Anti-aircraft artillery of Ukraine

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Anti-aircraft artillery of Ukraine

Before the start of a full-scale armed confrontation with Russia, Ukrainian military air defense units and warehouses had several hundred 23-mm twin towed ZU-23 anti-aircraft guns and a little more than four dozen self-propelled ZSU-23-4 Shilka. Almost all 37-mm assault rifles mod. 1939 (61-K) and sparky arr. 1948 (B-47), which were in storage at the time of the collapse of the USSR and went to Ukraine, were disposed of as obsolete in the late 1990s.

According to some reports, the Ukrainian Navy may have retained at its disposal a small number of twin shipborne installations 25-mm 2M-3M, 37-mm V-11M and 57-mm ZIF-31, dismantled from decommissioned boats and ships. As of 2014, there were approximately two hundred 57-mm AZP-57 (S-60) assault rifles in reserve. Up to two dozen 100-mm KS-19M2 anti-aircraft guns were mothballed until 2022.



From the second half of 2022, European states transferred to Ukraine towed automatic anti-aircraft guns of 20 mm, 23 mm, 40 mm and 57 mm caliber, as well as 23 mm and 35 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft guns.

The mobility of towed small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery leaves much to be desired, and without the use of centralized anti-aircraft fire control devices in the battery, the effectiveness of firing at enemy air is relatively low, at the same time, such installations can be easily camouflaged, they are very cheap and easy to master.

If used correctly and on a large scale, rapid-fire anti-aircraft guns can create big problems for aviation, operating at low altitudes, and, in addition, towed anti-aircraft guns, like self-propelled guns, can be successfully used against manpower and lightly armored vehicles.

20-mm Zastava M55 and M75 anti-aircraft guns


At the end of 2022, 20-mm Yugoslav-made M55 and M75 installations were noticed in the Ukrainian Armed Forces. According to unconfirmed reports, several dozen of these triple-barreled and single-barrel anti-aircraft guns were supplied by Croatia.

The built 20-mm anti-aircraft gun M55 from 1955 to 1971 was produced by the Yugoslav weapons by Crvena Zastava. The creation of this towed weapon was initiated by the command of the Yugoslav People's Army after the military tested the M51 installation, created on the basis of the Hispano-Suiza HS.804 automatic cannon for 20x110 mm ammunition.

A fragmentation-incendiary projectile weighing 132 g left the barrel at a speed of 840 m/s, and an armor-piercing tracer weighing 165 g accelerated to 780 m/s. An anti-aircraft gun with a rate of fire of 750–800 rounds/min could effectively hit airborne and lightly armored ground targets at a distance of up to 1 m. The maximum firing range for air targets was up to 500 m. For ground targets, up to 2 m.

Placing three 20-mm automatic cannons on a wheeled carriage made it possible to increase the density of fire and increase the likelihood of hitting a target. The maximum rate of fire of the M55 installation can reach 2 rounds/min, and the practical rate of fire is 250 rounds/min. It is fed from 700-round drum magazines, but smaller capacity compact magazines can also be used.

The weight of the installation in combat position is 1 kg. There is the possibility of all-round firing, vertical aiming angles: from –100 to +5°. Calculation – 83 people. One gunner can fire. The wheel travel allows towing at speeds of up to 6 km/h. Transportation in the back of a truck is also possible.

M55 anti-aircraft guns were very actively exported and participated in many local conflicts. After the collapse of Yugoslavia, a significant number of them went to Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and North Macedonia.


20-mm triple anti-aircraft guns cannot now be considered an effective air defense system against modern combat aircraft and helicopters, but they are quite capable of successfully combating such relatively light targets as UAVs.


It is known that most of the Ukrainian M55s have been transferred to territorial defense units and are used to protect stationary objects.

In the early 1970s, Crvena Zastava designers designed a lightweight single-barrel M75 mount that could be disassembled into parts and transported over a considerable distance on foot or in packs on horseback. Thus, the Yugoslav 20-mm anti-aircraft gun was a functional analogue of the Soviet 14,5-mm ZGU-1. In the past, the M75 was very popular among various kinds of insurgents and fighters of national liberation movements.


The mass of the M75 installation in combat position is 232 kg. In the stowed position, with wheels, the weight reaches 275 kg. Towing is carried out by an army SUV, which also transports crews and ammunition.


In case of emergency, fire can be fired without separating the wheel drive, but the shooting accuracy is worse.

A significant part of the M75 units transferred to Ukraine are installed on pickup trucks and are used as part of mobile air defense groups.


With a rate of fire of 750–800 rounds/min, the practical rate of fire of the Yugoslav M75 is comparable to the Soviet 14,5 mm ZGU-1, but is somewhat inferior in armor penetration, range and shooting accuracy. At the same time, a 20-mm fragmentation-incendiary projectile, compared to a 14,5-mm MDZ bullet, has a greater destructive effect when fired at targets unprotected by armor.

23-mm anti-aircraft guns ZU-23


Today, the most common anti-aircraft guns in the Armed Forces of Ukraine are the 23-mm twin ZU-23, used both in a towed version and installed on various vehicles and armored vehicles.


In combat position, the ZU-23 weighs about a ton. The total rate of fire is up to 1 rounds/min. Range against air targets is 800 m, height reach is up to 2 m. An armor-piercing incendiary-tracer projectile weighing 500 g has an initial speed of 2 m/s and at 000 m normal is capable of penetrating steel armor up to 190 mm thick. The high-explosive fragmentation incendiary projectile weighs 970 g and is loaded with 1 g of explosives.

However, the lack of special anti-aircraft fire control equipment and very simple sighting devices negatively affect the effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire. The probability of being hit when firing at a target flying at a speed of 300 m/s does not exceed 0,02.


As of mid-February 2022, Ukraine had approximately three hundred ZU-23. It is stated that the Ukrainian industry has mastered the independent production of 23-mm anti-aircraft guns, including 2A14 guns. However, production rates are low.

In 2022–2023 Poland and Finland supplied their own versions of 23-mm anti-aircraft guns and ammunition for them. Taking into account imported ZU-23, the number of ZU-23 in the APU can reach 500 units.

The Polish ZU-23-2CP was produced under Soviet license since 1972 at a plant in Tarnow. According to expert estimates, at the end of 2021 there were about 400 installations in the combat units of the Polish Army and in warehouses.

Polish 23-mm anti-aircraft guns have been modernized several times. There are several variants in service, differing mainly in sighting devices, as well as the presence or absence of launchers for short-range guided anti-aircraft missiles.


The ammunition load includes sub-caliber armor-piercing incendiary and armor-piercing incendiary-tracer shells with increased initial velocity. According to information published in Polish sources, the efficiency of the modernized installations compared to the original ZU-23 has increased by 3–5 times.

After the introduction of anti-aircraft missiles, the firing range at air targets exceeded 5 m and it became possible to destroy air targets flying at speeds of up to 000 m/s. The probability of hitting air targets with artillery fire has more than doubled.

In the 1970s, Finland acquired four hundred 23-mm towed anti-aircraft guns from the USSR, which were put into service under the designation 23 Itk 61. According to Military Balance 2021, the total number of 23-mm guns at the disposal of the Finnish army was 300 units.


At the end of the 1990s, a significant part of the Finnish ZU-23 was modernized. The installations were equipped with a ballistic processor, a thermal imager and a laser rangefinder. This made it possible to approximately double the efficiency. After the upgrade, 23 ItK 61 became known as 23 ItK 95.

40-mm automatic anti-aircraft guns Bofors L70


At the beginning of last year, publications appeared in a number of Russian media that Sweden supplied Ukraine with obsolete 40-mm Bofors L60 anti-aircraft guns from the Second World War.

Personally, I have this one news caused bewilderment, since there were no such anti-aircraft guns left except in museums in Sweden. Later it became known that the authors of our news publications were in a hurry, and we are actually talking about much newer 40-mm towed Bofors L70 anti-aircraft guns, transferred by Lithuania (36 units) and Holland (17 units).


The Bofors L70 is a development of the Bofors L60 anti-aircraft gun, which was widespread during World War II, but more powerful ammunition is used to fire the Bofors L70. The weight of the anti-aircraft installation without additional optoelectronic and radar guidance systems is 4 kg. A fragmentation projectile weighing 800 g accelerates in a barrel 870 mm long to 3 m/s. Effective slant firing range against air targets is up to 245 m.


In 1953, the Bofors L70 was adopted as the standard NATO anti-aircraft gun and was produced in thousands of batches. Over the years of production, several variants were created that differed in power supply and sighting devices. The latest modifications had a rate of fire of 330 rounds/min, and the number of rounds in the ammunition load was increased from 16 to 26. New ammunition is available for these guns, including sub-caliber and fragmentation with remote detonation.


In a number of countries, effective radar or optoelectronic systems are used to control the fire of Bofors L70 guns. Thus, in the Netherlands, anti-aircraft batteries include Flycatcher gun guidance stations (KL/MSS-6720), with optoelectronic and radar search and guidance channels.


On the roof of the towed van there are search radar and radar range finder antennas, as well as a television camera. After processing the target data, it is transmitted in the form of telecode information via a VHF channel to receivers located on anti-aircraft guns, which can be 1 m away from the Flycatcher station.


Bofors L70 automatic guns, combined with modern detection and guidance equipment, are capable of successfully combating aircraft operating at low altitudes, including drones and cruise missiles. According to available information, these 40-mm anti-aircraft guns are used to cover important stationary objects.

57-mm anti-aircraft guns AZP-57


As mentioned above, by the time the special military operation in Ukraine began, there were about two hundred 57-mm guns of the S-60 anti-aircraft artillery system in warehouses, and in 2022–2023. a significant part of the AZP-57 automatic guns was returned to service.


The combat rate of fire of a 57-mm anti-aircraft gun is 80–90 rounds/min. Rate of fire – 120 rounds/min. Loading with a 4-shot clip. Weight of the gun – 4,8 tons. Crew – 8 people.

There are two main types of ammunition in the ammunition load: fragmentation tracer and armor-piercing tracer. The OR-281U fragmentation projectile weighing 2,81 kg contains 168 g of explosive and has a fragmentation zone of 5 m. This projectile is equipped with an impact fuse with a self-destructor. Self-destruction occurred 15–16 seconds after leaving the barrel at a distance of 6,5–7 km.

The BR-281U armor-piercing tracer projectile weighing 2,85 kg has an initial speed of 1 m/s and at a distance of 000 meters at an impact angle of 1° is capable of penetrating an armor plate 000 mm thick. Such armor penetration indicators make it possible to confidently fight armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles, as well as hit the main combat vehicles on board. Tanks.

For its time, the S-60 anti-aircraft artillery system had good data, which allowed it to remain in service for a long period of time. Initially, the SON-9A and PUAZO-6-60 gun guidance radar was used to control the fire of an anti-aircraft battery of six guns.

In the early 1970s, the Vaza-1 radio instrument complex was introduced on the Ural-375 chassis. After this, the effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire increased, and the range of tracking air targets increased from 25 to 40 km (the detection range of the SON-9A was 40 km, the RPK Vaza-1 was 55 km). The probability of hitting a target for firing a battery with an RPK is 0,1–0,15. One hit by a fragmentation tracer shell on any combat aircraft is enough to cause fatal damage to it.

However, the Ukrainian Armed Forces are not able to effectively use 57-mm anti-aircraft guns for their intended purpose. Gun crews can only conduct ineffective defensive anti-aircraft fire or fire at ground targets. This is due to the fact that during the years of independence, all the Vaza-1 RPKs, the electronic units of which had boards with radio components containing precious metals, were lost.

Most of the Ukrainian AZP-57s are installed on trucks and are used for fire support of ground units.


Anti-aircraft 57 mm guns could potentially come from Bulgaria, Poland and Romania. Romanian and Polish AZP-57s still serve in combat units of military air defense. This is due to the fact that in the Romanian and Polish armies, outdated anti-aircraft fire control radars SON-9A and RPK Vaza-1 have been replaced with modern sighting and search optoelectronic systems of their own production.

If Romania and Poland, together with 57-mm anti-aircraft guns, decide to transfer new fire control stations to Ukraine, then these anti-aircraft guns, despite their venerable age, can pose a great danger to Russian combat aircraft, helicopters and drones.

100-mm anti-aircraft guns KS-19M2


In 2022, the recovery from storage and restoration of 100-mm KS-19M2 guns began. According to available information, by mid-2023, 11 guns were returned to service.

By the standards of the 1950–1960s, 100-mm anti-aircraft guns coupled with PUAZO had good characteristics. With an artillery mount weighing about 9 kg, it could fire at targets flying at an altitude of up to 500 km, firing 14 shots per minute. The use of fragmentation shells with a radar fuse significantly increased the likelihood of hitting a target. Firing data was supplied by SON-15A gun-guided radar stations.


All elements of the complex at the combat position were connected to each other by electrical wires. The guns in the battery were aimed centrally at the lead point by a hydraulic power drive GSP-100 from PUAZO; there was also the possibility of manual guidance.

Currently, there are no operational gun guidance stations left, and all Ukrainian KS-19M2 have been transferred to field artillery. Several 100 mm anti-aircraft guns are installed on heavy off-road trucks.


Improvised wheeled self-propelled guns and towed artillery mounts fire high-explosive fragmentation shells from the BS-3 field gun and the D-10T tank. Theoretically, the KS-19M2 guns, when equipped with shells with remote fuses, can conduct barrage fire at aerial targets, but this is hampered by poor training of crews and the inability to accurately measure speed and distance.

Self-propelled anti-aircraft guns ZSU-23-4 "Shilka"


During the division of Soviet military property, Ukraine received a large number of ZSU-23-4 Shilka anti-aircraft self-propelled guns. In 2014, there were about two hundred vehicles in the troops and in reserve. As of the second half of 2021, the Armed Forces of Ukraine had up to forty Shiloks in good condition.


At the time of its appearance in the mid-1960s, Shilka had no equal. Anti-aircraft self-propelled guns, protected by light armor, could not only cover tank and motorized rifle units on the march and in concentration areas, but also, thanks to the presence of the RPK-2 radar instrument system, independently search for targets at any time of the day and shoot at air targets in automatic mode - the target was accompanied by a complex in range and angular coordinates, the calculating device determined the required lead, allowed fire when the target reached the effective firing range.

There is also a semi-automatic mode - the gunner combines the sighting crosshair with the target, the radar determines the range - everything else is calculated by the automation. However, the Shilka is capable of working with an optical sighting device, but its firing efficiency is lower.


The self-propelled gun is armed with four 23-mm AZP-23 automatic cannons with a total rate of fire of 3 rounds/min. Ammunition - 400 rounds. Firing range – up to 2 m. Speed ​​on the highway – up to 000 km/h. Power reserve – up to 2 km. Weight – 500 tons. Crew – 50 people.

Due to the moral and physical obsolescence of the radio instrument complex and the poor technical condition of most of the machines stored in the open air, in 2015 a decision was made to overhaul and modernize them. The Ukrainian modernized Shilka received the designation ZSU-23-4M-A.


During the restoration and modernization, the RPU-2 radar instrument complex was replaced by the multifunctional Rokach-AS radar, a new optoelectronic sighting and search system and a digital ballistic computer were installed. However, apparently, there were few modernized Shiloks in the Ukrainian army, and a significant part of the existing self-propelled anti-aircraft guns were lost during the fighting.

In 2023, the issue of supplying radically modernized Polish anti-aircraft self-propelled guns ZSU-23-4MP Biala was discussed, but how the negotiations with Warsaw ended is unknown.


ZSU-23-4MP Biala

The ZSU-23-4MP Biala uses passive optoelectronic equipment with a thermal imaging channel to search for air targets. A digital fire control system, combined with a laser rangefinder, allows you to fire at air targets in semi-automatic mode. The abandonment of the radar reduced the ability to combat air targets in conditions of poor visual visibility, but the stealth and survivability of the installation as a whole increased. Automation of the process of searching for an air target and using weapons made it possible to reduce the crew to three people.

The commander and driver received modern night vision devices. New sighting and search equipment and partial replacement of ammunition (new projectiles with increased initial velocity were added) made it possible to expand the effective firing zone from cannons to 3,5 km. The armament includes four Grom missiles, which can hit aircraft at a range of up to 5 m.

Gepard self-propelled anti-aircraft guns


Supplies from Germany of 35-mm anti-aircraft self-propelled artillery systems have long been hampered by the lack of the necessary volumes of ammunition. The problem with the shells was solved for some time after the Norwegian company Nammo announced its readiness to provide them.

At the end of July 2022, it became known that the first batch of three Gepard self-propelled guns had arrived in Ukraine. In the second half of September 2022, a video of the movement of the Gepard installation along with the Osa-AKM anti-aircraft missile system in the Kharkov region appeared. Open sources say that the Ukrainian Armed Forces may have 46 Gepard 1A2 self-propelled guns.


Western experts consider the Gepard to be the best self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery system produced en masse in NATO countries. At the same time, Russian media call them obsolete and write that the Cheetahs do not pose any threat to Russian aviation and are only limitedly suitable for firing at ground targets. The truth, as always, is in the middle.

The chassis of the obsolete German Leopard 1 tank was indeed used as the base for the Cheetah. The turret is covered with armor that reliably protects against bullets of a caliber of no more than 12,7 mm and large fragments. Apparently, the hull retained the same armor as the base Leopard 1 tank – hull front 50–70 mm, side 35–45 mm.

Indirect evidence of the high security of the hull is the mass of the SPAAG. In combat position, the installation weighs 47,5 tons - approximately the same as the base model of the tank. Diesel engine with a power of 830 hp. With. provides a maximum highway speed of up to 65 km/h. On dirt roads – 30 km/h. Crew – 3 people.


The armament consists of two 35-mm Oerlikon KDA cannons with a total rate of fire of 1 rounds/min. The ammunition load of each gun includes 100 unitary rounds. A fragmentation projectile weighing 340 g leaves the barrel at a speed of 550 m/s. Armor-piercing incendiary and fragmentation incendiary shells are used against air targets. To combat armored vehicles, sub-caliber shells are designed, with armor penetration up to 1 mm at a distance of 175 m.

The maximum firing range against air targets is 4 m. The ceiling is 000 m. The effective firing range against targets flying at speeds up to 3 m/s is 000 m. Detection of air targets is carried out by the MPDR-400S centimeter-range pulse-Doppler surveillance radar with a range of up to 2 km. After detecting an air target, it is tracked by a radar sight-rangefinder.

Firing data is calculated by a ballistic computer. In case of failure of the radar equipment and for firing at ground targets, there is an optical sight. Late production vehicles can be equipped with a laser rangefinder combined with a fire control system. Western sources say that the probability of hitting a supersonic target is more than twice as high as that of the Shilka.

Thus, it is worth recognizing that the far from modern Cheetah is suitable not only “for shooting at ground targets.”

Currently, the reserves of self-propelled units of this type available in Germany have been practically exhausted, and therefore a search for self-propelled guns in other countries is underway. Potential sellers include Brazil, Romania and Jordan.
45 comments
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  1. +22
    31 March 2024 05: 09
    Pleasant, calm, non-ideological narrative. Unlike many other articles, the author focuses on the technical aspects and real capabilities of air defense artillery systems.
    1. +19
      31 March 2024 05: 32
      Author - S. Linnik. And he always knows what he writes about and why he writes. Unlike some other authors.
      Thanks to him for another interesting article!
      1. 0
        31 March 2024 06: 02
        Ideology gives any article “spice, spice”....
        And so, I agree with my colleagues soldier, interesting article, good work by the author good
        1. +14
          31 March 2024 07: 18
          I join the grateful readers! And ideology, pepper and spice - in other sections there is more than enough of this, it is not necessary here..
        2. +14
          31 March 2024 07: 43
          Ideology gives any article “spice, spice”
          Any ideology gives any article the smell of a public toilet wink
        3. +14
          31 March 2024 09: 51
          Quote: rocket757
          Ideology gives any article “spice, spice”....

          There was too much pepper, and not hot, but frankly dull... wassat
          1. -1
            31 March 2024 11: 22
            If you read what the participants in the discussion write, ANYONE, no, no, and something slips through that cannot be explained/recognized except as “elements of ideology”...
            This is how it is, whether we want it or not. soldier
          2. +7
            31 March 2024 13: 40
            Thank you, Sergey!
            I completely agree with what VikNik wrote above.
            Great job! good

            Hello from me to Olga. love
      2. +7
        31 March 2024 06: 04
        Alex TV (may peace be upon him) has mentioned more than once that if there is a “shilka” in the column, everyone will be calmer.
        1. -2
          31 March 2024 09: 58
          In the early 80s, it was recognized that the Shilka would not be able to effectively fight enemy attack helicopters. But it definitely could against subsonic cruise missiles. Before the New Year, I saw cruise missiles in flight, from the direction of Kalmykia. The speed is not very good, and It is quite possible to hit them with rapid-fire artillery
          1. +7
            31 March 2024 10: 15
            Quote from: dmi.pris1
            In the early 80s, it was recognized that the Shilka would not be able to effectively fight enemy attack helicopters.

            During the fighting in Lebanon in the early 1980s, it was experimentally established that if an AN-1 Cobra attack helicopter came under fire from a Shilka at a distance of 1,5-2 km, then it had virtually no chance of surviving .
            1. 0
              31 March 2024 15: 46
              Okay, then why was the Tunguska created, and it was armed with military air defense units that had previously used the Shilka. I also read a lot of material on this ZSU and saw it live at the training ground in 83..
              1. 0
                31 March 2024 15: 57
                I’ll add... Since it’s so good at air targets? And the salvo’s power is enough for an armored NATO helicopter? And I’ll answer. It’s just that the “Shilka” has stopped reaching the enemy who is at the moment of attack on our units. Longer-range weapons have appeared. But recently the means attacks have changed, and similar ZSUs have become necessary. For the same UAVs.
                1. +3
                  31 March 2024 16: 22
                  And about the Tunguska missiles: “However, the range of hitting targets with the cannon channel in the Tunguska was 4 km, which did not allow hitting the Apache missile launcher at ATGM launch ranges. That’s why we needed a longer-range missile channel that would hit the Apache missile launcher at ranges up to 10 km. However, it turned out to be not all-weather, not XNUMX-hour, and does not provide automatic tracking of the target under fire. But these shortcomings can be corrected. The missile used a bicaliber construction scheme with a passive sustainer stage, borrowed from the ideology of building anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM). This predetermined its limited capabilities and, naturally , remained irreparable. Such a missile fundamentally cannot “work” effectively against maneuvering highly mobile small-sized air targets. It can be effective, especially taking into account the equipment with a fragmentation rod warhead, when fighting only “flying” tanks (VOP “Apache”) or volumetric aerodynamic targets, but completely useless when fighting, say, Harm anti-radar missiles. Replacing a laser non-contact target sensor with a radar sensor in a missile during serial production did not actually produce any visible gains in efficiency.

                  The defeat of the frozen helicopter with the help of the Tunguska missile defense system required extremely high professional skills of the operator, and the defeat of high-precision weapons and maneuvering means of air attack by a missile with a passive marching stage in a given zone was not provided. These findings were confirmed in the course of special exercises with live-fire "Defense-92", conducted under the leadership of the then State Secretary, First Deputy Minister of Defense Andrei Kokoshin. As a result of the exercises, the integrated combat effectiveness of the units armed with the Tunguska and Tunguska-M installations was only 0,42, while the units and units of the air defense armed with other types of complexes were no less than 0,9 – 0,93.
                  When the Tunguska complex was put into service, all these shortcomings were indicated in the relevant documents, a plan was adopted to eliminate them before the start and during the deployment of mass production. However, the KBP from these works withdrew itself, concentrating its efforts on other areas, including Panzer, which was just conceived as an ideological continuation of the scientific and technical groundwork acquired by the KBP during the work on the Tunguska. In any case, this is a similar biklibernaya SAM with a passive sustainer stage, fragmentation core warhead, ineffective in dealing with small-sized high-speed and maneuvering precision weapons, the same method of targeting SAM (the classic "three-point") and the same non-recoverable problems. But contrary to common sense and physical abilities, most likely from short-term considerations, the range of the missile channel was called 20 km, and the number of target channels in the complex was 2.
                  " https://nvo.ng.ru/armament/2012-09-21/1_two_fronts.html
              2. +3
                31 March 2024 16: 16
                Because a problem arose in the form of helicopters with guided weapons. They could fire at armored vehicles from a distance inaccessible to the Shilkas. Somewhere on the Internet there is a manual for Apache pilots, IMHO, look it up. That's why such missiles appeared on Tunguska.
                And it was also probably influenced by information about the A10’s resistance to 23 mm projectiles.

                “Back in the 70s of the last century, one of the major military leaders, a participant in the Great Patriotic War, Hero of the Soviet Union, Army General Ivan Pavlovsky, summing up the results of major military exercises, said: “It is better to have 10 tanks reliably covered from the air than 100 tanks without cover.” "His prophetic words were subsequently confirmed more than once during the Arab-Israeli conflicts, when, for example, in the Sinai, in one combat mission, one fire support helicopter (FSS) of the Hugh-Cobra type destroyed up to 10 tanks uncovered from the air.
                It was then that the landmark resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers “On urgent measures for the development of military air defense weapons and equipment” was born, which at one time was quite successfully implemented...
                Motorized rifle and tank regiments replenished their composition with anti-aircraft missile and artillery air defense divisions, armed with anti-aircraft self-propelled guns ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" and short-range air defense systems "Strela-1M", and then "Strela-10", capable of successfully resisting high-pressure weapons of the "Shilka" type. Hugh Cobra." But the potential “partner” now has a fundamentally new class AN-64 “Apache” with a Hellfire ATGM, capable of hitting targets from long ranges (6–8 km), that is, without entering the affected areas of the above-mentioned air defense systems....
                For the development of self-propelled gun-missile complex (ZPRK) "Tunguska", which according to the plan would have hit the APP-type SPM at distances before they use airborne weapons, as well as reduce the type of air defense weapons of the regimental level, the KBP took.
                ...the Tunguska complex was called an anti-aircraft gun-missile system (and not a missile-gun missile like the Pantsir-S1), since the main emphasis was placed on an all-weather and 4500-hour channel with cannon armament, providing firing at air targets at a rate of 5000– 30 rounds per minute on the move. In the Tunguska anti-aircraft missile system, a cannon channel based on GSh cannons was indeed created as a highly effective means. Suffice it to say that in 0,35 mm caliber these guns (two twin double-barreled machine guns), having an ultra-high rate of fire, ensured the probability of hitting modern aerodynamic targets at the level of 0,42–XNUMX per flight of the firing zone."
                https://nvo.ng.ru/armament/2012-09-21/1_two_fronts.html
          2. 0
            31 March 2024 16: 12
            Quote from: dmi.pris1
            The speed is not too much, and it is quite possible to hit them with rapid-fire artillery

            During Gulf Wars 1991, Iraqis shot down over Baghdad Tomahawk from Kalashnikov. It seems that this happened during the bombing of Yugoslavia...
        2. 0
          April 1 2024 23: 29
          Quote: Aerodrome
          Alex TV (may he rest in heaven)

          What happened to him?
  2. +3
    31 March 2024 08: 17
    I’m wondering - where are all our Shilkas and Tunguskas? After all, there should be quite a few of them left... And against UAVs, of course not very small ones, they seem to be quite useful, no? Especially in the ZSU-23-4M4 “Shilka-M4” variant, if of course they were upgraded to such a level in sufficient quantities. And if not, then why don’t they do it?
    1. +5
      31 March 2024 09: 12
      If not, then perhaps because of the same lovers of non-ferrous metals and precious metals.
      1. +6
        31 March 2024 10: 11
        Quote: evgen1221
        If not, then perhaps because of the same lovers of non-ferrous metals and precious metals.

        One of the reasons. Yes
    2. +2
      31 March 2024 10: 00
      The question is “Where”? The most popular. Where are our “Points”, etc.? Maybe they save it to the very last?
    3. +6
      31 March 2024 10: 05
      Quote: paul3390
      I’m wondering - where are all our Shilkas and Tunguskas? After all, there should be a lot of them left...

      At the first stage of the SVO there were quite a few of them. I will refrain for now from talking about what partially happened to them and where most of them went.
      Quote: paul3390
      Especially in the ZSU-23-4M4 “Shilka-M4” variant, if of course they were upgraded to such a level in sufficient quantities. And if not, then why don’t they do it?

      About three dozen vehicles built before 23 were modernized to the level of ZSU-4-4M1982 (with a total number of about 200 units in the army and in storage). The RF Ministry of Defense was not satisfied with the characteristics and reliability of the modernized Shilokas, and especially their price announced by the industry.
  3. exo
    +8
    31 March 2024 09: 30
    The fate of the Tunguska is also interesting. After all, they also went to Ukraine. And in our armed forces, they are not visible.
    And so, a high-level article. There are almost no such things in VO now.
    1. +8
      31 March 2024 10: 10
      Quote: exo
      The fate of the Tunguska is also interesting. After all, they also went to Ukraine.

      Tunguska has always been a very difficult equipment to operate; many problems arose especially in servicing and maintaining the hardware in working condition. The exhaustion of electronic equipment and the lack of spare parts, competent and motivated specialists inevitably affected the performance of the air defense missile system.
  4. BAI
    +6
    31 March 2024 09: 49
    at a target flying at a speed of 300 m/s,

    This is, for a moment, 1080 km/h. This is who flies near the ground at such speed (we are talking about small-caliber artillery)
    1. +9
      31 March 2024 10: 18
      Quote: BAI
      This is, for a moment, 1080 km/h. This is who flies near the ground at such speed (we are talking about small-caliber artillery)

      In the 1960s and 1970s, this was a standard requirement for air strike capabilities.
      1. +4
        31 March 2024 15: 35
        Quote: Bongo
        In the 1960s and 1970s, this was a standard requirement for air strike capabilities.

        And so it is. IBAs of that period flew mainly 800-900 km/h (this was the type standard according to BP rates). But practice has shown that such speeds at low altitudes seriously reduce the effectiveness of use, so the IBA as such has almost come to naught Mig 21,27 Su 7,17. The Su-25 turned out to be much more effective. But the tasks of the IBA were broader than providing the front line, such as attacks on advancing reserves on the march, breaking through air defenses, “hunting” for launchers of operational and tactical missile launchers, etc. But over time, everything changes and, as can be seen from the SVO, priorities are going where they could not have imagined before.
  5. +7
    31 March 2024 10: 13
    The author is great as always! Everyone should produce such quality articles!
    1. +8
      31 March 2024 10: 19
      Quote: Alien From
      The author is great as always! Everyone should produce such quality articles!

      Thank! I did my best! drinks
  6. +5
    31 March 2024 10: 20
    An article without “few, defective, late and useless”? I'm shocked. Thanks author. When you add up the numbers, it looks like they have quite a lot of resources when it comes to this equipment, minus the ones destroyed of course.
  7. +6
    31 March 2024 11: 11
    Good article, respect to the author.
    During the years of Independence, all the Vaza-1 RPKs were lost, the electronic units of which had boards with radio components containing precious metals.
    I remember that during the first Chechen war, a rumor was started that in the quantron of a tank rangefinder there was a sapphire rod, which was supposedly very valuable by jewelers. As a result, the Chechen tanks were left without rangefinders.
    1. +1
      31 March 2024 16: 01
      Quote: Aviator_
      I remember that during the first Chechen war, a rumor was started that in the quantron of a tank rangefinder there was a sapphire rod, which was supposedly very valuable by jewelers. As a result, the Chechen tanks were left without rangefinders

      I wonder if it was just a rumor or if it was deliberately launched by the KGB?
      If it's the latter, then I take my hat off to them. Witty...
      1. +6
        31 March 2024 17: 11
        Quote: Luminman
        I wonder if it was just a rumor or if it was deliberately launched by the KGB?

        Rangefinders were also stolen from tanks owned by the Russian army in the 90s.
  8. +6
    31 March 2024 14: 28
    hi
    As always, interesting article!
    The armament consists of two 35-mm Oerlikon KDA cannons with a total rate of fire of 1 rounds/min. The ammunition load of each gun includes 100 unitary rounds. A fragmentation projectile weighing 340 g leaves the barrel at a speed of 550 m/s. Armor-piercing incendiary and fragmentation incendiary shells are used against air targets. To combat armored vehicles, sub-caliber shells are designed, with armor penetration up to 1 mm at a distance of 175 m.
    The maximum firing range against air targets is 4 m. The ceiling is 000 m. The effective firing range against targets flying at speeds up to 3 m/s is 000 m.

    About the Cheetah: towards the end of its existence in the Bundeswehr, it was equipped with the Frangible Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot for air defense purposes. IMHO - an adequate translation is “collapsed/fragile sub-caliber projectile”. Due to the higher speed than the standard NOT, the destruction range was stated as 5,5 km.
    Frangible Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot works like this

    https://youtu.be/jwh_naNtis8?t=221

    Kraus-Maffel-Wegmann also proposed modernization including the integration of Stingers, AHEAD and even remote access (Cheetah worked without a crew inside), but no one needed this in those days.

    https://youtu.be/R7HUrrTDxQQ

    There was a problem with the shells for the Cheetah: they are made by Switzerland, but Switzerland did not give permission to export them. Using "reverse engineering" methods, Reinmthall restored the production of ammunition (IMHO, first sub-calibers, then HE) for the Cheetah based on shells for the Puma, IMHO: "In February 2023, German Defense Minister Boris Pistorius announced at a meeting of the Ukraine Defense Contact Group in Brussels that Germany would resume production of related ammunition at the Rheinmetall facility in Germany. A contract for the short supply of a total of 300 rounds of ammunition for the Gepard anti-aircraft tank was signed a few days earlier. The project to create a new production facility was under enormous time pressure from the first day due to political urgency and required technological and logistical efforts due to the urgency.
    Armin Papperger, Chairman of the Board of Management of Rheinmetall AG: “We fulfill our obligations. Just six months after signing the contract, we began deliveries in accordance with the agreement. I thank all the women and men from Rheinmetall who dedicated themselves to this project and worked hard to make it a success, even on weekends. Credit must also be given to the achievements of our suppliers who have helped make the impossible possible. The desire for success was enormous, but everyone worked on the project with complete conviction. We want to help people in Ukraine with this. Every drone shot saves lives!“
    The federal government has left no stone unturned in the fight to replenish its ammunition supply, even overseas. in vain. In Germany, stocks have been at zero levels since the Gepard systems were withdrawn from service about fifteen years ago. Other countries have refused to provide existing ammunition for political and military reasons, respectively. for constitutional reasons.
    It was only thanks to Rheinmetall's tightly knit network of specialists and engineers in Switzerland, Germany and Italy that production could now be restored.
    The task: to recreate the original type of ammunition, the previous tools simply were not enough. A combination of reverse engineering and adaptation developments was used, which may never have been done before: existing 35 mm ammunition for the on-board weapons of an armored personnel carrier was adapted for use in the Cheetah using appropriate adaptations. A particular challenge was to make the ammunition reliably detectable by the Gepard fire control computer.
    At the same time, the electronics and fire control system of the outdated anti-aircraft tank, developed in the 1960s, despite its still very good characteristics, were presented in the form of a “black box”. At the same time, the task was set to expand the supply chain for new ammunition in such a way as to reduce the share of Swiss added value as much as possible.
    Armin Papperger: “We have an unrivaled strength at Rheinmetall, namely that we, as a systems center, have such extensive knowledge within the group. Whether it is ammunition development, mechanical manufacturing and materials science, whether it is anti-aircraft weapons development, extensive fire testing, production plant design or construction, our specialists have worked on a project with great ambition and personal effort. They knew that the sooner the better, Ukraine really needs ammunition.”
    " https://wehrtechnik.info/index.php/2023/09/06/gepard-munition-jetzt-made-in-germany-erste-auslieferung-neuer-produktion-an-die-ukraine/
    Here is an interesting interview with sufferer Armin Papperger, with BC for Cheetah:

    https://youtu.be/qpCDtj5CSdA?t=1358
  9. +4
    31 March 2024 15: 07
    Information also appeared that a certain amount of 35 mm with AHEAD should be transferred to the Ukrainian Armed Forces: "January 4, 2024.
    On December 4, the German government announced the delivery of the first Skynex air defense system to the Ukrainian Armed Forces along with ammunition.
    In December 2022, German defense giant Rheinmetall signed a contract worth 182 million euros for the supply of two Skynex air defense systems intended for Ukraine. The second system is expected to be delivered to the APU in the coming months.
    " https://defence-industry.eu/ukraine-receives-first-rheinmetalls-skynex-air-defence-system-from-germany/
    IMHO, Skynex is the same MANTIS, only on a truck

    https://youtu.be/pb5_F4_Eod8
    If Skynex is made in the image of Mantis, then in one complex there will be 6 guns, 1 command post and two detection complexes.

    The Germans consider AHEAD a very economical air defense option - 4000 euros per interception, and air defense missiles cost from 200 euros to 000 euros or more.

    It is likely that Skynex is already working, there was a report from an American TV channel (I won’t drag it here) from Kyiv about how the air defense worked there at night,
    IMHO, there were very characteristic series of explosions in the air.

    There is still unclear information about the AHEAD 30 mm version for the APU, a certain TerraHawkPalladin.
    https://www.msi-dsl.com/products/msi-ds-terrahawk-vshorad/
    But there is nothing concrete:

    https://youtu.be/HsY8595uaog
    1. -2
      April 1 2024 22: 56
      Quote: Wildcat
      The Germans consider it a very economical air defense option AHEAD - 4000 euros for interception, and air defense missiles cost from 200 euros to 000 euros or more.

      4000 euros costs one shot of AHEAD.
      1. +2
        April 1 2024 23: 03
        The data may vary slightly, but the price for one 35 mm AHEAD was quoted as less than 400 Swiss francs some time ago, IMHO.
        4000 euros - the price "for interception" from the latest German press.
        1. 0
          April 1 2024 23: 18
          Quote: Wildcat
          The data may differ slightly, but the price for one 35 mm AHEAD some time ago was quoted as less than 400 Swiss francs, IMHO.
          4000 euros - the price "for interception" from the latest German press.

          Somewhere, somewhere, they forgot the zero, and off we go... A regular 155 mm shot costs Rheinmetall 2000-4000 euros, depending on the production date.
          1. +1
            April 3 2024 11: 56
            No, the zero is not lost, the data was taken from open sources.
            And another good question is what is included in the “4000 euros for interception” - this could not only be the price of several shells (how much?), but the Germans could also take into account “direct and indirect costs”...
      2. +2
        April 1 2024 23: 35
        Quote: Comet
        4000 euros costs one shot of AHEAD.

        Objectively, there is nothing worth 4000 euros there. If such shells could be traded on Aliexpress, the Chinese would sell them for about $40 apiece.
  10. +5
    31 March 2024 15: 20
    Due to the moral and physical obsolescence of the radio instrument complex and the poor technical condition of most of the machines stored in the open air, in 2015 a decision was made to overhaul and modernize them. The Ukrainian modernized Shilka received the designation ZSU-23-4M-A.

    IMHO, there are practically no Shiloks in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. There was only one report from the Armed Forces of Ukraine, about how Shilkas travel to shoot “direct fire landings.” Again, IMHO, given the Shilka’s firing range, they actually no longer exist.
  11. -4
    31 March 2024 17: 47
    Does this whole zoo have something to brag about?
  12. 0
    April 1 2024 01: 39
    Today I watched a video of what they are shooting at drones, Maxim machine guns, and Soviet machine guns with Degtyarev disks, a model of the Great Patriotic War.
  13. 0
    April 2 2024 20: 13
    Thanks to the author for a high-quality, informative, educational work, even for a former and current anti-aircraft gunner. Served as a conscript in training on Krasny Kryazh in the S-60 training division. The weapon is magnificent; it would have modern shells with radio fuses, or even better, EMP (electromagnetic pulse) generators. Is this a cover for all drones and other aircraft within a radius? m. Currently, EMP generators acceptable for combat have dimensions of a 200 mm projectile. I believe our military inventors will solve this problem by resurrecting the divisions and regiments of 57 mm guns stored in the warehouses and arsenals of the Russian Armed Forces
  14. 0
    April 17 2024 14: 19
    Many thanks to the author! The article is excellent, if only someone responsible in the Moscow Region would read it.