Anti-aircraft missile systems based on air-to-air guided missiles with a thermal guidance system

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Anti-aircraft missile systems based on air-to-air guided missiles with a thermal guidance system

In two previous publications dedicated to the Ukrainian surrogate air defense systems, known as FrankenSAM, the prospects for using American air-to-air missiles AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-7 Sparrow in ground air defense systems were considered.

application practice aviation missiles in ground-based air defense systems has a long history history, and today we will look at other ground-based air defense systems created on the basis of an air defense system with a thermal guidance system.



All modern close-in air combat missiles (for example, the domestic R-73 or the American AIM-9X Sidewinder) use homing to the target’s thermal signature. The heat sources in this case are the exhaust of hot gases from the engine and parts of the fuselage of the aircraft, which heat up during flight in dense layers of the atmosphere. And the greater the temperature difference between the environment and the aircraft, the more contrasting the target is in the infrared optical range.

In order to increase noise immunity, since the 1980s, highly sensitive cooled homing heads with infrared and ultraviolet channels have been used, which, in combination with a processor that provides selection based on trajectory characteristics, makes it possible with a high degree of probability to avoid failure of target acquisition when shooting thermal traps.

In addition, a photocontrast optical guidance channel can be additionally used, highlighting the target against the sky. Missiles with a combined IR/UV/FC seeker, as a rule, have a relatively short firing range and are capable of hitting intensively maneuvering aircraft in the line-of-sight zone.

However, such a seeker can also be installed on longer-range missiles (for example, on the Soviet R-27T), which, before the target is captured by a thermal homing head, are controlled by an inertial system that leads them to the target area, or adjust the flight based on signals received from the aircraft - carrier.

The very first air defense system that used modified aircraft missiles with TGS was the American MIM-72 Chaparral (more details here). Subsequently, taking into account the high prevalence of close-in air combat missiles equipped with an infrared seeker, attempts were made in different countries to create mobile close-range air defense systems.

Yugoslav air defense systems with R-3S, R-60 and R-73 missiles


Thus, in Yugoslavia in the late 1980s and early 1990s, military air defense systems were developed that used Soviet R-3S (K-13), R-60 and R-73 missiles. This was due to the fact that the Yugoslav army did not have the Strela-1, Strela-10 and Osa-AK/AKM complexes.

The first was an air defense system on a TAM-150 truck chassis with two guides for R-3S (K-13) missiles, demonstrated in 1993.


By that time, the R-3S UR (Soviet copy of the AIM-9 Sidewinder), adopted for service in the early 1960s, was outdated. Apparently, this was an experimental sample designed to confirm the viability of the concept.

Soon a prototype of the Pracka (“Sling”) air defense system appeared, which was a towed launcher with R-60 missiles mounted on a carriage of a built 20-mm Zastava M55 anti-aircraft artillery mount.


The Soviet-made R-60MK missiles used as part of the Pracka air defense system were equipped with additional upper stages. However, this did not help much, and the effectiveness of the towed launcher did not exceed the much lighter and more compact Strela-2M MANPADS.

In order to improve mobility and the ability to accompany on the march tank and motorized rifle units, specialists from the Belgrade Military-Technical Institute and the JNA Air Force Test Center created the RL-2 self-propelled complex, for which a launcher with two modified R-60MK missiles was installed on the chassis of a twin 30-mm Czechoslovak Praga PLDvK VZ self-propelled gun. 53/59.


The self-propelled air defense missile launcher retained the gunner's workstation protected by armor from the self-propelled gunner. The anti-aircraft missile, created on the basis of the R-60MK air-to-air missile, received a first upper stage with a diameter of 120 mm with two cross-shaped stabilizers.


The guides were based on aircraft launchers of the APU-60-1DB1 type, dismantled from the MiG-21bis fighter.

A further development of the RL-2 was the RL-4 air defense system, armed with missiles based on the R-73 missile, which were supplied with the MiG-29 fighters.


Air-to-air missile R-73

The R-73 aircraft missile, modified for use as a missile defense system, also received an additional booster, designed on the basis of six VRZ-57 rockets assembled in one package (a local copy of the S-5).

The characteristics of the RL-2 and RL-4 air defense systems were not disclosed. According to expert estimates, the firing range of the RL-2 against non-maneuvering targets could reach 8 km, and the RL-4 – 12 km. However, the combat value of these complexes was largely devalued by the lack of equipment necessary to receive data from the air defense command post, and target designation was only possible by voice over a VHF radio station. The gunner-operator searched, identified and captured targets visually.

Although the R-73 missile, equipped with an additional upper stage, had good prospects for use as part of an anti-aircraft complex, a weak research and development base and the lack of developments in the field of compact and effective optoelectronic and radar systems did not allow Yugoslav developers to create a truly effective short-range air defense system.

Yugoslav representatives stated that locally produced mobile anti-aircraft systems were successfully used against air attack weapons in 1999 during NATO's aggression against Yugoslavia. However, there is no objective evidence to support such statements.

Modernization of Cuban air defense systems "Strela-1M"


In the 1970s–1980s, to protect army units from air attacks, the Cuban armed forces received 60 Strela-1M and 42 Strela-10M short-range air defense systems. To date, the 9M31M missiles with the GSN FC, which were part of the ammunition load of the Strela-1 air defense system on the chassis of the BRDM-2 wheeled armored vehicle, are hopelessly outdated and, most likely, not operational.

About 10 years ago, a report was released on Cuban television in which the combat vehicle of the Strela-1M air defense system was demonstrated, equipped with R-3S (K-13) air combat missiles, which were previously part of the armament of MiG-17 and MiG-21 fighters and MiG-23.


R-3S air-to-air missile

The R-3S missile's characteristics roughly corresponded to the early modifications of the American Sidewinder. With a launch weight of just over 75 kg, the maximum firing range reached 7,5 km, the flight speed of the target being fired was up to 1 km/h.


Apparently, the Cubans decided to use on mobile air defense systems removed from the main carriers of air-to-air missiles, which have undergone modifications and refurbishment. At the same time, taking into account the characteristics of the R-3S missile, the sensitivity and noise immunity of its IR seeker, it can be assumed that, when launched from a ground-based launcher, it is unlikely to surpass the 9M37M missile defense system from the Strela-10M air defense system.

Israeli Spyder-SR air defense system


In the mid-1990s, a consortium of Israeli companies Rafael Armament Development Authority and Israel Aircraft Industries began creating an anti-aircraft missile system, which now uses Rafael Python-5 close-in air combat missiles.

The Python-5 missile launcher is a variant of the evolutionary development of the Python-4, the predecessor of which was the Python-3 missile, which in turn traces its lineage to the Shafrir-1 missile launcher. The Shafrir-1 missile, adopted by the Israeli Air Force in December 1965, was created with an eye on the American AIM-9 Sidewinder missile.


In the foreground is a Python-5 rocket, in the background is a Shafrir-1

The Python-5 rocket was first demonstrated at the Paris Air Show in Le Bourget in 2003.

According to information published by the development company, the Python-5 SD has a dual-band thermal imaging homing head operating in the optical and IR (8–13 μm) ranges, made in the form of a multi-element matrix located at the focal point of the lens, and a digital autopilot. The combination of electro-optical and thermal imaging guidance, coupled with a high-resolution matrix, makes it possible to successfully select and track subtle targets until they are destroyed.

It is stated that the Python-5 rocket has “outstanding” maneuverability, but specific data on thrust capabilities, available overloads, speed and maneuver parameters are not published.

Open sources say that the launch weight of Python-5 is 103 kg, the length of the rocket is 3,1 m, the diameter is 160 mm, and the wingspan is 640 mm. The angle of deviation of the coordinator from the longitudinal axis is up to 110°. Flight speed is up to 4 M. Firing range when launched from a fighter is up to 20 km. The mass of the warhead is 11 kg.

In 2005, the first version of the anti-aircraft system, known as the Spyder-SR (Short Range), which initially used the Python-4 missile, was presented at Le Bourget.


Experienced PU Spyder air defense system

The universal launcher on the chassis of a three-axle off-road truck is made according to a modular principle. Four Python-5 missiles are placed in transport and launch containers located on a turntable. Guidance in the horizontal and vertical planes occurs using hydraulic drives. When the launcher moves, the TPKs are transferred to a horizontal position. SPU calculation – 3 people.


Self-propelled launcher of the serial Spyder-SR air defense system

Missiles can be launched in target acquisition mode with a homing head before launch (when the missiles are in the TPK) and after launch. In the latter case, before the target is captured by the homing head, the missile is controlled by an inertial system according to the primary target designation data transmitted to the missile. The rate of fire is two seconds.

The maximum firing range of Python-5 missiles with an additional upper stage when launched from a ground-based launcher reaches 15 km. Reach in height – 9 km.

The anti-aircraft battery includes a mobile command post, three self-propelled launchers and transport-loading vehicles.

To increase the survivability of the missile system, the self-propelled launcher can be located at a distance from the battery command post. Information exchange occurs via cable, fiber-optic line or radio channel. When operating autonomously, the SPU crew uses the Toplite electro-optical detection system.

The command post is equipped with a three-dimensional radar Elta EL/M-2106NG, capable of detecting and tracking up to 60 targets at a range of up to 80 km.


A mobile command post, which provides the ability to conduct combat operations in a single information space of a layered air defense system, receives target designation from external sources.


According to unconfirmed reports, the first case of combat use of the Spyder-SR air defense system
took place in August 2008 during the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict.

A number of sources claim that on August 9, 2008, Georgian air defense shot down a Russian Su-24M front-line bomber from the 929th State Flight Test Center. The plane was hit by a missile defense system during the second approach to the target; before that, two missiles were launched at it to no avail. The hit by the missile defense caused a fire, and the crew ejected, but the Su-24M began to fall apart in the air, and its debris damaged the parachute canopy of navigator Colonel Igor Rzhavitin, as a result of which he died.

At the same time, other sources say that the Russian front-line bomber was hit by a Ukrainian-supplied Buk-M1 air defense system. We may find out what actually happened after the documents of the Russian and Georgian Defense Ministry are declassified.


There is a photo on the Internet of an allegedly Georgian launcher, which is very similar to the experimental Israeli prototypes used to test the Spyder-SR air defense system.

Later, the developer announced the release of a more advanced version of the Spyder-MR (Medium Range), which, in addition to the Python-5 short-range missile, uses longer-range Derby aircraft missiles with an active radar guidance system.


Python-5 and Derby rockets

More details about the Derby missile will be discussed in a publication dedicated to radar-guided air defense systems.

It is known that the buyers of Israeli air defense systems of the Spyder family are Georgia, Singapore, the Czech Republic and the Philippines.

Anti-aircraft missile system Iris-T SLS/SLM


One of the most advanced anti-aircraft missile systems, which uses the modified Iris-T close-in air combat missile, is the German Iris-T SLS/SLM.

The Iris-T air-to-air missile was created to replace the widely used AIM-9 Sidewinder family of missiles. To create and market the rocket, a consortium was created, which included six European countries: Germany, Greece, Norway, Italy, Spain and Sweden. The main contractor in the program was the German concern Diehl BGT Defense.

Other major companies participating in the program include MBDA, Hellenic Aerospace, Nammo Raufoss, Internacional de Composites and Saab Bofors Dynamics. Successful testing of the Iris-T took place in 2002, and a serial production contract worth more than 1 billion euros with Diehl BGT Defense was signed in 2004.


Iris-T rocket

The Iris-T rocket has a length of 2,94 m, a diameter of 127 mm, and a weight without an additional accelerator - 89 kg. It is possible to capture a target before launch, as well as after launch already in flight. Maximum speed – up to 3 M. Firing range – up to 25 km.

The Iris-T air-to-air missile can be part of the armament of the following aircraft: Typhoon, Tornado, Gripen, F-16, F-18. In addition to the German Air Force, these missiles were purchased by Austria, South Africa and Saudi Arabia.

The development of the air defense system, which used the Iris-T missile launcher, began in 2007, and two years later a prototype of the complex was handed over for testing.


Model of the Iris-T self-propelled launcher at the exhibition in Le Bourget 2007

The Iris-T SL anti-aircraft missile has a jettisonable ogive-type nose fairing and a more powerful engine with a larger diameter. The modified surface-to-air missiles are equipped with a combined system that uses inertial control equipment, a radio command course correction system, and a thermal homing head. The missiles are launched vertically from a mobile launcher and can be used in a “fire and forget” mode.


The serial wheeled SPU has eight transport and launch containers. After launch, the anti-aircraft missile is launched into the target area by inertial or radio command systems, after which the noise-proof, highly sensitive IR seeker is activated. Fireable heat traps are usually used against heat-seeking missiles.

However, an attack on a target flying at high or medium altitude outside the range of MANPADS, in the absence of irradiation by the illumination and guidance station, may very likely be unexpected for the pilot, and countermeasures will not be used, which increases the likelihood of being hit when firing at combat aircraft with Iris anti-aircraft missiles. TSL.

The launcher is capable of operating autonomously and, thanks to the possibility of remote control, does not require the presence of a crew. When communicating via a radio channel, it can be located at a distance of up to 20 km from the command module, which makes it safe for personnel to deploy it near the line of combat contact in order to directly cover troops. Deploying the launcher from traveling to combat position takes 10 minutes. The maximum reach of the Iris-T SLM air defense system is 40 km in range and 20 km in altitude. The minimum launch range is about 1 km.

The complex includes: a command post, a multifunctional radar and launchers with anti-aircraft missiles. All elements of the air defense system are placed on mobile chassis. The customer, depending on his preferences, has the opportunity to choose the type of base vehicle, model of radar and control center, made according to NATO standards.


In 2014, during testing of the improved Iris-T SLM (Surface Launched Medium Range - medium-range for launching from the surface), a multifunctional radar made by Australian manufacturer CEA Technologies CEAFAR was used with a range of up to 240 km. The control was carried out by the Oerlikon Skymaster system. The air defense system elements were interfaced through the BMD-Flex communication system of the Danish company Terma A/S.

The first buyer of the Iris-T SLS air defense system in a simplified version with short-range missiles was Sweden. A contract worth $41,9 million for 8 air defense systems was signed in 2007, and delivery took place in 2018.

In 2021, Egypt acquired seven Iris-T SLM air defense systems.

According to available data, the first Iris-T SLM air defense system was transferred to Ukraine in the fall of 2022. According to information published in German media, as of the second half of 2023, Ukraine received three air defense systems with Iris-T missiles. In June 2023, the TRML-4D radar of the Ukrainian Iris-T SLM air defense system was successfully attacked by the Russian Lancet loitering munition.

VL MICA anti-aircraft missile system


In February 2000, at the Asian Aerospace exhibition in Singapore, the European concern MBDA (a joint venture of EADS, BAE Systems and Finmeccanica) presented the VL MICA air defense system, which used MICA aircraft missiles designed to destroy highly maneuverable targets at short and medium ranges.

The MICA-IR air-to-air missile, adopted by the French Air Force in 1998, was created to replace the Matra Super 530D/F missiles.


MICA-IR air-to-air missile

The missile can be equipped with a thermal imaging or radar seeker. But, according to published information, the VL MICA air defense system uses missiles with an IR seeker.


The bispectral seeker of the MICA-IR missile, operating in the range of 3–5 and 8–12 microns, contains a matrix of sensitive elements installed in the focal plane, an electronic digital signal processing unit and a built-in closed-type cryogenic cooling system for the matrix. High resolution and complex algorithms allow the seeker to effectively track targets at long distances and filter out heat traps.

During the initial phase of the flight, the rocket is controlled by an inertial system. Radio command guidance is used to control the missile in the middle section of the trajectory, until the homing head captures the target. The use of the “fire and forget” principle makes it possible to effectively counteract the saturation of the target’s air defense system during massive attacks by enemy air attack weapons. The rate of fire is two seconds.

The missile launcher is launched from a TPK, which has a curb weight of about 480 kg. A vertically launched anti-aircraft missile weighs 112 kg. Length – 3,1 m, diameter – 160 mm, wingspan – 480 mm. The mass of the warhead is 12 kg. The maximum firing range is up to 20 km. Height reach – 9 km.


The VL MICA land air defense system includes four self-propelled launchers on a three-axle wheeled chassis with a payload of 5 tons (4 missiles on the SPU), a mobile command post and a detection radar.


In July 2009, at the French missile range Biscarrosse, a MICA-IR missile launched from a ground launcher intercepted a low-flying target at a range of 15 km and an altitude of 10 m above the sea surface. After a series of 15 successful test launches, the French Ministry of Defense awarded MBDA a contract for the supply of VL MICA air defense systems for all branches of the military.

The complex offered by the MBDA concern appeared on the market before the German Iris-T SLS/SLM. Contracts for the purchase of VL MICA air defense systems were concluded by Botswana, Saudi Arabia, Oman and the UAE, Thailand and Morocco.

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  1. +6
    February 6 2024
    It seems to me that the future belongs to missiles with combined guidance (TGS+RLK), which will be very difficult to deceive with interference. The same missiles can be used in air defense systems.
    As always, a plus for the author! good
    1. -3
      February 6 2024
      Quote: Tucan
      the future belongs to missiles with combined guidance (TGS+RLK), which will be very difficult to deceive with interference

      In my opinion, nothing better has been invented yet than a fighter with a pilot on board. It’s just that no amount of interference can deceive him. One problem, it’s impossible to fight low-flying and tiny drones, and it’s also expensive
      1. +3
        February 6 2024
        Quote: Dutchman Michel
        In my opinion, nothing better has been invented yet than a fighter with a pilot on board. It’s just that no amount of interference can deceive him. One problem, it’s impossible to fight low-flying and tiny drones, and it’s also expensive

        You did not understand me.
        After a rocket with a TGS is launched at an airplane, they try to divert it to the side by shooting off heat traps. When using radar-guided missiles, dipole reflectors and on-board electronic warfare stations are used against them. If you combine both guidance principles in a missile, it will be much more difficult to dislodge it, no matter whether it is a manned aircraft or a UAV.
    2. +3
      February 6 2024
      Quote: Tucan
      It seems to me that the future belongs to missiles with combined guidance (TGS+RLK), which will be very difficult to deceive with interference.

      Of course, creating such an SD is very tempting. However, it is not clear to me how to combine the thermal seeker matrix with the radar seeker antenna in the missile head. request
      1. +2
        February 6 2024
        Quote: Bongo
        It is not clear how to combine the thermal seeker matrix with the radar seeker antenna in the missile head

        However, missiles with such seekers have been developed and are even “in some places” in service! In my opinion, Israel has such a missile... (I should also have a photo of this missile in my “archive”...). There were also prototypes in the USSR, but they were not accepted for service due to “savings”! By the way, if I’m not mistaken, the Russian Navy has (or until recently had) an Amethyst anti-ship missile with a combined seeker in service! (And a combined seeker can be placed in the head of a rocket in different ways...I’ve come across 2-3 options!)
        1. +3
          February 6 2024
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          In my opinion, Israel has such a missile...

          "Air-to-air"?
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          By the way, if I’m not mistaken, the Russian Navy has (or until recently had) an Amethyst anti-ship missile with a combined seeker in service!

          Let's compare the mass and dimensions of a ship-based anti-ship missile with an air combat missile?
          1. 0
            February 6 2024
            Quote: Bongo
            In my opinion, Israel has such a missile...

            "Air-to-air"?

            No...most likely an anti-missile missile...you could say: a surface-to-air missile! But the “heat-radar” seeker was developed for the R-33 air-to-air missile (USSR)! They refused only because of “savings”! And finally(!)...what's the problem? The Americans produce an anti-tank JAGM with a combined seeker (1.laser; 2.thermal imaging; 3.active radar)... If they needed it, they would make an RVV with such a seeker...
        2. 0
          February 7 2024
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          However, missiles with such seekers have been developed and are even “in some places” in service! In my opinion, Israel has such a missile

          "Magic wand". But this is a direct hit anti-missile without gas-dynamic control in the final interception phase. The thermal imaging sensor is responsible for determining the angle and angular velocity, and the radar sensor is responsible for the closing speed and range.
      2. +4
        February 6 2024
        Quote: Bongo
        Of course, creating such an SD is very tempting.

        The most noise-resistant method seems to be radio command guidance (although radar can and is also jammed), modern means of filtering interference have advanced far, and command control can be easily implemented without the involvement of an operator. And the Inertial + TGS guidance system is quite effective. But combining TGS + RLC is not only difficult to combine, but also the interference can be (and is usually) combined.
      3. 0
        February 6 2024
        Quote: Bongo
        a launcher with two modified R-60MK missiles was installed on the chassis of a twin 30-mm Czechoslovakian Praga PLDvK VZ self-propelled gun. 53/59

        hi
        She's the Lizard.
        I compare photos from the article and from other sources.
        Is the body kit not original?
        Do the front wheels turn?
      4. 0
        February 7 2024
        Quote: Bongo
        Of course, creating such an SD is very tempting. However, it is not clear to me how to combine the thermal seeker matrix with the radar seeker antenna in the missile head.

        There are such SDs. In South Korea and (independently) in the USA. But they have a low flight speed.
    3. 0
      February 7 2024
      Quote: Tucan
      It seems to me that the future belongs to missiles with combined guidance (TGS+RLK), which will be very difficult to deceive with interference.

      And if, due to interference, the TGS says “here” and the radar says “there”, then where to fly?
  2. 0
    February 6 2024
    For some reason, the respected author did not cough up the message about the use of RVV T-27T missiles as anti-aircraft missiles by the Houthis in Yemen...! It seems that they even shot down “something”! what
    1. +3
      February 6 2024
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      For some reason, the respected author did not cough up the message about the use of RVV T-27T missiles as anti-aircraft missiles by the Houthis in Yemen...! It seems that they even shot down “something”! what

      Vladimir, creating a truly effective air defense system based on the R-27T missile launcher is not as easy as it seems. Ukrainian developers in the past tried to adapt the R-27 for use in a ground-based air defense system, but things didn’t work out for them. When I hear that someone has adapted a fairly large R-27 for launch from the ground, a number of questions immediately arise in my mind: what firing range will such a missile have without an additional upper stage, in what sequence to apply voltage for pre-launch preparation and to what contacts to spin the head, release nitrogen to cool the head and launch the rocket? I am skeptical about what the Houthis say, since their statements, to put it mildly, are not always truthful and are often contradictory.
      One way or another, they did not demonstrate air defense systems based on the R-27. There is a photo of the UR R-60 on a pickup truck.

      But as far as I can tell, the effectiveness of such a homemade product is near zero.
  3. 0
    February 6 2024
    The practice of using Air-to-Air missiles from ground-based launchers is widely used. And here the question arises. Is there a reverse process? Use missiles from an air defense system from an air carrier? The same anti-drone “Nails” from a large aircraft-type UAV.
    If something is a question from an amateur and not a suggestion
    1. 0
      February 6 2024
      Quote: garri-lin
      The practice of using Air-to-Air missiles from ground-based launchers is widely used. And here the question arises. Is there a reverse process?

      “If the party said: It is necessary! The Komsomol will answer: There is!” There is a “reverse process”! There are “historical” cases when anti-aircraft missiles were used as air-to-air missiles!
      1. +3
        February 6 2024
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        There are “historical” cases when anti-aircraft missiles were used as air-to-air missiles!

        But not radio-guided missiles. No.
        1. 0
          February 6 2024
          Quote: Bongo
          But not radio-guided missiles

          Well....with guidance via a radio beam in an equal-signal zone! What is not a “type” of radiocom wink any guidance?
          1. +3
            February 6 2024
            Quote: Nikolaevich I
            Well....with guidance via a radio beam in an equal-signal zone!

            As far as I know, the Pantsir family of air defense systems use radio command-guided missiles.
            1. 0
              February 6 2024
              Quote: Bongo
              As far as I know, the Pantsir family of air defense systems use radio command-guided missiles.

              I did not mean the Pantsir air defense system! No.
              1. +3
                February 6 2024
                Quote: Nikolaevich I
                I did not mean the Pantsir air defense system!

                Did you plan to use “Nails” somewhere else? what
                1. 0
                  February 6 2024
                  Quote: Bongo
                  Did you plan to use “Nails” somewhere else?

                  Only at the dacha!
          2. +2
            February 6 2024
            Quote: Nikolaevich I
            Quote: Bongo
            But not radio-guided missiles

            Well....with guidance via a radio beam in an equal-signal zone! What is not a “type” of radiocom wink any guidance?

            In a previous article, the same author wrote that when pointing in a radar beam, as the distance from the signal source increases, the accuracy deteriorates greatly, and for this reason, this method of guidance is not currently used in air defense systems and aircraft missiles.
            1. 0
              February 6 2024
              Quote: Tucan
              For this reason, this guidance method is not currently used in air defense systems and aircraft missiles.

              Yes, not applicable. But I didn’t even talk about that! I had in mind the developments of the early 50s of the last century as an answer to the question: “Were there any cases of using anti-aircraft missiles as air-to-air missiles!”
            2. 0
              February 7 2024
              Actually it does apply. For example, in the British Starstreak and its air-to-air version "Helstreak".
              1. +2
                February 7 2024
                Starstreak is guided by a laser beam, this is somewhat different.
    2. +1
      February 6 2024
      IMHO, in Iran they experimented with missiles from air defense systems, adapting them instead of Phoenixes to the F16.
      1. +4
        February 6 2024
        Quote: Wildcat
        IMHO, in Iran they experimented with missiles from air defense systems, adapting them instead of Phoenixes to the F16.

        Hello!
        Were there F-16s in Iran? Apparently I missed something. lol
        Well, seriously, in the early 90s the warranty service life of American-made air combat missiles expired. If the Iranians were able to figure out the AIM-7 Sparrow and AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles, organize their repair and restoration, then the long-range AIM-54 Phoenix with a very complex radar seeker, which was the “main caliber” of the F-14A, turned out to be “too tough for them” . After the delivery of a batch of MiG-29 fighters and a set of aviation weapons to Iran, a photograph of an Iranian F-14A with a suspended R-27 missile launcher was demonstrated. It is possible that work on adapting Russian missiles was indeed underway, but the task of compatibility of the American radar and the semi-active radar seeker of the Russian missile seems to be a very difficult task. Taking into account the fact that this cannot be done without serious intervention in the fire control system and modification of the R-27 guidance system, and there is no information about the transfer of missile documentation to Iran, I have great doubts that the R-27 was adapted for Tomcats.

        Another option for re-equipping the F-14A IRIAF was the adaptation for the fighter of a missile created on the basis of the MIM-23B missile defense system. This anti-aircraft missile was used as part of the American Advanced Hawk air defense system, and in the 90s the Iranians managed to establish their unlicensed production.

        In Iran, an anti-aircraft missile converted for aviation use was designated Sedjl; in Western sources it is often referred to as AIM-23C. Since the frequency ranges of the AN/AWG-9 radar and the AN/MPQ-46 illumination radar of the MIM-23 I-HAWK air defense system did not coincide, the semi-active seeker of the missile defense system was redesigned for use on board the F-14A. The MIM-23B anti-aircraft missile was heavier, wider and longer than the AIM-54A air-to-air missile; therefore, it was possible to carry only two missiles on the fighter.

        Aircraft with MIM-23B adapted for aviation use have been repeatedly demonstrated on the ground and in the air. But taking into account the fact that the number of Iranian Tomcats in flight condition after the end of hostilities never exceeded 25 units, it is unlikely that many of these missiles were built. According to Iranian data, 10 fighters have been converted to use Sedjl missiles.
        1. +3
          February 6 2024
          Hello!
          I apologize, I got lost in thought and made a typo - of course F14!
          Well, what kind of Phoenixes could there be in F16? (((
        2. +4
          February 6 2024
          Taking into account the fact that this cannot be done without serious intervention in the fire control system and modification of the R-27 guidance system, and there is no information about the transfer of missile documentation to Iran, I have great doubts that the R-27 was adapted for Tomcats.


          Yu. Lyamin, who “vacuums” everything that is “open” on Iran, also believes that there is no P27 on the F14:
          “The project to modernize the F-14 to use R-27 missiles was known for a very long time, but I saw the first photo only about eight years ago, and after that another photo appeared. And now three old photos of the F-14A with suspended R-27 missiles.” XNUMX published by Brigadier General Bazargan, the first head of the Jihad Research and Self-Reliance Organization of the Iranian Air Force.
          PS Since over the past decades I have never seen F-14s with R-27s on footage of real exercises, I continue to adhere to the assumption that the project was ultimately closed." https://imp-navigator.livejournal.com/975534. html

          Iran is hanging something on its F14
          https://ic.pics.livejournal.com/imp_navigator/17993765/2469178/2469178_original.jpg
          And it seems like they “finished” their Phoenix:

          https://youtu.be/ff7br72Xxr8
          “The Fakour (Fakour-90) medium-range air-to-air missile is a long-standing project of the Iranian military-industrial complex to create an analogue of the American AIM-54 Phoenix missiles for the F-14 fighters remaining in the Iranian Air Force. The missile has been tested for several years, last year it were officially presented to the president and finally Fakour has reached mass production." https://imp-navigator.livejournal.com/745576.html
          1. +4
            February 6 2024
            I believe that after Iran received the Su-35SK (originally built by KnAAPO for Egypt), the need to maintain the F-14A in service through heroic efforts will no longer exist and the Iranian air-to-air missile projects will be curtailed.
            1. +2
              February 6 2024
              I believe that after Iran received the Su-35SK (originally built by KnAAPO for Egypt), the need to maintain the F-14A in service through heroic efforts will no longer exist and the Iranian air-to-air missile projects will be curtailed.

              IMHO, of course, but from 15 (as BMPD writes) to 30 (as Nezavisimaya Gazeta writes) Su35 units do not “make a difference” for Iran; so that everything that flies, even through the method of “cannibalism,” will be kept in flying condition.
              Now, if Iran gets new batches of Su35/Su30 and, possibly, Su25, then the very old aircraft will be written off. There are 5 F75s alone. according to Wiki, and also F14 and F4 - and all from the 60-70s of the last century. They will leave their F5 version (just in case); the same goes for missiles. Iran had an example when arms supplies were from one main supplier - and the example was unsuccessful, IMHO.
      2. +2
        February 6 2024
        Quote: Wildcat
        in Iran they experimented with missiles from air defense systems, adapting them instead of Phoenixes to the F16.

        Yes...it happened! This is exactly one of the three “cases” that I know about! The Iranians adapted the MIM-23 HAWK missiles to the F-14, not the F-16! F-16s are not in Iranian service!
      3. 0
        February 6 2024
        Thank you. I'll look on the net. Although a lot has already been written here.
        1. 0
          February 6 2024
          Quote: garri-lin
          I'll look online

          Take an interest! I have already mentioned “3 cases”... 1. Development in the USSR of the G-300 air-to-air missile based on the V-300 (S-25) anti-aircraft missile; 2. Iranian "amateur performance" with missiles MIM-23 HAWK and F-14 Tomcat; 3. Experienced RVV KS-172 (Russia) using 9M83 missiles (S-300V)...
    3. +2
      February 6 2024
      Quote: garri-lin
      The same anti-drone “Nails” from a large aircraft-type UAV.

      What is the guidance system on the Nails, and how do you propose to search for air targets from an unmanned interceptor?
      1. 0
        February 6 2024
        But I only suggested something. It’s written there in numbers on the matrix. I'm asking!
    4. 0
      February 7 2024
      Quote: garri-lin
      The practice of using Air-to-Air missiles from ground-based launchers is widely used. And here the question arises. Is there a reverse process? Use missiles from an air defense system from an air carrier? The same anti-drone “Nails” from a large aircraft-type UAV.
      If something is a question from an amateur and not a suggestion

      URVV is made on the basis of the “Magic Wand”. But the requirements for the design of airborne missile launchers are stricter than for the design of missile defense systems with the same missile characteristics.
  4. -1
    February 6 2024
    I look at the “collective farm” from kak.lov - they make decisions quite quickly, bringing to life seemingly funny things, but they will work, creating problems for us
    We would like such “speed” of decision-making and their implementation
  5. +4
    February 6 2024
    hi
    As always, an interesting article!
    IMHO, manufacturers of air-to-air missiles, in order to expand demand, actively made them into “ground-based air defense” options, attracting customers with proven solutions, simplified maintenance and reducing the cost of the “life cycle” of common missiles for the Air Force and Air Defense.
    IMHO, this is a kind of, not entirely effective palliative (you can compare, for example, the price of IrisT and Tamir).

    MIKA

    https://youtu.be/D3_HYwp3HZ8

    IrisT

    https://youtu.be/GBDmnKd8mBI
  6. 0
    February 6 2024
    Just a small correction
    Yugoslavia acquired Strela-10 in the mid 80s, some 18 pieces, for testing and finding the best ways to use them on their own vehicles. The deal of license production was almost sealed, but never realized because of war in the 90s. Based on acquired samples they made modifications and 3 test samples were built but it all ended in 1991. Some of Strela-10s are still in Serbian army and are planned for replacement
    Strela-1 has been in use since the mid of 70s in Yugoslavia, but not in much larger quantities then its bigger brother
  7. -1
    February 6 2024
    Good article. There is an inaccuracy:
    However, such a seeker can also be installed on longer-range missiles (for example, on the Soviet R-27T), which, before the target is captured by a thermal homing head, are controlled by an inertial system that leads them to the target area, or adjust the flight based on signals received from the aircraft - carrier.

    All the described logic is valid only for the R-27R.
    1. 0
      February 7 2024
      Quote: Pavel57
      However, such a seeker can also be installed on longer-range missiles (for example, on the Soviet R-27T), which, before locking on a target with a thermal homing head, are controlled by an inertial system that brings them to the target area...


      All the described logic is valid only for the R-27R.

      What I highlighted in the quotation, up to the comma and ellipsis, specifically applies to the R-27T
      1. 0
        February 8 2024
        just applies to the R-27T

        but how is this???
        Guided missile R-27T1 (R-27ET1):
        A medium-range missile with a thermal homing head ensures the destruction of air targets (highly maneuverable aircraft, helicopters, etc.) from all angles, day and night, in the presence of natural and organized interference against the background of earth and water surfaces, implementing the principle "let it go and forget it". The missile guidance system implements a modernized proportional guidance method with target acquisition on a suspension under the carrier aircraft.
        1. -1
          February 12 2024
          Quote: Hexenmeister
          just applies to the R-27T

          but how is this???
          Guided missile R-27T1 (R-27ET1):
          A medium-range missile with a thermal homing head ensures the destruction of air targets (highly maneuverable aircraft, helicopters, etc.) from all angles, day and night, in the presence of natural and organized interference against the background of earth and water surfaces, implementing the principle "let it go and forget it". The missile guidance system implements a modernized proportional guidance method with target acquisition on a suspension under the carrier aircraft.

          And here everything is correct. And Pavel57 is right. The R-27T family does not have any INS and locks onto the target only on the suspension. Therefore, on the Su-27 it is suspended only on the 3rd and 4th hardpoints (APU), and the R-27R family is also suspended on the 1st, 9th and 2nd, 10th hardpoints (AKU ).
          1. +2
            February 13 2024
            Quote: Comet
            The R-27T family does not have any INS and locks onto the target only on the suspension.

            Excuse me, but what is the acquisition range of the IR seeker of the R-27 missile?
            1. 0
              February 13 2024
              It all depends on the conditions, but at least more than the R-73, plus the missile’s capabilities are higher, especially when firing in pursuit, compared to the same R-73.
              1. +1
                February 14 2024
                Quote: Hexenmeister
                It all depends on the conditions, but at least more than the R-73, plus the missile’s capabilities are higher, especially when firing in pursuit, compared to the same R-73.

                How much more? Do I understand correctly that the R-27T is capable of capturing at a range of 50 km? And what target shines so brightly that the IR seeker sees it at such a distance?
                1. 0
                  February 14 2024
                  Well, for example, at night a target is rushing towards you at supersonic speed at the limit of its speed, and even you are at a higher altitude than the target...
                  1. +1
                    February 14 2024
                    Let's not get too lyrical, what target can an IR seeker see from a distance of 50 km?
                    1. -1
                      February 14 2024
                      And here there is no lyricism, on a polar night, in pursuit of a torch from a MiG-31, going in afterburner, you will see it from an even greater distance, but not a single rocket will catch it in such conditions. Seeing is one thing, but being able to hit is another.
                      1. +1
                        February 14 2024
                        Those. you don't know the capture range?
                      2. -2
                        February 15 2024
                        Actually the question was
                        What target can the IR seeker see from a distance of 50 km?
                        . I gave an example of why it didn’t suit you? The exact numbers of the capture range are without me.
                      3. +1
                        February 15 2024
                        Quote: Hexenmeister
                        Actually the question was
                        What target can the IR seeker see from a distance of 50 km?
                        . I gave an example of why it didn’t suit you? The exact numbers of the capture range are without me.

                        An example of what? Blah blah blah?
  8. +1
    February 6 2024
    Thank you, Sergey!
    As usual, a calm and good article.

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