            One cartridge can be fired from any magazine rifle.
            The first British "shops" had a "cut-off" above the magazine. The magazine is full, and the soldiers must shoot by putting one cartridge into the chamber. To save ammo.
            Another thing is interesting: did the Austrians, Hungarians and other Italians have any cases with the presence of cartridges and the complete absence of “packs”?
            All the “packs” were shot. They trampled them into the ground, mud, snow and the battle continues!
            Did they stuff their “packs” at cartridge factories, or were the cartridges, like ours, packed into boxes, and then the soldiers themselves loaded the “packs” issued to them?
            1. +1
              29 May 2024 23: 07
              The shooter received cartridges in cardboard boxes of 10 pieces, already loaded into two packs.
    3. 0
      4 June 2024 08: 25
      Quote: Old electrician
      Did the dirt fall out of this hole on its own? Oh well!

      And the “mosflies” that got into the magazine box remained there, Fedorov wrote, and under tsarism the privates were not allowed to open the magazine box to clean it of debris, “so as not to lose the spring.” In those years, soldiers who could not read and write were not uncommon
  2. +6
    April 21 2024 08: 14
    The M1895 bolt served as the model for the ill-fated Canadian M1905 Ross rifle, although the later M1910 used complex interrupted threads instead of two solid lugs.

    This is not an "intermittent thread". This is the placement of combat stops in several rows. This design is more difficult to manufacture and operate, but it allows you to reduce the diameter of the receiver and weight, as well as more evenly distribute the load on the stops, which has a positive effect on shooting accuracy. A similar solution was used in the bolt of the Kord machine gun.
    1. IVZ
      0
      April 21 2024 21: 02
      A similar solution was used in the bolt of the Kord machine gun.
      You are right about Kord. But about the M1910, no, it’s the same thread as in the KPVT. Only external, of course.
      1. +1
        April 21 2024 22: 18
        But about the M1910, no, it’s the thread

        "Carving", and "there", and "here". everywhere, In the M1910 these are combat lugs, the supporting surfaces of which extend beyond the corresponding supporting surfaces of the receiver lugs and are shaped like wedges. On one side there are three, on the other there are four. The supporting surfaces have a certain angle of inclination. If they are made perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the weapon, the bolt will “stick”. Therefore, the angle of inclination of the helical line of the supporting surfaces is selected slightly greater than the angle of friction, otherwise the shutter will be self-opening. The angle of inclination of the helical line of the supporting surfaces is present for any shape and number of lugs (see photo). Even with one AK. It’s just that when the combat protrusions are shaped like wedges, this is clearly noticeable.
        1. IVZ
          0
          April 22 2024 06: 31
          "Carving", and "there", and "here". everywhere,
          Sorry, not everywhere. For AK, for example, this is not a thread, but a spiral on the working surfaces of the lugs. ARok and Kord, by the way, have nothing like that at all - the working surface is used. the stops are perpendicular to the axis of the barrel bore., but for the KPVT, structurally and technologically it is just a thread, I haven’t looked at the drawing for a long time, so I don’t remember the parameters, but the thread is with special ones. profile. I used this technique myself in a couple of my products. Of course, I haven’t seen a drawing of the M1910, but it looks like a carving. However, I don’t insist.
  3. +12
    April 21 2024 08: 59
    This modification was designated M95/24 and M95M. The M95/24 is often incorrectly attributed to Bulgaria, but the 8x57mm cartridge was never the standard cartridge of the Bulgarian army.

    This error has a very simple explanation. During the Second Balkan War in 1913, some of the Bulgarian M95s fell to the Yugoslavs as trophies and were also converted into M95Ms. But the Bulgarian coat of arms on the receiver has been preserved, which is misleading. In the photo, the “Bulgarian” modification of the M95M is in the middle.
  4. +3
    April 21 2024 09: 07
    If you believe the video about this rifle, then in order to return the bolt to the forward position, considerable force was required. Therefore, the gain in rate of fire was quite conditional. It was also stated there that the assembly of the rifle was carried out only in the presence and under the supervision of a non-commissioned officer.
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. +4
    April 21 2024 10: 58
    1. A rifle with a “straight-action” bolt was not Mannlicher’s “exclusive privilege”! There were Mexican Mondragon rifles mod. 1893/94 and self-loading model 1908. (based on "shops")! We can also mention the Swiss Schmidt-Rubin rifle, although there are rumors that the Swiss “comrades” simply “stole” the idea from Mondragon!
    2. Mannlicher's "straight-throw" bolt inspired army gunsmiths with very skillful hands in WW1 to create "front-line" machine guns with manual drive (Fig. 1,2) ... and not only with manual drive (Fig. 3)!
    1. +1
      April 21 2024 11: 24
      Also, Canadian rifles of the Ross system (two models) were also equipped with a straight-action bolt.
      Sporting rifles are a separate issue.
    2. +2
      April 21 2024 16: 15
      inspired army gunsmiths with very skillful hands in WW1 to create “front-line” manually operated machine guns


      BUT!!! wassat

      Thank you Volodya! good laughing
      1. +5
        April 21 2024 17: 19
        BUT!!!

        In Finland, an 80-year-old grandfather, out of boredom in the garage, assembled a machine gun chambered for 22 LR from what was at hand, using a cordless screwdriver as a drive. Rate of fire - 420 rounds per minute. Photo from the police "museum".
        1. +4
          April 21 2024 17: 26
          Well, our Tolstopyatov brothers also thought creatively. laughing
        2. +4
          April 21 2024 19: 36
          Quote: Dekabrist
          In Finland, an 80-year-old grandfather, out of boredom in the garage, assembled a machine gun chambered for 22 LR

          The drill-machine gun is super, of course! Moreover, judging by the cartridge, the grandfather was clearly having fun, making a toy for himself. But one of the neighbors was not too lazy and snitched.
          1. +1
            April 22 2024 14: 54
            One of the neighbors was not too lazy and snitched.


            There will always be well-wishers. laughing
      2. +1
        April 21 2024 22: 27
        Quote: Sea Cat
        BUT!!!

        Please, Kostya! hi Always happy to please you! fellow
  7. +4
    April 21 2024 11: 20
    After 1938, Hungarian soldiers in rifle companies were re-equipped with the new 35M rifle, but most of the soldiers (machine gunners, supplies, sappers, artillerymen, messengers, etc.) were still armed with Mannlichers. In mid-1940, the Royal Hungarian Defense Forces had 565 thousand rifles in service. Of these, 105 thousand were new 35M, and the rest were... Mannlichers. During 1941, 30 thousand 95M rifles were upgraded to new cartridges. After 1941, only the 35M (and its Mauser version) were produced.


    https://youtu.be/FVojDUEmfjs?list=PL9e3UCcU00TQpZyPp1W3S5h2jxCbPhHMp
  8. +7
    April 21 2024 19: 05
    Sorry Vyacheslav, but there is an inaccuracy about Yaroslav Veshin’s painting “On the Knife”. This picture shows BULGARIAN infantry attacking Turkish positions during the Balkan War. And also the battle cry on the knife was also characteristic of the Bulgarian infantry from the 1885 war with the Serbs until the end of WWII. After WWII they adopted the Russian cry of Hurray. And if I’m not mistaken, it has not yet been canceled despite joining NATO.
  9. +1
    April 21 2024 19: 42
    I have an interesting question for the author. Judging by the photograph of the shutter, rectilinear backward movement of this design is clearly impossible. The ledge is there, just behind the handle. Is this really the bolt of that same rifle or do we again need to look up half the Internet to understand where our beloved Shpakovsky messed up again?
    1. IVZ
      +2
      April 21 2024 21: 18
      I looked at Blagonravov. No. The photo is correct, there is no jamb here. There is no protrusion either. Just some kind of wear and tear (wear), most likely an optical illusion.
    2. +1
      April 21 2024 21: 56
      There is no ledge there. The shutter moves back.
    3. 0
      April 21 2024 22: 10
      Quote: Saxahorse
      The ledge is there, just behind the handle.

      Or a narrowing of the internal groove of a wooden stock.
      Only a different angle of the photo can shed light on this.
    4. +1
      April 21 2024 22: 31
      Everything seems to be fine

      https://youtu.be/nqw_SrL62fk
      1. +1
        April 22 2024 21: 31
        Quote: Wildcat
        Everything seems to be fine

        Thank you! Yes, from a different angle you can clearly see that the protrusion is below the bolt, a protrusion in the stock. Shpakovsky simply chose a bad photo. And by the way, in this video you can notice that many did not like Mannlicher’s decision: the shutter movement, although linear, is not very smooth, jerky, as if something is sticking inside there. In this sense, a smooth turn of the handle on the same Mauser will clearly give an increase in accuracy relative to Mannlicher.
    5. 0
      April 22 2024 05: 25
      Quote: Saxahorse
      we need to raise half of the internet

      This will only benefit you. Increase your erudition. If I can lift half the Internet, then you can too...
    6. 0
      April 22 2024 05: 28
      Quote: Saxahorse
      The ledge is there, just behind the handle.

      It's below the shutter! https://youtu.be/pwaejr-2b3s
  10. 0
    April 21 2024 22: 26
    The rifle was originally chambered for the 8x50mm R round-nose cartridge, but in the 1930s it received the more powerful and long-range Spitzer 8x56mm R cartridge.

    Vyacheslav, do you want to say that the Austro-Hungarians shot with blunt bullets throughout the First World War???
    1. +4
      April 22 2024 00: 34
      Moreover, during the occupation of Crimea in 41-43, the Romanians shot with blunt-ended ones. The photo shows Mannlicher Weiss with a reloading point, Romanians. WWII, Crimea, personal collection.
    2. 0
      April 22 2024 05: 23
      Quote: The Meaning of Life
      do you want to say that the Austro-Hungarians shot with blunt bullets throughout the First World War???

      They shot as it was written.
      1. The comment was deleted.
  11. 0
    April 22 2024 12: 25
    Quote: kalibr
    Quote: The Meaning of Life
    do you want to say that the Austro-Hungarians shot with blunt bullets throughout the First World War???

    They shot as it was written.

    Can you be more specific please?
  12. +1
    April 22 2024 12: 26
    Quote: Whishmaster
    Moreover, during the occupation of Crimea in 41-43, the Romanians shot with blunt-ended ones. The photo shows Mannlicher Weiss with a reloading point, Romanians. WWII, Crimea, personal collection.

    Thank you!
  13. +1
    April 26 2024 13: 43
    Mannlicher's system was quite faulty, which was subsequently aggravated by mud, sand, dust and other impurities at the front. They often entered the weapon through the lower hole and clogged the mechanism, so that soldiers had to put more and more effort into moving the bolt (sometimes even having to step on it with their feet). The cartridge frame also caused problems, as it was necessary for the rifle to function, whereas other repeaters only used it for loading.
    In addition to the main infantry weapon, a shortened infantry version and a cavalry carbine were also produced, but both had similar shortcomings. Thus, the Mannlicher system did not bring the promised breakthrough in the category of military weapons, although its various variants are still found mainly in hunting or sporting rifles.

    Mannlicher M1895
    AMMUNITION CALIBER: 8×50R mm.
    BOX CAPACITY: 5 cartridges.
    LENGTH WITHOUT BEARING: 1270 m.
    LENGTH WITH BEARING: 1,515 m.
    MAIN LENGTH: 0,765 m
    WEIGHT WITHOUT BEARING: 3,65 kg.
    WEIGHT WITH RUNNER: 3,93 kg.
    Initial speed: 620 m/s.
    MAX. SIGHT ADJUSTMENT: 2600 steps (1950 m) am
  14. 0
    13 May 2024 19: 32
    Thank you: informative, good.