# Specific engine power is a problematic link in domestic tanks

Diesel V-92S2F with a power of 1130 hp.

### Fast means alive

From the very beginning of the special military operation, information appeared about the increased survivability of armored vehicles with high dynamic characteristics. Tankers mentioned a relatively low proportion of destroyed tanks T-80BVM and BMP-3. These are the most powerful armored vehicles in their classes. Of course, comparing the survivability of armored vehicles head-on, based only on specific power, can be very conditional. Moreover, based on the private opinion of individual tankers. This analysis will be fair only after a scrupulous calculation of the number of dead and damaged tanks, taking into account the weapons used against them.

During the Great Patriotic War, specialists from the famous “Armor Institute” or TsNII-48 were engaged in similar work. In particular, the nuances of damage to armor, the calibers used against tanks and the consequences were considered. The statistical sample, of course, was considerable, especially after the Battle of Kursk. Reports were published at different times, for example, “The lethality of Red Army tanks and the reasons for their failure” or “A brief report on combat damage to tanks and self-propelled guns of the 1st Belorussian Front on operations” was published separately for each tank model. It can be assumed that the corresponding work is being carried out now. One of the evidence can be considered the material “Justification of the specific power level of the tank’s power plant” authored by Candidate of Technical Sciences Alexander Shudykin and Doctor of Technical Sciences Denis Shabalin. The authors work at the department of combat tracked and wheeled vehicles and military vehicles of the Omsk Armored Engineering Institute. Analysis and discussion of this publication deserves a separate discussion.

As is known, domestic tanks of the first echelon for special operations are equipped primarily with two types of engines - the 1130-horsepower V-92S2F and the 1250-horsepower gas turbine GTD-1250. The first is mounted on the T-90M Proryv and T-72B3M, the gas turbine is installed in the engine and transmission compartment of the T-80BVM. These are the most powerful domestic tank diesel engines, with the exception of the small-scale 2V-12-3A with a power of 1500 hp. A unique X-shaped 12-cylinder engine is installed on Armata tanks, which, if used in special operations, are used sporadically. Simple calculations show that the specific power of the 46-ton T-72B3M is 24,1 hp/t, and that of the 48-ton T-90M is 23,5 hp/t. and 46-ton T-80BVM - 27,1 hp/t. Based on information about the weight of the Armata of 55 tons, the specific power is 27,2 hp/t. As we can see, the promising Russian tank does not provide a sufficient increase in power supply, remaining at the level of the gas turbine T-80BVM. However, even these conclusions are very approximate - at the moment there is no information that the 2V-12-3A diesel engine has been finalized and is ready for a large series.

Diesel 2V-12-3A for "Armata"

From the outside it seems that the indicated power density of Russian tanks is at least sufficient. Especially when compared with the best examples of foreign technology. For example, the Leopard 2A6 and Abrams M1A2 have a specific power of 24,1 hp/t. More modern cars are less mobile due to increased weight. But here a whole lot of nuances arise.

Firstly, Russian tanks during special operations are forced to be equipped with additional sets of dynamic protection and anti-cumulative shields. The requirements for increased armor protection from all angles became a “discovery” of the special operation, although a similar scenario could have been simulated much earlier. The peculiarity is that tanks are equipped with additional protection both at factories and in front-line workshops. You can safely add several tons to the final mass of the armored vehicle; at the same time, mobility and acceleration on the battlefield decrease.

Secondly, the realities of a special operation do not allow direct comparison of the dynamic characteristics of Russian and foreign tanks simply because the vehicles meet each other extremely rarely. Tank duels, at least over the last couple of years, have become the exception rather than the rule. Therefore, because the Abrams M1A2 has a specific power at the level of the T-72B3M, the crew of the Russian tank is neither warm nor cold. What is much more important is how long it will take the tank to overcome open terrain covered by ATGMs. Or what maximum speed can it produce when moving away from drone-kamikaze. Of course, the tank is initially not very suitable for such games, but every additional kilometer per hour of speed statistically increases survivability from all weapons.

### 1400 hp for "Breakthrough"

The problem of tank power supply and mobility has always been addressed. Along with firepower and security, this is one of the key parameters of a combat vehicle. The authors of the article mentioned above refer to calculations from the 70s presented in the journal “Bulletin of Armored Equipment,” famous in narrow circles. In particular, there is data on changes in the probability of hitting a tank depending on maneuvering - acceleration, turning radius and turning speed. Interestingly, the probability of hitting a tank tends to zero if its acceleration is about 3 m/s

^{2}. Translated into commonly used values, this is a conditional acceleration to hundreds of kilometers per hour in 9,26 seconds. Of course, such dynamic parameters are completely unattainable. For such acceleration, the tank may require a specific power of up to 100 hp/t. That is, a fourfold increase in power with a constant curb weight. The authors of the study claim that the most optimal acceleration acceleration may be in the range of 1,5-2,4 m/s

^{2}, that is, approximately 12-19 seconds to hundreds of kilometers. And this, let us remember, is data for 1978, when homing Javelins and kamikaze drones had not yet been heard of. A good tank, in addition to outstanding throttle response, must take turns with a radius of 10-15 meters at a speed of at least 15-20 km/h.

Naturally, the “mad” habits of the tank cannot but affect the manner of firing on the move. Quote from an article by researchers from the Omsk Armored Engineering Institute:

But how much do our tankers fire while moving? Especially at a distance of more than 1-1,5 kilometers. The typical work of a tank in a special operation was firing either point-blank while moving, or from a camouflaged firing position, or even from a closed position. The tank, having fired several shells, hastily leaves the position so as not to fall under return fire. This is where the extra power comes in handy.

In the material “Justification of the specific power level of the tank’s power plant,” the authors provide complex algebraic expressions, the conclusion of which is the need to increase the specific power of the tank to 28-30 hp/t. In this case it becomes possible "

*performing defensive maneuvers that reduce the likelihood of anti-tank weapons hitting the tank*" If we take into account the 48-ton T-90M, then a considerable boost in power is required - from 1130 hp. up to 1300-1400 hp Considering that the diesel V-92S2F is based on a block from the V-2, which will soon be 90 years old, the prospects for such a boost seem doubtful. The additional protection that tanks are equipped with in addition to the standard one will force them to increase power to 1350-1450 hp ahead of time. In the case of the Armata, the diesel power will have to be increased to 1650-1700 hp.

It is difficult, but possible, to implement the above in metal. This is at least partially realized due to a noticeable reduction in the service life of the tank engine and, accordingly, the transmission. This indicator can be sacrificed for the possibility of a short-term increase in engine power by 10-20 percent. A kind of afterburner mode is implemented through increasing the maximum engine speed, using special fuel additives and a set of other measures. In any case, it is cheaper and faster than creating a new tank engine. The B-2 series is already approaching its boost limit without a drastic reduction in service life. The T-80BVM gas turbine engine is boosted in a similar way, only this will also be accompanied by a critical increase in fuel consumption. It is difficult to talk about the prospects for boosting the Almata diesel engine, since the unit has not been mastered by the troops, and the childhood diseases inevitable for a new product have clearly not been eliminated.

## Information

sign in.