Anti-ship missiles P-800 “Onyx” in Special Operations. Application experience and development paths

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Anti-ship missiles P-800 “Onyx” in Special Operations. Application experience and development paths
DBK "Bereg" launches "Onyx" missiles at targets of the Kyiv regime, March 2022. Photo of the Russian Ministry of Defense


To destroy the military infrastructure of the Kyiv regime, the Russian armed forces use various high-precision missile weapons. In particular, the Navy regularly launches Onyx guided missiles. During the current Special Operations, these products are demonstrating their capabilities beyond the original anti-ship role and effectively hitting ground targets. At the same time, experience in combat use contributes to the further development of the design and improvement of the main characteristics.



Universal weapon


P-800 / 3M55 Onyx anti-ship missiles are actively used by our troops throughout almost the entire duration of the Special Operation to protect Donbass. The first official message about the use of such a product at a Ukrainian facility appeared at the end of March 2022.

Subsequently, information about the use of P-800 missiles was regularly received through official and unofficial channels. In total, one can count dozens of such episodes with the defeat of a corresponding number of targets. However, in recent months there have been significantly fewer such messages. Apparently, the enemy has run out of targets that require supersonic anti-ship missiles to destroy.

The Ministry of Defense has repeatedly published footage of Onyx missiles being launched at enemy targets. It is curious that in all cases the firing of the 3K55 Bastion coastal missile system was demonstrated. Launches from ships of the Black Sea fleet were never shown, and there is reason to believe that they were never produced at all. Probably, the command decided to divide fire missions: the ships use Caliber cruise missiles, and Onyxes are used by coastal missile units.


Takeoff of the P-800 rocket. Photo by the Russian Ministry of Defense

Another interesting feature of using Onyx is the choice of targets for attacks. Due to the enemy’s lack of large ships, our ballistic missile systems launch missiles at stationary ground targets. Anti-ship missiles are aimed at headquarters, equipment storage and maintenance facilities, logistics infrastructure, etc. In all cases, anti-ship missiles designed to defeat more complex targets show good results.

The Kiev regime is also forced to admit the high efficiency of Onyx missiles. Thus, in July 2023, Russian anti-ship missiles once again successfully broke through the enemy’s air defenses and hit their intended targets. After this, the official representative of the Ukrainian Air Force had to make excuses for another air defense failure. He said in plain text that Ukrainian air defense systems are not able to hit Onyxes - such air targets are too complex for them.

After this, the Russian Bastions again used P-800 missiles, and again with positive results. It follows from this that all attempts by the Kyiv regime and its foreign patrons to restore and modernize Ukrainian air defense did not produce the desired results. “Onyxes” and other missile weapons continue forced demilitarization.

Ways of development


As the events of the last two years show, the Onyx high-precision missile is modern and effective weapons, capable of attacking various targets on land and water. At the same time, the missile has a certain potential for modernization and for improving all basic capabilities and characteristics. Right now the industry is tackling such problems and has already presented the first results.


The missiles are heading towards their targets. Photo by the Russian Ministry of Defense

At the end of January of this year, the general director and general designer of the military-industrial complex NPO Mashinostroeniya (Reutov, Moscow region), which produces Onyx, Alexander Leonov spoke about the current work on the development of the rocket. According to him, modernization is underway aimed at increasing the flight range. The head of the developer did not specify what this parameter would be, but noted that such growth would be significant.

Soon, domestic media learned from their sources in the defense department the possible outcome of the current project. According to them, the flight range may increase from the current 300 km to 1 thousand km. In this case, the overall potential of the rocket will increase significantly.

On March 27, the TASS agency spoke about another direction of development of the original design. Citing a source in the military-industrial complex, they write that the 3M55 missile received a new active homing head. The modernized seeker should increase the accuracy of targeting ground targets and improve the overall effectiveness of the missile.

Another TASS source reported additional modernization of the rocket's on-board electronics. These works are aimed at increasing resistance to the effects of electronic warfare. The nature of this modification is not specified, but it can be assumed that it is directly related to the use of active-passive radar seeker.


Launch of the Onyx missile from the submarine pr. 885. Photo by Sevmash PA

General perspectives


Thus, in the foreseeable future, a deeply modernized version of the P-800 product with a number of important advantages will be able to enter service with the Navy. It will be able to fly much further and more reliably capture and track a target. At the same time, the ability to work against surface and ground targets will remain, incl. covered by modern air defense systems.

During the current Special Operation, Onyx missiles are used by Bastion coastal systems. It is obvious that these ballistic missile systems will be able to use modernized long-range anti-ship missiles, perhaps after some updating of the on-board systems. It is not difficult to understand how the combat capabilities of the complexes will change, and how the missile will affect the combat effectiveness of coastal troops.

DBK 3K55 are in service with coastal units of all main fleets of the Russian Navy. Now they are capable of controlling the coastal zone at ranges of up to 300 km, and new anti-ship missiles will increase this area significantly. Accordingly, the capabilities of coastal troops to protect the coast from enemy ships will increase. In addition, it will be possible to work on more distant ground objects - as is already done during the Special Operation.

At the moment, the 3M55 product can be considered one of the main anti-ship missiles of our Navy. “Onyxes” are used with 3S-14 universal firing systems installed on several types of ships. Currently, the fleet has more than 30 potential carriers of such anti-ship missiles, and new pennants are also being built.


Flight profile of the P-800 missile in the export version of the Yakhont when launched from the carrier ship. Graphics NPO Mashinostroeniya

Onyxes are also included in the ammunition load of the multi-purpose nuclear submarines Project 885(M) Yasen. These nuclear submarines carry eight launchers, each of which can accommodate four standard-sized missiles and is compatible with P-800 products. The Navy has already received four of these ships, and six more are under construction or planned for construction.

Surface and underwater platforms make it possible to extend missile launch lines to great distances from their bases and from the shore. The area of ​​responsibility of the Onyx complex is changing accordingly. Ships and submarines with modernized anti-ship missiles, flying 1 thousand km, will become even more effective. At the same time, they will retain the ability to use not only 3M55 missiles, but also ammunition from the Caliber complex. Depending on the characteristics of the targets and the enemy’s air defense, ships and submarines will be able to use supersonic Onyxes or slower winged Calibers, obtaining the desired effectiveness.

Useful experience


Testing and firing practice allow one to accumulate the necessary experience in operating any weapon, but it can only be fully tested in real combat operations. The Russian supersonic high-precision anti-ship missile P-800 “Onyx” was first used on a real target in 2016 – it was used to destroy a terrorist target in Syria. Since 2022, serial products of this type have been actively and regularly used to destroy objects of the Kyiv regime.

Long-term operation in the army and combat use in two operations allowed us to accumulate solid experience, as well as determine ways for further development of the existing missile. It is known about two directions of modernization of Onyx, and it cannot be ruled out that other ways to improve the rocket and increase its characteristics are being explored. However, already known modernizations can significantly increase the potential of anti-ship missiles and systems compatible with them.
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  1. +3
    April 15 2024 04: 51
    As far as I remember, Indian BrahMos is a continuation of Onyx. Despite the fact that the Indians adapted them for air-launching on the Su-30 MKI. What prevents ours from doing the same!? The article states that the modernized version will have a range of approximately 1 thousand km. Not a frail option for destroying the air defense of the Ukrainian Reich! And without entering the action of the same air defense! The Iranians were clearly testing Jewish air defense, first with drones and then with more serious arguments. Therefore, it is more than strange that there is not a word about airborne deployment in the article...
    1. +3
      April 15 2024 07: 42
      UAVs are cheaper, simpler, more numerous and, accordingly, more effective than missiles. Onyx-type missiles are needed as highly specialized means of destruction. BUT not as the main strike complex. The experience of the SVO is invaluable.
      1. +1
        April 15 2024 09: 25
        Experience is of course priceless. But no two wars are the same. What is good on one is not good enough on the other.
        How to deal with cruisers, destroyers, and aircraft carriers? A jihad moped will not work here.
    2. 0
      April 19 2024 18: 34
      The brahmos that is placed on drying is a different rocket and it is much smaller. A full-size brahmos will not be dragged away by drying. We have the x-22/32 and the dagger as an alternative. Although there was talk that zircons, and this is precisely the development of onyxes, there will be a smaller version that can be used by front-line aviation.
      Since the “Bastion-M” project has been successfully implemented and zircons are successfully used (plus, compared to a dagger, they are huge in terms of concealment of use; Ukrainians will instantly know about a MiG-31 taking off), it is obvious that reduced zircons will not keep you waiting either.
  2. 0
    April 15 2024 10: 36
    Quote: kit88
    Experience is of course priceless. But no two wars are the same. What is good on one is not good enough on the other.
    How to deal with cruisers, destroyers, and aircraft carriers? A jihad moped will not work here.

    We need to look at the experience of the Houthis. I hope our people are there.
  3. +1
    April 15 2024 11: 09
    Omgf, what stupidity is written in the article, an example of jingoism. The anti-ship missile has a very specific guidance system, which is not really needed when hitting a STANT target! Which raises the price tag. And the question is how to make a rocket, designed to fly over the surface of the sea, fly over land with all the protruding objects such as mountains, hills, buildings, and hit a given point. Change on-board electronics?
    The only reason for using Onyx is the expiring shelf life. The cheapest way to dispose of ammunition is to use it for its intended purpose, that is, shoot it in the direction of the enemy.
    1. +3
      April 15 2024 12: 26
      And the question is how to make a rocket, designed to fly over the surface of the sea, fly over land with all the protruding objects such as mountains, hills, buildings, and hit a given point.

      Well, how to force recourse , carry out educational and explanatory work. During the assembly of the product, display posters with visual military-patriotic propaganda. Again, music and video materials of an appropriate nature.
      If this does not have an effect, and the rocket tends to fly towards the sea, a message is sent on board about measures to be taken against her relatives in the event of failure to fulfill the instructions of the party and government. soldier
      That's how they lie... belay feel hi
    2. +1
      April 15 2024 22: 53
      What are you saying, onyx flies for the main part of the flight at high altitudes, near the water it flies in the final segment. So these missiles dive from above onto stationary targets, so there is no need to force it, it already knows how to do it. And the pearl about “Change the on-board electronics?” Why change it if flight algorithms are responsible for the trajectory). As for disposal, more of them have already been shot than at the beginning of the SVO and they continue to be shot, so this is also a thing of the past. The article directly states that these missiles hit especially protected targets that have high priority, which means they don’t care about the price.
  4. 0
    April 16 2024 07: 37
    If the Indians with the Su30Mki have experience and developments with Brahmos, why not apply them in the Russian Federation?
  5. 0
    April 16 2024 10: 08
    Look on the map the distance from Kaliningrad to possible targets over the sea
  6. +1
    April 16 2024 15: 57
    I wonder how it is possible to increase the range of a rocket from 300 km to 1000 km without significantly changing its weight and dimensions? In my opinion, only by reducing the warhead.

    Well, you can still remove the ARLGSN; it is not needed for stationary purposes, but this will not give a big gain in weight.
    1. 0
      April 19 2024 18: 39
      300 km is an artificial limitation within the framework of agreements with a potential enemy. Moreover, it seems that sea onyxes continue to fly. Not 1000, but like 500-600 km, that’s not exact...
  7. 0
    April 16 2024 18: 16
    According to them, the flight range may increase from the current 300 km to 1 thousand km.
    __________<__

    Kirill Ryabov, where did you get this nonsense? Has someone in the world invented a super-pump fuel that is 3 times more efficient than the existing one? The answer is simple: no, he didn’t invent it.

    Such an increase in range can only be achieved with a scramjet engine. But this will already be the Zircon rocket.
    1. 0
      April 18 2024 13: 46
      well.. let me object
      Kir Bulychev has already created the necessary fuel, which provides much better performance characteristics of the aircraft - it is called WANDERER FUEL.
      fellow
  8. 0
    April 19 2024 18: 01

    At the end of January of this year, the general director and general designer of the military-industrial complex NPO Mashinostroeniya (Reutov, Moscow region), which produces Onyx, Alexander Leonov spoke about the current work on the development of the rocket. According to him, modernization is underway aimed at increasing the flight range. The head of the developer did not specify what this parameter would be, but noted that such growth would be significant.

    Soon, domestic media learned from their sources in the defense department the possible outcome of the current project. According to them, the flight range may increase from the current 300 km to 1 thousand km. In this case, the overall potential of the rocket will increase significantly.

    Interesting, but here is an excerpt from the article dated March 27.03.2024, 239180 https://topwar.ru/XNUMX-modernizirovannaja-krylataja-sverhzvukovaja-raketa-oniks-poluchila-novuju-aktivnuju-golovku-samonavedenija.html
    It was previously reported that the Onyx missiles will have their flight range increased to 1 thousand kilometers; work on this is underway and very active. In 2021, it was reported that the Onyx missile system had undergone modernization with unification according to carriers, becoming a universal anti-ship missile. "Onyx" was able to be used both from surface ships and submarines, and from ground and air carriers. In addition, the missile has become universal in terms of targets; it can hit both sea and ground targets, which was confirmed within the framework of the SVO.

    The Onyx anti-ship missile was developed back in the 80s of the last century, but entered service only in 2002. Has an over-the-horizon firing range. It implements the “fire and forget” principle of use. The missile has a reduced ESR and is effective when using electronic warfare. The upgraded version of Oniks-M is capable of hitting targets at a range of up to 800 kilometers.

    So an upgraded version up to 800 km already exists