Military Review


The MiG-23 (according to the NATO classification: Flogger - Beater, factory index - product 23-11) - the Soviet multipurpose fighter with a variable sweep wing, belonged to the 3 generation. The first flight of the vehicle was made by 10 June 1967, the fighter lifted into the air test pilot A. Fedotov. The MiG-23 fighters of various modifications were in service with the Air Forces of the USSR, Angola, Algeria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Germany, Egypt, India, Iraq, North Korea, Libya, Poland, Syria, Ethiopia and South Yemen, some countries still continue to operate it. It is worth noting that the aircraft by chance caused the death of an American general. 26 April 1984 of the year during the testing of the MiG-23, obtained from Egypt, was killed by Lieutenant-General of the US Air Force Robert Bond.

In the course of its production, the aircraft was repeatedly improved and modernized. The launch of the lightweight version of the fighter under the symbol MiG-1976ML (product 23-23, L - light) began with 12. This aircraft received a new propulsion unit (TRDF R35F-300 engines), the Sapphire-23ML radar, the TP-23М radar, an advanced automatic control system, an indicator on the windshield of the HPS TSN-17ML, and an identification system, the automatic control system, the indicator on the windshield of the HPS TSN-2ML and the identification system, the automatic control system, the indicator on the windshield of the HPS TSN-XNUMXML and the identification system »SRO-XNUMXM. All these changes allowed to increase the combat capabilities of the machine.

The need to increase the maneuverability and combat capabilities of the fighter was due to the appearance of the X-NUMX generation F-4A, YF-15 and YF-16 machines in the US Air Force, as well as the delay in the creation of Soviet analogs - the MiG-17 and T-29. The MiG-10ML was created as a temporary measure and alternative to the promising MiG-23. The new fighter was able to ease on almost 29 kg. compared to the MiG-1250M. At the same time, it was shortened (forkil almost disappeared), the length of the fuselage was reduced, as the designers abandoned the 23 fuel tank. Despite the fact that the total amount of fuel was reduced to 4 4 l., By reducing the weight and aerodynamic resistance of the structure, the flight range was maintained. The new engines increased the maneuverability of the fighter, providing it with very good acceleration characteristics (in this parameter, the MiG-300ML even surpassed the American F-23).

One of the principal innovations that significantly increased the combat capabilities of the machine was the use of the SOUA - the system of limiting the angle of attack. With the introduction of such a system, the pilot could fly without fear of a plane crashing into a tailspin, and make the most of the existing maneuverable potential of the fighter. This system included a cylinder with a rod, which pushed the control stick forward at precisely the moment when the fighter reached the limit of attack angle for this flight mode. The faster the increase in the angle of attack occurred, the earlier this mechanism worked, which made it impossible for the fighter to dynamically throw at exorbitant angles of attack. Simultaneously with the aircraft MiG 23ML the same system appeared on the machines MiG-23UM and MiG-27.

One of the weak points of the MiG-23ML fighter was its Sapphire-23ML radar. In the main radar viewing mode, the detection range of enemy aircraft was 50-55 km. with manual control and up to 85 km. with automatic guidance from the ground. Based on this, during the Arab-Israeli conflicts and the war in Iraq, when targeting fighters from the ground was impossible (hampered by interference or absent altogether), the enemy, who had F-16 and F-15 fighters, received an advantage during the rapprochement with the MiG-23ML. . Due to the more advanced radar installed on American fighters, they detected the enemy earlier at a distance of 60-70 km. At the same time, the MiG-23 radar target was captured only from a distance of 30-50 km. in the front hemisphere.

The MiG-23ML fighter was serially produced for the needs of the USSR Air Force from 1976 to 1981, the aircraft was built for export until 1985. According to combatant pilots, some of whom conquered in the Middle East, the MiG-23ML could already be called a full-fledged, truly combat fighter.

Description of construction

The MiG-23ML fighter is a high-wing aircraft with a variable sweep wing and all-round horizontal tail. The aircraft fuselage has a semi-monocoque design. Its nose includes a sealed compartment of electronic equipment and radar, a front landing gear compartment and a cockpit. Behind the cockpit are air intakes, fuel tank No. XXUMX, equipment compartment and gun compartment, main power compartment aka fuel tank No. XXUMX, engine compartment and tank No. XXUMX. The tail of the fighter has an 1 air brake section, an afterburner, and hitch assembly assemblies.

The lantern of the pilot's cabin includes a visor with an electrothermal PIC and a folding part equipped with a pneumatic drive. In order to prevent fogging of the glass of the lantern, inside around the perimeter of its lower part are mounted pipes for blowing hot air, which comes here from the engine compressor. For ventilation of the cockpit while on duty on the ground or while taxiing on the runway, the cockpit can be raised by 100 mm. The review of the pilot back is implemented using a special periscope - viewing device TC-27AMLU, which is mounted on the folding part of the lamp. Inside the pilot's cockpit on the forward arc of the hinged part are 2 mirrors, which are designed to view the planes of the fighter wing.

The wing of the aircraft includes 2-e rotary trapezoid console and a fixed part (the angle of sweep of the wing on the leading edge 70 degrees). The fixed part of the wing includes two compartments: the nose, in which there are oxygen cylinders, antennas of the radiation warning station, pylon attachment points, the defendant of the friend or foe system and the central compartment, which serves as the main power element of the wing. It is attached to the console, and at the same time it is a container for storing fuel. The wing of the MiG-23ML is a two-spar. The vertical tail of the aircraft includes the rudder, keel, ventral ridge. Fighter chassis tricycle, provides operation of the machine with concrete and soil runways. In case of landing at speeds up to 320 km / h, the PT-10370-65 parachute can be used.

The power plant of the MiG-23ML fighter consists of an afterburner turbojet P-35-300 engine. Aircraft side air intakes are adjustable with variable configuration wedges. The inlet area of ​​the air intakes is maximum with the landing gear released and minimal during supersonic flight modes. The fighter engine launch system on the ground is autonomous from the TC-11 turbo starter. During the flight, the engine is started from autorotation, at high altitudes of flight, oxygen is used to start the engine to start the engine.

The fighter’s fuel system consists of three (on previous fighter models four) fuselage and 4 (formerly 6) wing fuel compartments. The total fuel volume of 4 liters. In addition, it is possible to use 300 PTBs: 3 under-fuselage with a capacity of 1 liters., And 800 underwing on 2 liters. The aircraft uses fuel aviation kerosene of the following grades: T-1, TS-1 and RT. Refueling centralized under pressure for all fuel tanks with the exception of outboard ones is carried out through the refueling receiving unit located on the port side of the aircraft. At the same time, open fueling of fuel tanks through their filler necks is also possible.

The aircraft is equipped with fire-fighting equipment, which includes a fire alarm system, which includes 5 ionization sensors located in the engine compartment, as well as a fire extinguishing system, which is represented by 3-liter UBSH-3-1 fire extinguisher and collector-expander. The aircraft is equipped with an air conditioning system that is used to maintain the optimum air temperature and pressure in the cockpit and in some compartments with avionics. At flight altitude up to 2 000 meters, the fighter cockpit is freely ventilated, after which the pressure drop gradually increases, reaching at flight altitude in 9-12 km. 0,3 values ​​kgf / cmg, this value is maintained until the aircraft reaches the practical flight ceiling.

Aircraft armament includes 23-mm automatic cannon GSH-23L (200 ammunition shells, 3400 fire rates per min / min). In addition, it is possible to install on the MiG-23ML two similar guns in special containers UPK-23 / 250 with ammunition in 250 shells. To destroy airborne targets, the aircraft can use up to 2-x medium-range missiles P-23Р (with semi-active radar guidance), P-24Р (radio command and semi-active radar guidance), P-23T with a thermal homing head, P-24Т (TGS), which are suspended on fixed parts of the wing. As weapons short-range 2-XR UR P-13М, Р-13М1 or 4-Р Р-60 or Р-60М are used on the ventral nodes of the suspension.

Possible upgrade

RAC "MiG" in order to fully disclose the significant potential of front-line fighters MiG-23, as well as fighter-bombers MiG-27 has created a program of modernization of fighters, which takes into account the specific requirements of different customers. These programs provide for the installation on the fighter of a number of new avionics systems, as well as expanding the range of weapons used by introducing new models. A new aircraft armament control system can be based on a multifunctional radar or include an additional system in its structure, which is intended to issue radio-correction commands to the modern air-to-air UR and to form a flight task.

The composition of avionics of the modernized fighter can include modern information display systems, including a multifunctional display and an indicator on the windshield, a helmet-mounted target designation system for the pilot. Communication and navigation systems, video registration, radio counteraction, registration, control and processing of incoming flight information are also upgraded.

The composition of the weapons of modernized fighters can include modern guided missiles, such as the RVV-AE, P-73E and P-27Р1. At the request of the customer, the fighter can be adapted to the use of other types of air-to-air and air-to-ground guided missiles.

Flight performance of the MiG-23ML:

The wingspan is 14,10 / 7,78 m., The length of the fighter is 16,7 m., Height is 5,0 m.
Wing area - 37,27 / 34,16 square. m
Aircraft normal take-off weight - 15 600 kg., Maximum take-off - 20 100 kg.
Fuel supply - 4300 l.
Engine type - two TRDDF P-35, unforced traction - 8 850 kgf., Afterburner - 13 000 kgf.
The maximum speed is 2500 km / h.
Practical range - up to 1450 km.
Ferrying range - 2 360 km. with 3 PTB.
Practical ceiling - 17 700 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Armament: 1 23-mm gun GSH-23L, combat load up to 2 000 kg., On 5 suspension nodes.

Information sources:
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  1. Apollo
    Apollo 22 January 2013 09: 30
    here is the other graphics of history as a whole on MIG
  2. Vadivak
    Vadivak 22 January 2013 09: 39
    Legendary bird
    in 1989, Colonel Skuridin, head of the political division of the air division (a high position obliged him to fly), at an altitude of only 90 meters, due to a possible hit of a bird in a university intake, the MiG-23 ejected from the sea, the fighter without a pilot disappeared from radar, everyone thought it fell into the sea, and he plowed airspace of Germany. while its fighters tried to overtake the MiG, he had already crossed the border with Belgium. The reports of the FRG pilots that they allegedly flew close to the Soviet fighter and, wondering, examined the empty cockpit, most likely, just an invention. Almost all military aircraft have photo equipment. A MiG shot with red stars on board and without a pilot in the cockpit, and even against the backdrop of German interceptors, cost a lot of money and would go around many newspapers in the world. But there were no such photos. But there was another MiG-23, flight number 29, safely landed in the vicinity of Brussels. The plane destroyed the fence of one of the houses, with a wing it broke the veranda, on which, unfortunately, the young man was. Listening to the message, Colonel Skuridin and other staff officers were shocked.
    Commenting on the incident, the then First Deputy Commander of the Air Force, Lieutenant-General E. Shaposhnikov, said "This is a unique case in the history of aviation. It has never happened before that a combat vehicle, abandoned by a pilot, made such a long, uncontrollable flight."
    1. VAF
      VAF 22 January 2013 14: 28
      Quote: Vadivak
      The then First Deputy Commander of the Air Force, Lieutenant General E. Shaposhnikov said "This is a unique case in the history of aviation. It has never happened before that a combat vehicle, abandoned by a pilot, made such a long uncontrollable flight."

      Vadim, welcome! Shaposhnikov is “cunning”. although it is understandable ... fighters have always had little interest in large aircraft wink

      And meanwhile, back in July 1969 in the Nezhtiskiy reconnaissance regiment ... there was a "famous" incident. when, while flying in formation at night, the wingman collided with the leader.
      everyone jumped out. and the plane flew for almost an hour with a slight left roll (in the left turn) over Nezhin.

      The interceptors "came" but did not dare to shoot down. the plane could fall on the city. so they flew alongside and accompanied. in the end, the aircraft went to 500 meters, due to uncontrollability and fuel consumption, and with an increase in roll to critical values, the aircraft entered mode 2. fell into a tailspin and fell into a swamp just 500 meters from the railway. station!

      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 22 January 2013 15: 45
        Quote: vaf
        1969 in the Undead Intelligence Regiment.

        Interesting thank you not heard about it
        1. VAF
          VAF 22 January 2013 17: 57
          Quote: Vadivak
          Interesting thank you not heard about it

          July 25, 1969, captain Feoktistov (who later jumped out. And the navigator and operator remained on the plane to the ground soldier and everyone asked, commander. when will we jump?) collided with Lieutenant Colonel Liskov 9 all three jumped out and are alive)!

          There are a lot of cases ... especially "cool". 50 GNIKI gives a conclusion about the impossibility of landing the Tu-22R on the ground, and at the same time in the same Nizhyn in the SMU a couple enters and "confuses" the runway with the Primer (you understand winter) and successfully sit on the ground! good
          1. Dart weyder
            Dart weyder 23 January 2013 05: 08
            not quite in Nizhyn, - nearby, about 300-400 km, Uzin .... somehow wrote about this already when the article about the Tu-22 was discussed ..... An example is the landing of a pair of Tu-22R in early April 1969 The crews of the commander of the guard of sub-ka Nikitin and the guard of field Polevoy, due to the weather worsening over Nizhyn, were sent to the alternate airfield in Uzin. Before that, there was a little snow, “camouflaged” the concrete runway, and the reserve ground from the air differed much better. Visibility was within 4000 m, and the komesk, entering the airfield by instruments, suddenly saw that there was an open field in front of it, and a strip to the left. Deciding that the appliances failed, he turned left. No sooner had the KP given a command to leave for the second round, as Nikitin’s plane was already rolling on the ground, leaving a track, the Chassis stood, and the Tu-22R splashed with mud climbed into the taxiway. Nikitin immediately on the radio commanded the follower: "Believe the instruments!" However, Polevoy exactly repeated the leader’s mistake, and two dirty aircraft appeared in the parking lot. The machines successfully passed the "exam", and the crews still had to endure the "delight" of the leadership. General Pasichnyk was especially indignant: “Scouts, ...! You must find a needle in a haystack, and you could not distinguish a strategic strip of 3,5 kilometers long and 100 meters wide from the ground !!! ”

            ten years ago I read it here - Aviation and time 1996 02
    2. Civil
      Civil 22 January 2013 17: 05
      [quote] as well as delays with the creation of Soviet counterparts - MiG-29 and T-10. MiG-23ML aircraft was created as a temporary measure and an alternative to the promising MiG-29 [/ quote

      read- Su-35S of those same years .. with the difference that now the light 5 generation is not being developed
    3. reguai
      reguai 22 January 2013 17: 17
      The message that the interceptors flew up close is not fiction. They flew up, saw while they were consulting with AWACS - they lost Mig. I read this message myself (the next post of interception tracked them, in my combat duty this happened winked )..
  3. avt
    avt 22 January 2013 09: 57
    Article +. The airplane is great! good Especially the latest version of the MLD, if memory serves. I read the memory of one Dutchman pilot, so he only admired the car! He claimed that he was not inferior to the F-16 in flight, of the shortcomings noted a low landing of the pilot in the cockpit, said that he was sitting in the bathroom compared to western airplanes. Sorry the car was lost in the shadow of the MIG-29!
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 22 January 2013 10: 22
      Quote: avt
      He said that he was sitting in the bathroom compared to Western airplanes.

      Cramped cabin, right
    2. Dart weyder
      Dart weyder 22 January 2013 11: 05
      Well - not that it was lost, just every cricket should know its sixth, the 23rd is certainly not a bad car, but it is far from MiG-29, as well as the adversary F-16, and the gap in generation ... .
      1. avt
        avt 22 January 2013 11: 21
        [quote = Dart Weyder] he is far from the adversary F-16, and there is a generation gap ...
        Do not tell me, after the collapse of the Union, the NATO pilots conducted comparative flight and nothing, the old man showed himself worthy! And I was not talking about a comparison with MIG -29, but that this airplane is no less worthy and, for its time, constructed no less elegantly than its 29th descendant!
        1. Dart weyder
          Dart weyder 22 January 2013 12: 01
          Well, they did it from the 29th, you can compare - but from the 23rd, not really .... there’s not much chance .... when we consider modernization to the ML, the USA and NATO were already armed
          block 5,
          here is Block 10:
          The combat load is 5420 kg at 9 nodes of the suspension (to the detriment of maneuverability, a load of 9276 kg is possible):
          up to 6 AIM-9L / M / P Sidewinder
          AIM-7 Sparrow or AIM-120A AMRAAM
          In the fighter-bomber variant, it can carry ordinary Mk.82, Mk 83 and Mk 84 bombs. Or a GPU-5 / A hanging container with a 30-mm cannon, the MiG will not pull here, and it’s completely lost in maneuverability,
  4. Bern
    Bern 22 January 2013 09: 58
    Great car! I served on these beauties! Nostalgia...
  5. Akim
    Akim 22 January 2013 10: 27
    Negroes in Africa still use it and are not going to refuse.
    In Ukraine, they are in combat reserve. They even fly sometimes. In Russia, they are also in flight condition.

    1. Not horde
      Not horde 22 January 2013 16: 03
      About the video. F-15 exactly zbivali?
      1. Dart weyder
        Dart weyder 23 January 2013 05: 20
        Yes, on the account of the MiG-23 and F-15 there is .... a lot of interesting things brought down even the Su-24, and the MiG-21
  6. Forest
    Forest 22 January 2013 12: 07
    IMHO the most beautiful fighter.
  7. Fitter65
    Fitter65 22 January 2013 12: 59
    P-k Skuridin flew from Kolobrzeg that day. There was a 714 IAP of our IAD. During takeoff, at an altitude of 130-150 meters, the afterburner turned off. If the afterburner is turned off, the plane "sinks" at 100-200m. the crew must leave the plane. The plane was a modification of the MLD.
    Every first Tuesday of the month commander’s flights were carried out, the entire flight personnel of the division’s headquarters flew. Moreover, part of the leadership flew from Klyuchevo. On such Tuesdays the RPs, and the KP of the division all had withers in soap. I am silent about those who provided flights .A plane still looks beautiful.
  8. Tartary
    Tartary 22 January 2013 13: 57
    Quote: Vadivak
    Cramped cabin, right

    In Spassk-Dalniy, these stood in the 80s ...
    I remember we were on the taxiway, where such an airplane was close ...
    We hear the rumble of metal on the skin, sort of like an airplane ... We can’t understand anything.
    Looking out of the engine nozzle, the legs appeared in the kirsach ...
    A sleepy sentry in an overcoat got out, pulled the Kalash out by the belt, threw it over his shoulder and walked with a limp (you see his leg was lying down, poor fellow) along the airplanes to carry on guard duty ...
    We are fucked up by such a savvy fighter.
    1. marshes
      marshes 22 January 2013 14: 59
      Quote: Tartary
      We are fucked up by such a savvy fighter.

      It’s your luck that the guard didn’t shoot him on the plane. smile
      My father had an emergency, the soldier dozed off near the front landing gear, did not lean so much and there was a cartridge in the cartridge, he shot through a harness with a diameter of 300 mm. After the repair, everyone who repaired "forcibly" was put on the plane and made a couple of circles. smile
  9. PistonizaToR
    PistonizaToR 22 January 2013 16: 17
    nothing at all article ...
  10. Nechai
    Nechai 22 January 2013 16: 30
    The kid still saw his passage over the railway at Zubchaninovka at a low altitude, he walked away from the LIS with minimal sweep of the wings, blue-blue in color, almost above his head. It seemed absolutely silent to me. The pilot still turned his head and bowed in my direction, in an oxygen mask, met his eyes ... And the speed was surprisingly not great, a little bit with a climb. I was just taken aback, honestly ... Damn, it's just a natural UFO.
  11. tomket
    tomket 22 January 2013 20: 57
    The MiG-23ml was late with the appearance, when the MiG-29 appeared to the military, it became no longer interesting. In fact, it was a completely modern fighter, by the way, the MiG-29 modification also fell victim to 21, the reincarnation of which we nevertheless saw in the 21-93 version and Indian "bison". The reports of the tests of the MiG-23 by the Americans in the "aggressor" squadron are interesting, the pilots literally admired its acceleration characteristics, and in fact it was the fastest fighter of that time in the United States. So during the training interception of the F-111, the fastest aircraft USA, on the catch-up course, the MiG-23 dropped and disappeared from the radar, then emerged to look around and correct the direction and it turned out that it had overtaken the F-111 by several tens of kilometers, despite the fact that it was on afterburner.
    1. Dart weyder
      Dart weyder 23 January 2013 05: 24
      yes, with only one caveat - he didn’t look around, but received a command from ground-based radars, and one US Air Force general crashed on it
      1. tomket
        tomket 23 January 2013 08: 12
        how a true Soviet Airplane caused damage to the enemy even while in captivity !!!! although there is a version that he stupidly exceeded the speed limit and poured glass into his face with air pressure
  12. Fitter65
    Fitter65 23 January 2013 03: 49
    Quote: PistonizaToR

    nothing at all article ...

    Well, why about nothing? For the general development of those who are far from aviation, it’s not even bad. For those who walk next to airplanes there is a feeling that there is not enough knowledge that is not well. not ochem. You, as I understand it, belong to the third category?
    Well, the plane is still beautiful!
  13. PDM80
    PDM80 23 January 2013 07: 57
    Nice car good
  14. Usher
    Usher 6 December 2017 00: 41
    Text reprint. Many sentences and paragraphs are torn off or begin illogically. Those. taken out of context, the Beginnings about the MiG-23 then sharply ML and MLD.
  15. Usher
    Usher 6 December 2017 00: 53
    "Engine type - two turbofan R-35" TWO?