Breguet Br. 1050 Alize. French carrier-based anti-submarine aircraft

Breguet Br. 1050 Alize. French carrier-based anti-submarine aircraft
Breguet Br.1050 Alizé

History patrol aircraft dates back to shortly before the First World War, in which aviation showed its competitive advantage over airships. The tasks assigned to aircraft of this class include anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare, as well as search and rescue operations. And a lot of aircraft saw the light of day, which can safely be classified as patrol aircraft, each of which had an interesting and extraordinary history.

One of the first was the French “flying boat” FBA Type A and the Types B and C, similar in their assigned tasks. And effectively performing the functions of reconnaissance and combating German submarines during the First World War, he was able to launch the development of patrol aircraft in many countries , including in the Russian Empire, which purchased 30 type C aircraft with the Gnome Monosoupape engine (100 hp), and built 34 more at the plant of Vladimir Aleksandrovich Lebedev. Since 1915, the French FBA Type C were replaced by the Russian M-5 designed by D. P. Grigorovich.

As time passed, the aircraft industry developed, new power plants appeared, and aircraft became capable of carrying more payload and over longer distances. The Second World War ended, after which a new historical period began. Countries that previously dominated the entire world gave way to others. Weapon, which previously seemed necessary for victory, has now given way to another.

In this atmosphere, the creation of a new aircraft began in France, performing the same tasks as the FBA Type A/B/C.

So, today we will look at the history of a carrier-based aircraft with a rather unusual, but popular design for patrol aircraft of the 1950s - the Bréguet Br.1050 Alizé.

Our story begins on November 12, 1947 from another plane. Then the French naval aviation issued a specification for an attack and anti-submarine aircraft capable of carrying aircraft and depth charges, guided missiles, rockets, and torpedoes, the main feature of which was the ability to take off from the deck of an aircraft carrier.

And the creation of an aircraft carrier fleet for France has been discussed since the mid-1940s. Obviously, for the French fleet to be competitive, they must also include patrol and anti-submarine vehicles. And at a certain point in time, they converged on four aircraft carriers with a displacement of 20 tons in two stages, which resulted in two ships of the Clemenceau class, namely Fosh and Clemenceau itself, which in the French Navy were supplemented by four more different aircraft carriers.

The plan also called for the construction of a third Clemenceau-class aircraft carrier, serial number PA58, between 1958 and 1960, but this ship was finally canceled in 1960.

Another ship that was supposed to strengthen the French carrier fleet was the Verdun, developed in the 1950s, which was supposed to be slightly larger than the Clemenceau (standard displacement 35 tons). This aircraft carrier in its essence anticipated the famous flagship of the French fleet, called Charles de Gaulle.

Aircraft carrier Fosh

Optionally, the future aircraft would be able to use rocket boosters to facilitate takeoff from the deck of an aircraft carrier. It had to be able to operate for four hours above sea level and reach speeds of 300 to 700 kilometers per hour. Its landing speed was assumed to be in the range of 155 km/h, and the crew was protected by more durable armor.

This specification was sent to the leading aviation companies in France, from which Breguet was selected. However, this company recognized that the speed requirements were inconsistent and could only be met by a hybrid powerplant, combining an Armstrong Siddeley Mamba turboprop engine in the bow with a Hispano-Suiza Nene turbojet engine in the tail. The company received approval for their design, and the aircraft they created was named Breguet Br. 960 Vultur (translated as “Vulture” or “Vulture”).

Breguet Br.960 Vultur

It was a low-wing aircraft with an oval-shaped supporting fuselage and a tricycle landing gear. Its two-spar wing had a swept leading edge and a straight rear one, in the vertical folding of which, and this is one of the conditions for operation on aircraft decks, hydraulic mechanisms were used.

The tail had the same sweep and an angle of 16°. The fuselage had a 600 liter self-sealing fuel tank and a 350 liter self-sealing tank in each outer wing panel. The crew consisted of the ship's captain and co-pilot, seated side by side in a frame canopy.

A year after the specification was created, Breguet received an order for two prototypes.

August 3, 1951 Br. 960 Vultur took off for the first time from Toulouse-Blagnac. The first prototype's power plant consisted of an Armstrong Siddeley Mamba I turboprop engine at the front, producing up to 970 hp. s., the low consumption of which was supposed to provide up to nine hours of patrol, and the Hispano-Suiza (later Rolls-Royce) Nene 101 turbojet at the rear, with a power of 21,6 kN, to which air was supplied through ducts in the wing roots to have additional power in if necessary. In particular, the jet engine was relevant when taking off from the decks of aircraft carriers or during air combat.

The second prototype flew on September 15, 1952. It was equipped with a more powerful Mamba III engine producing 1 hp. With. Small nacelles were installed at the tips of its wings; the port one contained a 320 liter (100 imp gal; 22 US gal) unprotected fuel tank, and the starboard nacelle housed the attack radar. A more powerful power plant was necessary, since the first prototype, on the contrary, turned out to be so underpowered that it could not be flown with a full combat load without the jet engine running.

And if the first prototype showed poor flight characteristics, the second aircraft met all the specification requirements and demonstrated satisfactory carrier ejection and landing qualities, which were tested at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough airfield in early 1953.

At that time, the installation in France was not equipped to evaluate such qualities of naval aircraft. The first prototype was later modified for other tests. Engine air is blown through slots in the upper surface of the wing designed to increase lift. It was named Breguet Br. 963. The third prototype was used to conduct simulated ground launch and landing tests.

The aircraft was equipped with a fulcrum under the fuselage that could carry a payload weighing up to 1 kg. Under the wings were four launchers, each of which could carry two missiles. In addition to the bombs, the ventral hardpoint was equipped to accommodate a more powerful search radar in a container.

As a result, the Vultur reached a maximum speed of 850 km/h. Thanks to a sophisticated lift system, this aircraft could land at a specified speed of 155 km/h.

In 1953–1954 The French Navy lost interest in the Breguet Br. 960, but continued to be interested in the idea of ​​purchasing a specialized anti-submarine platform. Meanwhile, the concept of the French Navy was changing in favor of the so-called hunter-killer or (literal translation) “hunter-killer”. An example of such a concept was the reconnaissance TBM-3W Avenger, operating in parallel with the anti-submarine TBM-3S Avenger, which was in service with the French fleet at the time.

In other words, the new vision of the French Navy is characterized as “see-destroy,” for which aircraft with a strong on-board radar were ideally suited, even if it was the failed TBM-3W Avenger in many areas. To achieve this, it was decided to adapt the Vultur platform for anti-submarine warfare and for long-range fleet cover tasks, rather than creating a completely new aircraft.

Not only does Br. The 960 turned out to be a very good aircraft that promised high efficiency in the army, and it was just a matter of banal savings, because they spent accordingly on the program, and it would be sad if it all went down the drain.

In addition, Tu-91, Fairey Gannet, Douglas A2D Skyshark and Short SB. The 6 Seamews seemed to be quite good aircraft, and their design was quite reminiscent of the Breguet Br. 960.

First of all, Breguet decided to find new options for modernizing its already obsolete Breguet Br. 960. It all started with the most obvious proposal to upgrade the Vultur into what the Aeronavale is asking for - a “hunter-killer”. The plan was to produce an aircraft very similar to the American Grumman AF Guardian, only one version was equipped with a ground search radar, and the other had a larger bomb bay for more weapons.

The chassis of this version was also different and similar to that found on the Grumman AF Guardian, that is, with two main legs in front of the center of gravity and a small wheel at the rear to support the vehicle. This version was called Breguet Br. 960F1, and it was created in parallel with another modification - Breguet Br. 960F2, which was equipped with a chassis similar to that which appeared on the Breguet Br.1050 Alize.

Another interesting version was the Breguet Br. 961 is an aircraft free of a folding wing, a landing hook and other nuances of a carrier-based aircraft. This vehicle would be equipped with one 30-mm air cannon in each wing. In this modification it was offered to the French Air Force, but they were not too interested. And this version of the aircraft fell into oblivion.

But Breguet's more comprehensive and thorough response was to modify the second prototype into a demonstrator. The Nene jet engine has been removed and its exhaust pipe plugged. The turboprop engine was upgraded to the more powerful Mamba VI. This engine was also installed on the British Short SB anti-submarine carrier-based aircraft. 6 Seamew, which is usually compared with the Breguet Br. 1050. An AN/APS-15 retractable search radar was installed in the fuselage, and both wingtip nacelles were removed.

Now the pilot sat in front on his left, the navigator sat to his right, and the sensor operator sat to the side behind them. Additional fuel tanks replaced engine ducts and wheel arches in the inner wing sections, and the landing gear was modified to retract forward into large nacelles on the leading edges of the wing. The trailing edge of the wing was no longer straight, so the plane now had a trapezoidal wing. Now known as Br. 965 Épaulard (Killer Whale) it made its first flight on 26 March 1956 and was the immediate predecessor of the Bréguet 1050 Alizé.

It’s interesting that initially they wanted to name our today’s hero exactly as his prototype was called – “Killer Whale”, but later the name was reworked, as was, in fact, the numerical index, which, continuing the given Breguet Br. 960 numbering, should have been designated Breguet Br. 966.

One way or another, a new aviation program has now begun to create an aircraft based on the developments of the Vultur, but which still differed in small details from the Breguet Br. 1050 Alize.

Before building the prototype, Breguet conducted a significant number of aerodynamic experiments on models and samples of the aircraft, made in scales 1:8, 1:2,5; 1:16 and 1:20. During the purging of the aerodynamic layout of the car, many changes were made. Thus, the width of the tail was increased and the height of the tail was changed, the profiles of the width of the wing and nacelle fairings into which the main landing gear were retracted were selected. Steering, aileron and closed areas were also found on the models. The adjustments made allowed us to prevent more changes after flight testing.

Another important issue regarding the design of the Breguet Br. 1050, which required discussion before creating prototypes, was the selection of the best engine position. Breguet engineers encountered this while working on the Vg. 960, so the problem was not so acute.

As a result, the engine should not extend beyond the contours of the fuselage in order to provide good visibility to the pilots. In addition, it was necessary to maintain the operational characteristics of the aircraft when based in the limited space of an aircraft carrier.

They did not immediately decide on the location of the gas outlet. On the first prototypes, the exhaust pipe carried the exhaust gases to the right side of the fuselage, under the wing, but the hot air reflected from the flight deck caused a lot of trouble for the maintenance personnel. These, of course, are not airplanes with vertical takeoff and landing, the engines of which hit the deck with hot air during takeoff no worse, but it’s still an unpleasant feature of this machine. On experimental aircraft with numbers 03, 04 and 05, the exhaust pipe from the engine was placed above the wing. This solved the problem and the right side exhaust pipe became an exclusive feature of all Alize series.

On the plane, in the part of the fuselage just behind the wing, a radar antenna was installed in a large radio-transparent fairing - it was released for operation, and at high speed it was retracted into the fuselage again. This scheme, worked out on the Br. 960 ASW, which featured a design with an enlarged cabin, one Mamba VI engine and an AS 33B radar in a gondola on the left wing tip, although it made the structure heavier, was still preferable to a stationary one, because due to the relatively high aerodynamics, speed gains were obtained.

Breguet Br. 1050-01 Alize

Three prototypes (No. 01, 02 and 03) and two pre-production aircraft (No. 04 and 05) were built. The first prototype (No. 01, equipped with a Rolls-Royce Dart RDa 7 Mk 20 engine with a power of 1 hp) took off on the fifth (although somewhere they say the sixth) October 600, under the control of Yves Bruno and two other pilots, Only whose surnames are known: Lascarre and Perrineau. Then the second prototype took off on December 1956 of the following year.

They were both equipped with the American APS-33 radar, but this aircraft also featured many important design solutions that were later transferred to the production Breguet Br. 1050. It was just a retractable radar in a fairing, located at the back, where the Vultur reactor used to be located. The fuselage was modified to accommodate a third crew member, and the wings received integral nacelles along the leading edges.

On April 19, 1957, the third and final prototype took off. The original Dart Mk 20 engine was replaced by the more powerful Dart Mk 21, producing 1 hp. With. A retractable radar was installed: Thomson-CSF DRAA-950B instead of APS-2.

Ejection launch and landing tests were conducted at Bedford in England in 1957 and continued until 15 November 1957, then aboard the British aircraft carrier HMS Eagle in the Mediterranean Sea in 1958. This aircraft carrier was chosen due to the fact that the French Arromanches, on which the Breguet Br. 1050, was unavailable then, as it was sent for repairs or scheduled maintenance, opinions vary.

However, on December 2, 1958, the third prototype landed for the first time on this French Navy aircraft carrier. For operation on an aircraft carrier, the aircraft's wings were folded, so the span was reduced from 15,6 m to 7 m. In addition, catapult launches are possible without restrictions on the air route and speed at meteorological winds of less than 28 km/h.

Breguet Br.1050-01 Alize

Two pre-production aircraft, No. 04 and 05, took off on June 21, 1957 and August 1, 1958, respectively. The first flights of pre-production vehicles meant that mass production could soon begin, which is what happened in our history. The Épaulard program was replaced by the creation of the Breguet Br. 1050 Alize, whose name translates as “Passat”, that is, the wind that rages between the tropics all year round, in the Northern Hemisphere from the northeast, in the Southern Hemisphere - from the southeast. A rather poetic and unusual name for a carrier-based anti-submarine aircraft, which, in my opinion, is much better than the previously proposed Killer Whale.

Breguet Br. 1050 Alize at Le Bourget Air Show

Meanwhile, in May 1957 for Breguet Br. 1050 Alize had a rather pleasant event - the air show in Le Bourget. That year, by the way, the USSR presented its exposition for the first time, which, in general, is the only interesting fact that I could sew into this article.

It is curious that on French websites there is information that Breguet Br. The 1050 was indeed at the Le Bourget Air Show that year, but was bypassed. Here you should either doubt the photograph that is cited as confirmation of Alize’s participation at the 1957 French air show, or doubt the French sources that ignore this photograph. In any case, Alize received its well-deserved interest among international operators, and whether this interest in the aircraft appeared before or after Le Bourget, it seems to me, is not so important.

Initially, it was planned to build 100 production copies only for the needs of the French Navy, but in 1958 this number was reduced, and 75 aircraft were eventually ordered (the first order was for 50, then the second was for 25 aircraft). And, as I mentioned, this aircraft also aroused interest in one foreign country, which ended with the purchase of Breguet Br. 1050 Alize for your needs, but before we get to that, let's take a look at the unsuccessful proposals for the acquisition of Breguet Br. 1050.

Unexpectedly, interest in the new French aircraft arose in Indonesia, which expressed a desire to purchase Alize. Indonesia was refused by a court decision, which feared the use of its aircraft in a conflict with Holland, an ally of France.

Another country whose Navy needed the Breguet Br. 1050, became Brazil, which at that time was armed with the aircraft carrier NAeL Minas Gerais. She was a Colossus-class light aircraft carrier operated by Marinha do Brasil (Brazilian Navy) from 1960 to 2001. The ship was laid down for the British Royal Navy during the Second World War as HMS Vengeance, but was built shortly before the end of hostilities, and did not contribute to the defeat of the Axis countries.

After serving as a training ship and Arctic research vessel, the aircraft carrier was leased to the Royal Australian Navy from 1952 to 1955. It was returned to the British, who sold it to Brazil in 1956. In 1960, Brazil conducted comparative tests of Vg. 1050 Alize and Grumman S2F Tracker.

Preference was given to the second, which has greater potential for modernization (by the way, all Tracker aircraft are currently still associated with the armed forces of the Brazilian Navy). And this aircraft was produced in huge quantities, at least compared to its French counterpart - 1 aircraft, not counting several other modifications, which were also produced in decent quantities.

But the country that was able to export these aircraft to its homeland was India, to which 12 aircraft were delivered in 1961, that is, at the same time as they were put into service in France.

Their service took place from the ground base of the 310 Squadron of the Indian Navy, which for a long time was based at INS Hansa - the Indian naval air base located near Dabolim in the state of Goa, India (from September 29, 2017, the squadron moved to the air base INS Sardar Patel) . It is India's largest naval air base. It has a civilian enclave that operates as Dabolim Airport. Another duty station for Indian Breguet Br. 1050 became the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant. They were operated by the Indian Navy from 1961 to 1991.

And, it seems to me, it’s worth taking a closer look at the appearance of Breguet Br. 1050 Alize in India and the history of operation of this aircraft in this country. And the decision to purchase these aircraft will be somewhat reminiscent of the creation of Breguet Br. 960 Vultur for the needs of the French Navy, which also revolved around the aircraft carrier fleet.

Breguet Br. 1050 Alize from INAS 310 Squadron

More specifically, we will focus on the operation of the Breguet Br. 1050 Alize in a separate article, because this topic is too broad. In the course of writing it, I had to touch upon the history of the creation of the Indian state, the history of the Indian Navy, carrier-based aviation, the aircraft carrier INS Vikrant, the INAS 310 squadron and the only combat loss of this aircraft. As you can understand: it would be strange to tell all this in an article about one little-known attack aircraft, but as an addition, helping to delve deeper into the history of this still extremely unusual aircraft, it is ideal.

A few words about the start of operation of Breguet Br. 1050 Alize in France.

On March 31, 1959, Breguet delivered the first Alize to the French Navy. In three years, Aeronavale received the number of aircraft that were agreed upon under the contract - 75 units. On July 19, 1961, the French Navy received its last Alize.

These Breguet Br. 1050 were commissioned on the Arromanches, a British Colossus-class aircraft carrier acquired by France in 1951 and on which some of the testing took place, Clémenceau, the lead ship of the French class of ships of the same name, which was one of the flagships of the French Navy between 1961 and 1997 , and Foch, which became the second Clemenceau-class aircraft carrier to serve in the French Navy from 1963 to 2000.

At the same time, Arromanches was the only one on which takeoff and landing were primarily practiced using a catapult and a standard arresting device, respectively. On the decks they were destined to replace the American, already quite outdated Grumman TBM-3W Avenger and Grumman TBM-3S Avenger. A number of these aircraft also remained at air bases, where they were used to train new crews.

Also Br. 1050 were used to perform tasks such as communications, work with aerial targets and training of technical personnel. All transmitted Alizes received sequence numbers between 1 and 61, as well as 64, 65, 68–70, 72–77, 80, 86 and 87.

And we'll leave it at that for now.

Yes, you may think that this is not enough, but the situation here is similar to what happened with Breguet Br. 1050 Alize, owned by the Indian Navy. Most likely, I will also publish an additional article in which I will talk about the history of the operation of these aircraft in the French Navy, and about their accidents, thereby completing the long-suffering story about the combat use of these aircraft.

With this, I propose to move on to the design, performance characteristics and performance characteristics of this machine, which will no longer be abbreviated.

So, Breguet Br. 1050 Alize is a three-seat single-engine monoplane with a low wing, with a Rolls-Royce RDa.7 Dart Mk 21 turboprop power plant with a rotor speed of 15 rpm and a power of 000 hp. with, as well as from the fuel and oil fuel placement systems. The propellers of this engine are 2-bladed, constant speed reversible propeller with full feathering. A special pipe extends to the right side above the wing, removing exhaust gases from the engine. The motor frame was attached to the second (power) sealed frame. In the lower part of the nose section there was a niche for cleaning the nose landing gear strut, in which the front landing gear mounting unit was attached, which was produced for Alize by Hispano-Suiza.

The engine was installed in a four-point position on a steel tubular motor mount, mounted on a power sealed frame No. 5. The engine mounting points required rubber shock absorption. The engine supplied the injection system with a water-methanol mixture, which made it possible to regulate engine power in high temperature conditions, where the Breguet Alize was mainly used.

In the process, it turned out that this system can also handle rotation speeds within 14 rpm. The regulation system of the military version of the engine was somewhat different from the “civilian” one - it performed its functions regardless of the pilot’s choice of engine operating mode.

The fuel for the Rolls-Royce RDa.7 Dart Mk 21 is also worth noting. Aviation kerosene of brands TR-0, TR-4 or TR-5, as well as their mixtures in any proportions, was used. The total capacity of fuel tanks is 2 liters. If necessary, it was possible to carry out an emergency (emergency) drain of fuel from all tanks, subject to exceptional consumption. Fuel consumption is 100–350 liters/hour.

The aircraft wing is cantilever, two-spar, trapezoidal. The wing span is 15,6 meters, the aspect ratio is 6,8 meters. The wing installation angle is +2°30' in the center section and +1° in the end part of the wing.

Technologically, the wing was divided into three sections: a center section and two folding consoles, created to save space on an aircraft carrier. The wing center section had a span of 6,6 meters and consisted of two half-planes. Two spars, wing skin panels and power ribs formed volumes in the center section of the wing, which contained four rubber protected fuel tanks. The wing consoles fold hydraulically; the consoles' position was controlled and locked from the pilot's cabin.

The Alize has the usual mechanization: ailerons and flaps, no slats or spoilers. In this case, the flaps were located along the entire trailing edge of the wing, being alkaline, three-position, divided into four sections. Two rotating sections were installed on the wing center section and two on the consoles. What makes them “three-position” is the fact that they could be in three states: “retracted” (0°), “takeoff” (35°) and “landing” (55°). The flap span is 4,1 m. Ailerons were installed at the end parts of the wing. The aileron deflection angle is 25°. Throughout their entire span there were automatic trimmers controlled by hydraulic drive.

Behind the cockpit and on the bottom of the aircraft there was a retractable radar antenna, and the tail section itself served as the basis for attaching the fin and stabilizer, and in the first versions also the navigation system antennas. A brake hook was installed in the lower sections of the sections, necessary to simplify landing on an aircraft carrier. It was pulled out by a special hydraulic cylinder.

The power set of the tail section consisted of a number of frames and 16 stringers. A retractable radar antenna with a diameter of 1,3 m was released and retracted into the tail section using a hydraulic drive. The antenna was mounted on two steel hoops, allowing it to be fixed in any intermediate position.

The stabilizer had a separate elevator. The tail is trapezoidal, just like the wing. The keel is double-spar. The rudder is with horn compensation. The height of the vertical tail is 2,5 meters. A controlled trimmer, divided into two parts, is located along the entire span of the rudder. The stabilizer span is 5,8 meters.

On the first pre-production aircraft, altitude and direction control were carried out without the use of servos and hydraulic boosters, but starting from Vg. 1050-04, the control system is equipped with hydraulic boosters, which reduce the load on the pedals and control handle. The same pre-production prototype also featured an updated radio antenna and fin. On Breguet Br. The 1050-04 also retained the air brake, which was eliminated with the production version.

Now I propose to move on to the performance characteristics and performance characteristics of the Breguet Br. 1050.


Length: 13,86 m
Wingspan: 15,6 m
Height: 5 m
Wing area: 36 m²
Empty weight: 5 kg
Maximum take-off weight: 8 200 kg
Maximum speed: 518 km / h at an altitude of 3 050 m
460 km/h – at sea level
Cruising speed: 240–370 km/h
Range: 2 km
Endurance: 5 hours 10 minutes
Ceiling: 8 000 m
Rate of climb: 7 m / s
Wing load: 229 kg/m².

A few words about what and where this attack aircraft could generally carry.

The internal compartment could accommodate one L4 aircraft torpedo, Mk.44, later replaced by Mk.46 324 mm caliber, or 160 kg depth charges, depending on the nature of the mission. The Breguet Alize could carry up to 14 sonobuoys in its bomb bay.

Aviation or depth charges (accordingly, the Breguet Br. 1050 could carry three depth charges in the internal compartment and two on pylons under the wings, of which there were three on each folding section), as well as six unguided rockets on launchers, 68 mm missile baskets and two Nord AS.12 wire-guided anti-ship missiles on pylons on folding wing sections could be mounted on underwing pylons.

In total, the Breguet Alize could have 8 external suspension points.

Let's return to the design.

In general, the entire Alize is usually divided into sections, and not just the wing. This includes the bow (engine compartment), central (crew compartment) and tail (radar antenna compartment) sections. The fuselage had several sealed partitions that ensured the aircraft's buoyancy during a forced landing on water.

The central section was limited by two sealed power frames. The upper part of the section is occupied by the crew cabin, designed for three people. The composition included a pilot (placed in the front seat on the left front of the flight), a navigator-operator (to the right behind the pilot) and a radar operator (behind the pilot and navigator). In the cockpit it was possible to move around the cabin. So, the navigator can take the place of the operator and vice versa. Radar monitoring and tracking equipment with indicators and forecasts was installed behind the pilot and navigator's seats. The cabin floor, which divided the central section into the cockpit and the compartment, was the power structure.

Thanks to this, it was possible to achieve a large number of longitudinal force spars. The 5-meter-long compartment had two dampers driven by six-hydraulic cylinders (three shutters on each side). Here conventional bombs and torpedoes, as well as depth charges and mines, were used. In addition, it was possible to mount two additional fuel tanks in case of long operations.

Now we move on to an important part of any aircraft - the control system.

Total for Breguet Br. 1050 had two control systems: main and auxiliary.

The main system was responsible for retracting and releasing the landing gear, radar antenna, opening and closing the functional compartment (bomb bay), operating the wing folding mechanism, as well as the release brake hook. The auxiliary system involved the emergency release of the hull, flaps and brake hook, as well as the emergency opening of the hatch doors and the emergency release of the cockpit glazing. If I understand correctly, this control system can also be divided into mechanical and manual.

To fire missiles, a collimator sight was installed in the pilot's cockpit. A bomb is dropped by an attack aircraft operator using his sighting system.
The Breguet Alize uses an electric flight system. Its basis is a generator-starter, operating in both generator and starter modes. Backup power was provided by two rechargeable batteries connected to the generator board.

The aircraft's landing gear is tricycle with a front rotating support. The main ones were retracted into cigar-shaped fairings on the wing. At the same time, they move forward in the direction of flight, which is quite unusual. The front parts of the fairings housed radio-electronic equipment. The main support, in terms of the structure, has already been discussed.

All racks have wheels of the same size 650x10, while the main racks had two wheels with pneumatic disc brakes, and the front one had one freely oriented one. The distance between the main pillars is 4,9 meters, and between the bow and main pillars is 4,4 meters.

Let's move on to avionics.

Breguet Alize radio equipment consisted of radio stations with VHF (ultra-short wave), HF (short wave) and MF (medium wave) bands. An on-board radiotelephone is used for communication between the air crew. The autopilot, manufactured by SFENA, will be used to relieve the crew on long patrol flights and facilitate the performance of anti-submarine missions. With the help of the autopilot, the plane could fly to a given altitude and select the desired course. Both the pilot, the navigator, and the radar operator could intervene in the operation of the autopilot.

Navigation system for detecting communication equipment with a ground control point and equipment for determining the location of aircraft. The latter appeared not only to determine the situation at any moment, but also kept a record of changes in the coordinates of the aircraft during anti-submarine missions and maritime patrols. Alize was equipped with other cognitive functions: a radio compass, a radio beacon and a TACAN short-range navigation system.

Search equipment of the DRAA 2A search and research search and navigation radar and standard equipment carried by all anti-submarine aircraft: radio acoustic buoys, interrogator-transponder, search radar, various receiving antennas located on top of the fuselage, as well as passive receiving antennas located in the front of the fairings niches for cleaning the main landing gear.

That's all, I have nothing more to say about the design.

Perhaps I could supplement this story with an even more detailed description of the Breguet Alize, based on the changes from prototypes to pre-production aircraft and from pre-production to production aircraft, and from them to those undergoing modernization. But I have already described the changes in general terms during the course of the article, and in general, calling this article “Breguet Br. 1050 Alize", I, oddly enough, planned to focus on the history of the production aircraft. And although the description of the prototypes was an integral part of this story, it was not the main task, and, as it seems to me, a relatively brief description was enough here.

One way or another, let's get to the conclusion.

And the conclusion from the history of Breguet Br. 1050 will be similar to similar conclusions from my past works.

Alize seems to me a very interesting aircraft to study and describe, which deserves to be talked about more often and more. And personally, I liked to delve into all this, to find out the history of the aircraft, which I had heard about for quite a long time, but never got around to writing a large enough article about it, in which I could try to talk about the features, nuances, interesting details that I seemed interesting.

Summing up the personal result of Breguet Br. 1050, I consider it a generally good aircraft, which was created, perhaps, in the best place for this and in the best period in this country, at least from those in which such an anti-submarine carrier-based aircraft as the Breguet Br. 1050 Alize, could be produced in large quantities.

Another thing is that the generally modest supplies of good aircraft abroad spoil the overall picture. 14 Alize for India is hardly the result that Breguet was aiming for. The same British Fairey Gannet was produced as 347 aircraft in all modifications, turning out to be the most popular aircraft among deck-based anti-submarine vehicles of a similar design.

However, someone was even less lucky: also the British Short SB. 6 Seamew was produced in the amount of 26 aircraft and left British service 4 years after its first flight. The Soviet Tu-91 as a whole was a hostage to the situation, because the aircraft carrier under which it was created never appeared, and as a result, the construction of a rather promising aircraft turned out to be impossible. Although, the car is interesting, maybe someday it will come to fruition.

In conclusion, I would like to say that Breguet Br. 1050 Alize is a rather extraordinary, albeit seemingly secondary aircraft with an interesting history. I think that soon we will begin the story of his distant relative, but more on that another time.
71 comment
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  1. +16
    5 November 2023 04: 57
    An airplane propeller is cool. Probably still airborne
    1. +10
      5 November 2023 05: 45
      The propellers of this engine are 4-bladed,
      Amphibious aircraft?
      1. AUL
        5 November 2023 10: 39
        Poorly edited machine translation, hence the errors in the text.
        In the 60s, we released the French fantasy film “The Sky Above”. This plane appeared there.
        1. +2
          5 November 2023 13: 38
          Now the pilot sat in front to the left, the navigator to his right, and the sensor operator sat to the side behind them

          How is that? I'm kind of lacking in imagination. It is quite possible that the translation is crooked, but on the other hand, the French are still those engineering entertainers.
          1. +2
            5 November 2023 18: 31

            While I was looking for information, I found this cross-sectional image of the Breguet Br.1050 Alize. Here, in general, you can see the position of the pilot, navigator and operator.
            In any case, I should have clarified this point or added this image so that there would be no such discrepancies. In any case, thanks for your attention
            1. +1
              6 November 2023 09: 16
              you can see the location of the pilot, navigator and operator.

              Thank you, this is approximately what I imagined, but again, you can expect anything from these French designers
        2. +2
          5 November 2023 17: 38
          Quote from AUL
          Poorly edited machine translation, hence the errors in the text.

          Try to process such a data array yourself.
          This is only a third of the material.

          Thanks to the author for the detailed story.
          Looking forward to 2 parts on the topic.
          1. +5
            5 November 2023 18: 33
            Thank you for your interest. I hope to start combing the next parts soon, while waiting for art on the topic from an artist I know
    2. +3
      5 November 2023 13: 01
      So the plane was a sea plane, so a propeller is quite “possible”?
  2. +7
    5 November 2023 05: 48
    The aircraft was equipped fulcrum under the fuselage, which could carry payload weighing up to 1 kg.

    The author made a computer translation of someone else’s article, but did not re-read it. That's why there are such "blunders" in it. The node to which the load is attached is called a suspension point, not a support point.
    Study, study and once again study MILITARY affairs in a real way
    (V.I. Lenin)
    1. +6
      5 November 2023 06: 01
      Quote: Amateur
      The node to which the load is attached is called a suspension point, not a support point.

      If this is some kind of external point for hanging fuel tanks, weapons or something else, then it is called pylon...
    2. +6
      5 November 2023 08: 55
      There are detailed articles in the Soviet Foreign Military Review. For example, I still have subscriptions from the 80s. I would "draw" from there hi
  3. +6
    5 November 2023 05: 49
    There are some minor inconsistencies, but overall I liked the article. Unbiased and non-politicized! good Thank you!
  4. 0
    5 November 2023 05: 57
    Always wondered which factories produced French weapons after the end of the war? After all, France is very far behind the military industry, especially in R&D, and during the war, as you know, all this develops according to a super-accelerated program. French industry, of course, fulfilled German military orders, but no design work was carried out there, and after the Allied invasion, all this was destroyed. In the southern, unoccupied part of France, they even crushed grapes...

    I read that the French were actively hunting for German engineers and scientists, but it was still difficult for them to keep up with the USA and the USSR. But, nevertheless, modern missiles Exocettanks AMX and fighters The Mirage, have German engineers in their ancestors...
    1. +3
      5 November 2023 06: 08
      And also ATGMs, very advanced for their time!
      1. -5
        5 November 2023 06: 28
        Quote: andrewkor
        And also ATGMs, very advanced for their time!

        ATGMs were used by attack aircraft during the war
        1. +6
          5 November 2023 06: 51
          Quote: Dutchman Michel
          Quote: andrewkor
          And also ATGMs, very advanced for their time!

          ATGMs were used by attack aircraft during the war

          You are confusing guided missiles with unguided ones.
          1. +5
            5 November 2023 07: 00
            Quote: Tucan
            You are confusing guided missiles with unguided ones

            Please excuse me. Confused
            1. 0
              5 November 2023 16: 28
              Mixed up
              There is evidence of the use of the X-7 Rotkapchen, developed in 1943, so ATGMs were also used. There were definitely captured missiles.
              1. +3
                5 November 2023 17: 56
                The piquancy is that the French ATGMs were in service with the United States. Yes
    2. +3
      5 November 2023 06: 46
      Quote: Luminman
      After all, France is very far behind the military industry, especially in R&D, and during the war, as you know, all this develops according to a super-accelerated program.

      Not too far behind.
      A country with traditionally strong science and industry, it quickly made up for something at the expense of other European countries (for example, British aircraft engines), airplanes, American helicopters, tanks, something left from the Germans (aircraft engines).
      1. -2
        5 November 2023 06: 57
        Quote: Maxim G
        A country with traditionally strong science and industry has quickly caught up

        This is what’s interesting, how exactly I made up for it! War, as we know, is the engine of science and technology. All these rockets, knowledge of the atom, semiconductors, turbojet engines and much more would have come to us much later if the world had not been drawn into war. And France from 1940 to 1945 was deprived of all this. I can only assume that all these Americans and the British were actively pumping their ally, France, with modern technologies in the light of the outbreak of the Cold War, because it was simply impossible to make such a breakthrough...
        1. +1
          5 November 2023 08: 38
          They stuffed us, much like the USSR.
          Ouragan, Panther and Mig-15 are almost siblings. Yes
          1. Alf
            5 November 2023 20: 03
            Quote: Maxim G
            They stuffed us, much like the USSR.
            Ouragan, Panther and Mig-15 are almost siblings. Yes

            Only the MiG took off almost two years earlier.
            And what a brother Panther is, with a straight wing... As they say, you are not my brother.
            1. -3
              5 November 2023 20: 30
              What if you read further on Wikipedia?)
              1. Alf
                5 November 2023 20: 33
                Quote: Maxim G
                What if you read further on Wikipedia?)

                Namely ?
                When is the first flight?
                1. 0
                  6 November 2023 02: 11
                  Namely, what kind of engine is in these planes, and where did it come from? Yes
              2. +5
                5 November 2023 21: 04
                Dear Maxim G! I don’t recommend “stuffing” your brain with information from Wikipedia.... Everything in it is quite conventional and superficial, unfortunately... There are verified encyclopedic sources... Try to delve into libraries with funds that have not yet been ruined by perestroika... In At one time, in the USSR, the magazine “Foreign Military Review” was published, which described in great detail the weapons of NATO countries, at a very high professional level.... By the way, in the West, Wikipedia is called “an encyclopedia for the poor” (in the mind)....
                1. -4
                  6 November 2023 02: 13
                  I recommend reading the correspondence first before giving advice.
                2. 0
                  15 February 2024 05: 16
                  Roskomnadzor blocked the site on the Internet. "Corner of the sky", which is very sad for aviation lovers...
      2. The comment was deleted.
    3. nks
      5 November 2023 08: 36
      The school and corps of engineers are more important than current R&D results, especially since after the war these results could have been borrowed to one degree or another. And, oddly enough, R&D did not stop. You can check it out here (it’s generally true)

      Quote: Luminman
      But, nevertheless, modern Exocet missiles, AMX tanks and Mirage fighters have German engineers in their ancestors.

      oh my god. I'm scared for these German engineers wassat German personnel, of course, were also involved, but were not key, since Marcel Dassault (Bloch) was able to leave the concentration camp alive, and the first French jet aircraft was called not Mirage, but Ouragan. TRDs took the British RR under license, although their own was on the way. You should learn some materiel.
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. nks
          5 November 2023 09: 41
          Quote: Luminman
          The school and the corps of engineers rely on R&D, which simply did not exist in France during the war...

          A school takes at least 10 years and even centuries to develop, not 4-5 years. Read, I gave you the link.
          PS: There’s no need to be rude, it won’t help you in any way, and you look even stupider than you originally did. I’m kind to you - I even poured materiel for starters
          1. -4
            5 November 2023 11: 17
            Quote: nks
            The school has been developed over at least 10 years and even centuries

            I agree that an engineering school takes decades and centuries to develop, but it is very easy to ruin this very school in just a few years. Example - post-war France. I can give another very good example of the decline of an engineering school - this is our country in the 90s, and not only an engineering school, but also a working school - try now to find a good turner or milling machine, which used to always be in every garage or any workshop ...

            Quote: nks
            Read, I gave you the link

            If your link led to any paper copy, I would be happy to use it. Only in the toilet. And not with the eyes. And I usually look at garbage sites, which for some reason you consider to be hardware, as product of human activity, as well as those who fill them with the same trash content...

            Quote: nks
            There's no need to be rude, it won't help you in any way, and you'll look even stupider than you originally did.

            This is not rudeness. I just showed you your place in the sun...
            1. +3
              5 November 2023 11: 44
              What evidence is there that France screwed up the school?
            2. nks
              5 November 2023 14: 10
              Quote: Luminman
              another very good example of the decline of an engineering school is our country in the 90s, and not only an engineering school, but also a working one - try now to find a good turner or milling machine operator, who used to always be in every garage or any workshop

              :))) If you were better technically educated, you would also know that a pylon in aircraft manufacturing is a device (in a more general case, a structural element)
              on which remote elements/equipment are mounted. The pylons themselves can be attached to suspension points. The payload can be attached directly
              to the suspension points (comfortable), but this is done less often.
              I have given you a link to what is available to you (I assumed) but you could potentially visit
              Museum of Aviation and Space in Le Bourget and demonstrate your culture next to one of the prototypes of the EA-41 rocket, created during the
              wars in the south of France, where you think they only crushed grapes. Or defecate your culture on her
              Quote: Luminman
              This is not rudeness

              This is exactly it. If you are still young enough, then you still have a good chance of getting a decent education and culture, but if not,
              then everything gets sadder - and then I sincerely feel sorry for you
              1. -3
                5 November 2023 15: 51
                Quote: nks
                If only you were better technically educated

                My education allows me to speak on equal terms with interlocutors who are much more educated than you. You can follow my merde link, which I called a product of human activity, and carefully read what a pylon is and what a suspension unit is. However, you still won’t understand anything, and discussing with you makes me yawn...
                1. +1
                  5 November 2023 16: 06
                  My education allows me to speak on equal terms with interlocutors who are much more educated than you.
                  You are simply selfish and unpatriotic.
                  1. -3
                    5 November 2023 17: 08
                    Quote: Bolt Cutter
                    You are simply selfish and unpatriotic

                    I live in my homeland and take care of the Pakistanis... but I don’t clean up. I can be a patriot...
                    1. +1
                      5 November 2023 17: 12
                      I live in my homeland and take care of the Pakistanis... but I don’t clean up.
                      I live where I want and don’t clean up after anyone. It’s not forbidden to be a patriot; you shouldn’t go to extremes; it looks funny from the outside.
                  2. nks
                    6 November 2023 15: 07
                    selfishness is not always a bad thing. Kvass in itself is also not so terrible, but if they call it that nowadays, then the matter is completely at sea..
                    This is some kind of fantastic ignorance in the worst sense of the word.
                    Actually, it is not surprising that this character cannot essentially respond with anything other than rudeness.
                    By the way, if we return this discussion to a meaningful direction, then I myself can make arguments for it.
                    In addition, this is also a rather striking example of how figs see when looking at books - it seems like a person has read something, he has questions, but he cannot find fairly simple answers to these questions in books.
                    The French almost entirely repurposed the German design bureau for the development of the ATAR turbojet engine (in the name itself they honestly indicated its German origin) and they
                    They were still used in the turbojet line for quite a long time, including for the first mirages (perhaps this was what was meant).
                    But since the character is absolutely incompetent (including in organizing R&D and industrial production), he talks about something completely different.
                    The Franks understood what they needed, and although the samples (these are the very results of R&D that can be borrowed) were in their occupation zone, it took a fair amount of effort to snatch Herman Oestrich himself from the Anglo-American embrace. If they had not been able to do this, they would have received their own design 3-5 years later precisely because their competencies are sufficient, but in the meantime they would have used English and American licenses. In general, in reality there was such a thread too - at the same time you can ask what the microturbo company did during WWII.
        2. +4
          5 November 2023 09: 54
          Which Mirage?
          Mirage III, IV, 5, F.1, 2000?
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. 0
      5 November 2023 16: 36
      Mirage fighters have German engineers in their ancestors...

      I don’t know about the Mirage fighters, but the MiG-15 and Saber have German developments in swept wings in their ancestors.
    6. Alf
      5 November 2023 19: 58
      Quote: Luminman
      But, nevertheless, modern Exocet missiles, AMX tanks and Mirage fighters have German engineers in their ancestors...

      And what are the German roots of the Mirage and AMX-13?
  5. +6
    5 November 2023 06: 07
    The film "The Sky Above" - ​​France, 1965. Very realistic, the action takes place right on "Clemenceau".
  6. +2
    5 November 2023 06: 40
    Now I glanced briefly at the information about the Breguet company. There are many victories and successes, but what she did during WWII is modestly kept silent. Probably produced airplanes, but it’s not clear which ones and for whom wink
    1. +4
      5 November 2023 13: 12
      What part of France? Part of the country was under occupation. Germany, and part (Petain) was quasi-independent.
      1. +1
        5 November 2023 13: 24
        Quote: vadim dok
        What part of France?

        Which was under occupation. She is their most developed
      2. Alf
        5 November 2023 20: 09
        Quote: vadim dok
        and part (Petain) was quasi-independent.

        It ceased to be a “quasi” on November 10, 1942...
      3. 0
        19 January 2024 22: 07
        The occupied part of France was also formally subordinate to the Vichy government. De jure, Paris was still considered the capital of the entire country. Departmental prefects, mayors and other officials in the occupied zone were appointed by the Vichy government. In November 1942, the entire territory of France was occupied (Operation Anton). The return of government structures to Paris was soon announced, although this was only partially implemented.
    2. nks
      6 November 2023 15: 08
      No, it did not produce aircraft during WWII after 1940. It produced electric cars - there were understandable problems with fuel in France.
      1. Alf
        7 November 2023 19: 33
        Quote: nks
        No, it did not produce aircraft during WWII after 1940.

        The Caudron C.445 Goeland was designed by Marcel Riffard in 1934 and was a twin-engine passenger vehicle. It proved to be one of the most successful aircraft of its time and was produced in large numbers. A modification of the S.445 was produced for the French Air Force, and 54 of these transport aircraft went to the Germans as trophies. Having assessed the acquisition, representatives of the Luftwaffe invited Caudron to continue production, now for the needs of great Germany. By the way, this company belonged to Louis Renault (since 1933), a well-known supporter of the idea of ​​cooperation with the Germans. His workshops in Biancourt supplied the S.445 with engines. The production volumes of the transport aircraft were: 1941 – 62, 1942 – 334, 1943 – 119 copies. Another French aircraft produced for the Luftwaffe was the Potez 63.11, a multi-role support aircraft. The assembly line at Le Mureau was ordered to resume work in 1941 and assemble 120 copies of this reconnaissance aircraft from the pre-war stock. All of them were used in German training units, as were 80 captured Potez 63.11.
        In France, the development of the “Germans” was completed at the end of 1942. The SNCAC plant in Bourges received an order for 450 copies of the Si.204D and began work. By the way, the Siebel was equipped with Argus As-411 engines and there is information that they were produced here in France by Renault as the Renault 12S.
        The tactical reconnaissance aircraft Fw.189 Uhu, the famous “frame”, was also produced in France. Production was transferred from Bremen to the SNCASO plant in Bordeaux at the end of 1941. By the way, like the Si-204D, the “owl” was also ordered from Czech aircraft manufacturers - they shipped 151 copies to the Luftwaffe in 1941 and 182 in 1942. The French only shook things up in 1942, delivering 87 reconnaissance aircraft. But by September, SNCASO employees were handing over 20 cars a month. By February 1943, the Bordeaux plant remained the only one that produced the Fw.189 - the Germans and Czechs themselves switched to other products. Production volume in France was: 1942 - 87, 1943 - 194, 1944 - 12 copies. Another German reconnaissance aircraft produced in France was the ultra-light Fi.156 Storch
        1. nks
          11 November 2023 11: 21
          Where is this about Breguet? Scroll up the thread and see where it started.
          PS: Yes, and don’t forget to return the plus sign lol
  7. +4
    5 November 2023 07: 46
    Quote: Larich
    An airplane propeller is cool. Probably still airborne

    Quote: Andrey Moskvin
    The propellers of this engine are 4-bladed,
    Amphibious aircraft?

    I also noticed the terms in the article about airplanes. Another thing that caught my eye was endurance. lol
  8. -1
    5 November 2023 15: 04
    For our fleet now, such single-engine aircraft would probably be quite useful as a temporary solution, as a means of searching for the same unmanned boats or underwater vehicles.
  9. -1
    5 November 2023 15: 35
    In some places an incomprehensible set of words. Translated article? Probably not even from English.
  10. +1
    5 November 2023 18: 22
    Thanks to everyone who commented on this article. Thank you for your criticism, discussions, comments, recommendations and praise. This really means a lot to me and helps me develop in an area that interests me.
    1. 0
      6 November 2023 10: 09
      UV. Author, advice, before you start writing translated articles, study the technical terminology on this topic, I work on Airbuses, all the documentation is in English, and if the technical aviation text is stupidly translated, it will turn out to be such rubbish.
  11. Alf
    5 November 2023 20: 13

    Freak. But beautiful.
    P.S. I know it's short.
    1. Alf
      5 November 2023 21: 45
      Another one looks great with this one.
      1. +1
        5 November 2023 21: 56
        Visually, the Fairey Gannet is much stronger to me than the Tu-91, Breguet Br.1050 Alize and Short SB.6 Seamew. He has a really cool stabilizer
        1. Alf
          5 November 2023 22: 01
          Quote: Artyom Matveev
          Visually, the Fairey Gannet is much stronger to me than the Tu-91, Breguet Br.1050 Alize and Short SB.6 Seamew.

          As they say, all markers have different tastes and colors.

          He has such a thoroughbred dog... laughing
          1. 0
            5 November 2023 23: 34
            also a beautiful plane. The coaxial propeller and hot gas exhaust pipe are different from European aircraft, which is why it looks quite distinctive
            1. Alf
              5 November 2023 23: 37
              Quote: Artyom Matveev
              also a beautiful plane. The coaxial propeller and hot gas exhaust pipe are different from European aircraft, which is why it looks quite distinctive

              Come on, is it really that different? Pay attention to Gannet. Also a coaxial screw, the same exhaust pattern.
              1. +2
                5 November 2023 23: 59
                in general yes, but Fairey Gannet seems to be less neat. More bulky or something, I apologize for the directness, while the Soviet plane is more neat, which is why its features are somehow more interesting. This, in general, is not surprising: the Tu-91 is 4 meters longer than the British aircraft.
                1. Alf
                  6 November 2023 00: 01
                  Quote: Artyom Matveev
                  in general yes, but Fairey Gannet seems to be less neat. More bulky or something, I apologize for the directness, while the Soviet plane is more neat, which is why its features are somehow more interesting. This, in general, is not surprising: the Tu-91 is 4 meters longer than the British aircraft.

                  You can’t argue against such a fact.
                  So, we’re done with the site, it’s time to sleep, we have to go to work tomorrow. laughing More precisely, today.
                  1. +1
                    6 November 2023 00: 03
                    well, fortunately I don’t need to go anywhere, but good luck to you and have a good working day
                    1. Alf
                      6 November 2023 14: 00
                      Quote: Artyom Matveev
                      well, fortunately I don’t need to go anywhere, but good luck to you and have a good working day

          2. 0
            7 November 2023 10: 50
            Quote: Alf

            He has such a thoroughbred dog... laughing

            Yes, you can actually read on his face “how I hate you all.” smile
  12. +1
    6 November 2023 08: 45
    How to ruin an article, just do a stupid Google translation.
  13. 0
    25 December 2023 21: 34
    Quote: Mister X
    Try to process such a data array yourself.
    This is only a third of the material.

    Are you kidding me? Here is a popular article without censorship and consultants - at most a couple of hours for a proofreader... If he doesn’t make it in time, his next place of duty: the newspaper “Chukchi Reindeer Herder”.

    I'm tired of reading this... What should have been interesting became an example of computer translator blunders. Apparently the author also couldn’t manage to read his own article...

    Well, in fact, this is not an essay competition for high school students!
  14. 0
    15 February 2024 05: 09
    The flaps are still slotted, not alkaline...>) But in general I liked the article...