Military Review

Perspective radar new class for 2015 year

44
Over the past years, the main way to ensure low visibility of aircraft for enemy radar stations is a special configuration of external contours. Stealth airplanes are designed so that the radio signal sent by the station is reflected anywhere, but not towards the source. In this way, the power of the reflected signal arriving at the radar station is significantly reduced, which makes it difficult to detect an aircraft or other object made using a similar technology. Special radar absorbing coatings also enjoy certain popularity, but in most cases they only help from radar stations operating in a certain frequency range. Since the efficiency of radiation absorption, first of all, depends on the ratio of the coating thickness and the wavelength, the majority of such paints protect the aircraft only from millimeter waves. A thicker layer of paint, being effective against longer waves, will simply not allow an airplane or helicopter to take off.



The development of technologies to reduce radio-visibility led to the emergence of means to counter them. For example, first the theory and then the practice showed that the detection of stealth aircraft can be carried out, including with the help of fairly old radar stations. Thus, the Lockheed Martin F-1999A aircraft shot down in 117 over Yugoslavia was detected using the standard C-125 anti-aircraft missile radar. Thus, even for decimeter waves, a special coating does not become a difficult obstacle. Of course, increasing the wavelength affects the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the target, but in some cases such a price for detecting an inconspicuous aircraft can be considered acceptable. However, radio waves, regardless of their length, are prone to reflection and scattering, which leaves actual the question of specific forms of stealth aircraft. However, this problem can be solved. In September of this year, a new tool was presented, the authors of which promised to resolve the issue of radar scattering.

At the Berlin ILA-2012 exhibition in the first half of September, the European aerospace concern EADS presented its new development, which, according to the authors, can turn all ideas about the inconspicuousness of aircraft and the means to combat them. The company Cassidian, which is part of the concern, offered its own version of the radar station of the “passive radar” option. The essence of such a radar station lies in the absence of any radiation. In fact, a passive radar is a receiving antenna with the appropriate equipment and calculation algorithms. The whole complex can be installed on any suitable chassis. For example, in the promotional materials of the EADS concern there is a two-axle minibus, in the cabin of which all the necessary electronics are mounted, and on the roof there is a telescopic bar with a block of receiving antennas.

Perspective radar new class for 2015 yearThe principle of operation of the passive radar, at first glance, is very simple. Unlike conventional radars, it does not emit any signals, but only receives radio waves from other sources. The equipment of the complex is designed to receive and process radio signals emitted by other sources, such as traditional radars, television and radio stations, as well as communications using a radio channel. It is understood that the third-party radio wave source is at some distance from the receiver of the passive radar, because of which its signal, hitting a stealth plane, can be reflected towards the latter. Thus, the main task of the passive radar is to collect all radio signals and correctly process them in order to isolate the part of them that was reflected from the desired aircraft.

In fact, this idea is not new. The first proposals to use passive radar appeared a long time ago. However, until recently, such a method of detecting targets was simply impossible: there was no equipment that allows you to isolate from all received signals exactly the one that was reflected by the desired object. Only in the late nineties did the first full-fledged developments begin to appear that could provide the selection and processing of the necessary signal, for example, the American project Silent Sentry of Lockheed Martin. EADS employees, they also claim, managed to create the necessary electronic equipment and related software that can “recognize” the reflected signal by some signs and calculate parameters such as elevation and distance to the target. More accurate and detailed information, of course, was not reported. But representatives of EADS told about the possibility of passive radar to monitor the entire space around the antenna. At the same time, information on the operator’s display is updated once every half second. It was also reported that the passive radar so far only works in three radio bands: VHF, DAB (digital radio) and DVB-T (digital television). The error in detecting the target, according to official data, does not exceed ten meters.

From the design of the antenna unit of the passive radar, it can be seen that the complex can determine the direction to the target and the elevation angle. However, the question of determining the distance to the detected object remains open. Since there is no official data on this subject, it will be necessary to manage with the available information about passive radars. EADS representatives claim their radar works with the signals used by both radio and television. It is obvious that their sources have a fixed location, which is also known in advance. Passive radar can simultaneously receive a direct signal from a television or radio station, and also look for it in a reflected and attenuated form. Knowing the transmitter’s own coordinates and coordinates, the electronics of the passive radar, by comparing the direct and reflected signals, their power, azimuths and elevation angles, can calculate the approximate distance to the target. Judging by the stated accuracy, European engineers managed to create not only viable, but also promising technology.



It is also worth noting that the new passive radar vividly confirms the fundamental possibility of practical use of a radar of this class. Perhaps, new countries will be interested in other countries and will also start their work in this direction or speed up existing ones. So, the United States can resume serious work on the project Silent Sentry. In addition, the French company Thale and the British company Roke Manor Research had certain developments on this topic. Great attention to the subject of passive radar in the end can lead to their wide distribution. In this case, it is already necessary to roughly figure out what consequences such a technique will have for the appearance of a modern war. The most obvious consequence is to minimize the benefits of low profile aircraft. Passive radar will be able to determine their location, ignoring both technologies to reduce visibility. Also, passive radar can make useless anti-radar missiles. New radars are able to use the signal of any radio transmitter of the appropriate range and power. Accordingly, the enemy aircraft will not be able to detect the radar from its radiation and attack with anti-radar ammunition. The destruction of all the major radiators of radio waves, in turn, turns out too complicated and expensive. In the end, the passive radar can theoretically work with transmitters of the simplest design, which at their cost will cost much less than countermeasures. The second problem for countering passive radar concerns electronic warfare. To effectively suppress such a radar, a sufficiently large frequency range is required. At the same time, the effectiveness of EW facilities is not ensured: if there is a signal that does not fall into the suppressed range, the passive radar station can switch to its use.

Undoubtedly, the widespread use of passive radar stations will lead to the emergence of methods and means to counter them. However, at present, the development of Cassidian and EADS has almost no competitors and analogues, which so far allows it to remain sufficiently promising. Representatives of the concern-developer argue that by 2015, the experimental complex will become a full-fledged means of detecting and tracking targets. For the time remaining before this event, the designers and the military of other countries should, if not develop their counterparts, then, at a minimum, form their opinion on the topic and come up with at least general methods of counteraction. First of all, the new passive radar can hit the combat potential of the US Air Force. It is the United States that pays the most attention to the stealth of aircraft and creates new designs with the maximum possible use of stealth technology. If passive radar confirms its ability to detect aircraft that are inconspicuous for traditional radars, the appearance of promising American aircraft may undergo major changes. As for other countries, they still do not put stealthiness at the forefront and this, to a certain extent, will reduce possible unpleasant consequences.


On the materials of the sites:
http://spiegel.de/
http://eads.com/
http://cassidian.com/
http://defencetalk.com/
http://wired.co.uk/
Author:
44 comments
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  1. Ilyukha
    Ilyukha 28 November 2012 08: 25
    0
    Good technology for areas with a high population density, where of course there are a lot of all kinds of sources of electromagnetic radiation. By the way, the European countries of NATO do not even plan to develop stealth aircraft, since no aircraft can fly unnoticed by the densely populated European theater of operations (or they will see a thermal imager at night), the engine will roar.
    It was revealed in the Second World War when there were really no radars.
    In vain we followed the Americans, creating the PAK FA stealth machine. Fashion is, but very expensive.
    The only places where the "passive radar" is ineffective is the sea and the desert. There are no sources of EMP in sufficient quantities.
    1. Windbreak
      Windbreak 28 November 2012 11: 24
      0
      Quote: Ilyukha
      By the way, the European countries of NATO do not even plan to develop stealth aircraft
      but they are developing stealth drones
    2. jasorgho
      jasorgho 29 November 2012 16: 24
      +1
      in homing missiles and in aircraft, the detection and tracking stations operate in the decimeter and centimeter ranges, and stealth technology works mainly against them, it seemed to me that everyone understood this for a long time
      You can certainly notice the stealth machine, but even with the S-300 they can be detected in 20-40 km in active mode, and at this distance an anti-radar missile can already be launched
  2. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 28 November 2012 08: 47
    +2
    Quote: Ilyukha
    In vain we followed the Americans, creating the PAK FA stealth machine. Fashion is, but very expensive.

    I do not agree! Even if you fold the stealth technology, then PAKFA has advantages: a combination of a fighter and a bomber in 1 person in 1 plane + super maneuverability! ; constant work on a supersonic without the use of afterburner.
    1. Ilyukha
      Ilyukha 28 November 2012 09: 15
      -1
      The remarkable device Su-30 is capable of all this (except for cruising flight at supersonic).
      For stealth technology, the plane pays:
      - irrational form of a glider
      -complication of design and operation
      - huge price
      Europeans know this, and they are not being designed.
      Py.Sy. The word is spelled "bomber", have you finished school yet?
      1. tronin.maxim
        tronin.maxim 28 November 2012 10: 01
        0
        Quote: Ilyukha
        For stealth technology, the plane pays:
        - irrational form of a glider
        -complication of design and operation
        - huge price

        By the way, I recalled one solution that our scientists propose: the movement of the destroyer in a cloud of plasma! This gives tremendous speed and a decrease in visibility every 100 times! Here is the material, read: http://morkov.net/velikie/mnogofunktsionalniy-istrebitel-s-berkut.html
        1. Ilyukha
          Ilyukha 28 November 2012 10: 11
          -2
          My inquisitive schoolboy!
          Plasma Cloud has:
          a) a huge temperature, as if the plane did not melt))
          b) a radio signal does not pass through the plasma, which means the impossibility of even determining the own flight altitude for the pilot (radio altimeter) and the lack of communication and control in battle.
          Therefore, this development was put into the history archive.
          1. tronin.maxim
            tronin.maxim 28 November 2012 10: 18
            +1
            Quote: Ilyukha
            Therefore, this development was put into the history archive.

            This is doubtful! The technology is promising. Here, most likely, work continues on this topic under the heading of secrecy! (assumption).
            1. Ilyukha
              Ilyukha 28 November 2012 10: 42
              -3
              The vulture of secrecy does not cancel physics))
              1. El13
                El13 28 November 2012 14: 56
                0
                Quote: Ilyukha
                Plasma Cloud has:
                a) a huge temperature, as if the plane did not melt))

                Before chmorit people for illiteracy, it would be nice to understand physics yourself, otherwise you have "plasma" = "high temperature", it's time to get rid of stereotypes in thinking, you can go through point b), but figure it out first with a) .. ...
              2. Vldmr
                Vldmr 28 November 2012 18: 27
                +3
                You are mistaken, the passage and reflection of radio waves in a plasma depends on temperature, composition, density, temperature gradient, and actually on the frequency of the radio waves. For some frequencies, under certain conditions, the plasma cloud will be a black body, while others, on the contrary, will practically mirror.
                In the upper atmosphere, the air density is low, and the density of the plasma cloud, too. And heat transfer (heat flux) depends not only on the temperature gradient but also on the heat capacity of the medium, which, accordingly, depends on the density. At low densities of the medium and heat fluxes are relatively small. Secondly, at high speeds due to friction, ionization of air occurs this way and that, it can be used for plasma formation. And to control the plasma cloud, you can use controlled magnetic, microwave fields. So there is nothing supernatural and contrary to the laws of physics in this. Naturally, this requires considerable costs for research and development.
            2. rolik
              rolik 28 November 2012 18: 27
              +2
              this technology has not been put on the shelf. Two years ago there was an interview with the chief developer of the plasma cocoon. He said that it would take two or three years for the finalization. so that is already on the way. And plasma, according to this technology, is not hot but cold. The plane will not melt. Plus, due to the action of the plasma cocoon, friction against the air is much reduced. This is the principle of operation of the Shkval rocket torpedo, only in the air. And, in principle, if the technology is brought to the required parameters, then the hypersonic vehicles will not need to be cooled in flight with an evaporated shell or liquid nitrogen.
          2. sapulid
            sapulid 28 November 2012 12: 40
            0
            Add to this that invisibility is achieved only at very high altitudes.
            1. leon-iv
              leon-iv 28 November 2012 12: 47
              0
              Invisibility, as you deigned, is expressed at certain angles.
          3. avdkrd
            avdkrd 29 November 2012 11: 04
            +1
            in relation to aircraft, we are talking about the so-called cold plasma, secondly, the idea has already been implemented and, with normal funding, is easily installed on all types of Russian aircraft. Plasma does not flow around the entire aircraft, but only the most "noisy" parts (air intakes). The problem of interference and operation of electronic systems and avionics was successfully solved, even during the time of Tsar Pea. Non-equilibrium plasma generators successfully passed government tests more than 16 years ago, but finance and defense superministers .........
        2. leon-iv
          leon-iv 28 November 2012 12: 01
          -1
          This is a snot for shkolo.
          Yes, you can create a low-temperature plasma. Question on Feijoa? And he will not change the resistance of the atmosphere.
      2. PLO
        PLO 28 November 2012 10: 31
        +1
        another aviation specialist on the forum is good

        - irrational form of a glider
        -complication of design and operation
        - huge price

        very funny joke
        the form of the PAK FA glider is primarily dictated by cruising supersonic and flight characteristics, and the invisibility to the PAK FA is in second place, unlike the LTX.
        hardly anyone can argue with him in maneuverability, except perhaps the MiG-29OVT

        however, I'm looking at another topic, you have already flashed your knowledge about the channeling of the shell and other systems in the air defense system, apparently they did study at school, or did you learn from "Uncle Vasya in the yard?" (c)
        1. Ilyukha
          Ilyukha 28 November 2012 10: 41
          -1
          He studied at school, and after too)).
          In fact, the most rational section is, say, the fuselage is round (the smallest weight with the largest internal volume).
          At any speed, aerodynamics of circular cross section has no drawbacks.
          What is stealth round? (Look in front)
          mean. irrational form - more weight with less volume.
          1. urzul
            urzul 28 November 2012 10: 50
            +2
            Quote: Ilyukha
            In fact, the most rational section is, say, the fuselage is round (the smallest weight with the largest internal volume). At any speed, aerodynamics of circular cross section has no drawbacks.

            Well, if we are talking about a truck, then yes, although the carrying fuselage allows you to save fuel, but for a fighter, the volume is not the main thing.
            At any speed, aerodynamics of circular cross section has no drawbacks.
            What is stealth round? (Look in front)
            mean. irrational form - more weight with less volume.

            Only in rectilinear motion, does the fighter imply maneuvering, where the creation of lift, including and the fuselage is more important.
            1. Ilyukha
              Ilyukha 28 November 2012 11: 46
              0
              Quote: urzul
              Only in rectilinear motion, does the fighter imply maneuvering, where the creation of lift, including and the fuselage is more important.

              For these purposes, the Su-27/30 has a round in cross section fuselage in the shape of an ellipse in the longitudinal. That does not change the rules of physics and geometry)))
              1. urzul
                urzul 28 November 2012 12: 06
                +1
                How long have you seen the "round" fuselage in the cross-section of the Su-27?
                1. Ilyukha
                  Ilyukha 28 November 2012 12: 50
                  -1
                  Quote: urzul
                  How long have you seen the "round" fuselage in the cross-section of the Su-27?

                  Read above and leisurely. It says: the Su-27/30 has a round in cross section fuselage in the shape of an ellipse in the longitudinal.
                  It’s easier, damn it: in front you look: round, on the side: ellipse (i.e. an oval stretched))
                  Fershteyn?
                  1. urzul
                    urzul 28 November 2012 13: 24
                    +1
                    I'm afraid we will not continue communication, only 2 photos
                    Read above and leisurely. It says: Su-27 / 30 round in cross the cross section of the fuselage is shaped ellipse in the longitudinal.
                    It’s easier, damn it: in front you look: round, on the side: ellipse (i.e. an oval stretched))
                    Fershteyn?

                    AutoCAD gives something like this.
                    1. urzul
                      urzul 28 November 2012 13: 27
                      +4
                      And now for a long time and monotonously peer into the side view of the Su-30 and look for similarities. In the longitudinal or side view, as you explained to us all.
                      lol
                      And for the future, here is a link to the drawings http://www.airwar.ru/other/draw/su27aiv.html Su-27 with transverse sections along the entire length and do not tell people so.
      3. Cosmos-1869
        Cosmos-1869 28 November 2012 21: 34
        0
        And the word "fighter" is spelled that way wink
    2. patsantre
      patsantre 28 November 2012 09: 17
      0
      In fact, Ilyukha meant that it was not necessary to make the PAK FA inconspicuous. True, if he steals the stealth, it will be slightly better than the Su-35, and there is not much sense in creating it, it would be better on the same Su -35 to slightly modernize avionics and get the same PAK FA without stealth. Su-35 has all the advantages you listed. But it just feels like it has no advantages besides super-maneuverability and cruising overwhelming? And about the completely new avionics, which gives, perhaps even a greater advantage than over-maneuverability, why did you forget?
      As for my opinion, IMHO, it’s not in vain that we create the PAK FA exactly in the form in which it is. In addition, we did not make such a bet on the stealth that, for example, was done on the raptor. Passive radars are still being created , and, for some reason, it seems to me that they may not be widely used. And the stealth of the aircraft, anyway, gives a serious advantage, despite all the many nuances ...
      In general, when a fundamentally new weapon is being created, everyone constantly yells that the world will soon turn upside down, that this weapon will change our understanding of wars, that it will bring troops to a new level ... if we were in the Internet in the 80s, we would have heard the same about creation lasers, rocket-carrying satellites, etc. ... and where are they all now? Until these passive radars prove their worth, do not take them too seriously (but you need to be prepared for everything)
      1. Ilyukha
        Ilyukha 28 November 2012 09: 59
        +1
        I’ll supplement it with a passive radar. It is only a means of detecting a target, it is unlikely that you can point an air defense missile at its coordinates, so to shoot down you still have to turn on the backlight with another radar (only the target will not go anywhere in a few seconds)).
        For an unexpected shelling of an air target, optimal.
        But. certainly not "technology that can change the world"
      2. urzul
        urzul 28 November 2012 10: 25
        +1
        Firstly, PAK FA stealth is not a priority:
        Yes, composites in the design - but this is a reduction in the weight of the airframe.
        Yes, engine spacing to reduce the IR footprint - but this is a more efficient use of high-voltage current.
        Parallel edges - but everything is within reason, only where aerodynamics do not interfere.

        According to the assurances, the PAK FA will surpass the Su-35 in maneuverability and detection range, not without reason the 3 detection station on it. Su-35 at the same time will receive the same new weapons as the PAK FA, and the engine is new, 5 generation, I think it is possible to use it.
        1. tronin.maxim
          tronin.maxim 28 November 2012 11: 00
          0
          Comrades! I found interesting material, just on the topic: http://www.buran.ru/htm/bors.htm http://www.veinik.ru/science/experiment/article/508.html
        2. patsantre
          patsantre 28 November 2012 12: 21
          0
          Quote: urzul
          According to the assurances, the PAK FA will surpass the Su-35 in maneuverability and detection range, not just 3 detection stations on it.


          The detection range is unlikely, most likely they will be on the same level. The Su-35, if I am not mistaken, also has 2 additional radars. In the PAK FA, in my opinion, there are only 5 radars.
          1. urzul
            urzul 28 November 2012 12: 42
            0
            That is, we see that in parallel, a cheaper plane is being finalized with excellent data
          2. postman
            postman 29 November 2012 00: 29
            0
            Quote: patsantre
            PAK FA in my opinion only 5 radar.

            They promise:

            1. nasal radar with AFAR Sh-121 X-band
            2. onboard radars with X-band AFAR (should be placed in the nose of the fuselage)
            3. Wing radar with L-band AFAR
            4. Possibly, aft radar with X-band AFAR
            5.container radar with AFAR Ka-band (millimeter)
            6. possibly radar sensors with AFAR distributed over the skin
            7. (or the same 4) In the stern of the central beam of the fuselage, perhaps, will be installed another stern radar with X-band AFAR developed by NIIP named after V.V. Tikhomirova.
            6 or 7 ..... Only kaoda is all this, probably in Phase 5?
        3. postman
          postman 29 November 2012 00: 27
          0
          Quote: urzul
          Yes, engine spacing to reduce the IR footprint - but this is a more efficient use of high-voltage current.

          Something is not quite right:


          RU2440916C: and engine axes are oriented at an acute angle to the plane of symmetry aircraft in the direction of flight.

          "calculations" with a ruler show Cos A = 6,35 / 6,61 = 0,9607
          Т, E. almost 4% percent of traction loss FOR EACH ENGINE!
          On a fig?
          The spaced engines are certainly great (increase the ability to place hidden weapon compartments - no need to squeeze as much as on the Raptor).
          Why have traction loss?
          If one of the engines is damaged, with parallel axes, or with non-parallel ones, there is a shoulder and a turning moment anyway.

          about the efficiency of UVT, and so it is almost ideal in aerodynamics (as stated)
  3. Pacifist
    Pacifist 28 November 2012 09: 34
    +1
    The technology is not new at all and besides it is not clear why the article is presented as a discovery. The same Chain Mail, developed in the 80s, has already been tested in real combat operations. So the news is moldy.
  4. leon-iv
    leon-iv 28 November 2012 09: 35
    +1
    The cheat of the geyropa for itself the means of RTR discovered
    1. Ilyukha
      Ilyukha 28 November 2012 09: 53
      0
      Yes, I didn’t open it, but simply improves what is right
      1. Pacifist
        Pacifist 28 November 2012 10: 01
        0
        85B6-A "VEGA", etc.
        1. urzul
          urzul 28 November 2012 10: 34
          +1
          VERA-E (Czech Republic)
          Separated defense systems use the interaction of various elements to detect and destroy enemy aircraft.

          Bistatic radar

          An early warning system about the approach of enemy aircraft.

          Reflections of electromagnetic waves from civilian radiation sources, such as TV towers or cellular antennas, are received by sensitive radar antennas. Bistatic radar systems are able to calculate the coordinates of the target using the triangulation method, and determine its speed and direction of motion using the Doppler effect.

          Radar detection and tracking meter range

          It provides support for the enemy aircraft and transmits information to other radars.

          The effectiveness of stealth aircraft was no longer a mystery to the general public during the first Gulf War. Since then, Russia has been looking for means of protection against these aircraft, equipping the old generation meter radars with the latest digital equipment in order to increase the range and resolution. Russian manufacturers now claim that their radars are capable of detecting stealth aircraft by irradiating them with meter wavelengths.

          Radar illumination and guidance with a phased array

          Highlights the target and provides guidance commands for the anti-aircraft missile.

          Using data from other radars, this system tracks the target and helps to direct the missile in the initial part of the trajectory until the grip of the homing head of the rocket itself works.

          Anti-aircraft missile

          Ensures the defeat of the enemy aircraft using the warhead.

          A single-stage solid fuel rocket is launched from a vertical container. The 7,5 m long missile is equipped with a homing radar and delivers kg of explosives to the 180 target over a distance of 200 km.
          1. Pacifist
            Pacifist 28 November 2012 10: 46
            0
            Well, I actually about the same. Theory 50x-60x, implementation 80x-90x.
            The tone of the article simply presents it as a kind of breakthrough.
            1. patsantre
              patsantre 28 November 2012 12: 22
              0
              It’s just written in the article that the technology is not new, but earlier for some reason did not receive proper implementation.
              1. leon-iv
                leon-iv 28 November 2012 12: 26
                0
                for some reason did not receive proper implementation.
                Who has a CA or RF? Or the gay people?
              2. Ilyukha
                Ilyukha 28 November 2012 12: 58
                +1
                Quote: patsantre
                It’s just written in the article that the technology is not new, but earlier for some reason did not receive proper implementation.

                Previously, they couldn’t process the received signals so clearly. Although here, too, the separation probably takes place according to the Doppler effect on the moving reflected signal and the stationary one, only the processing quality is different, I don’t know more precisely, can anyone know?
          2. Vldmr
            Vldmr 28 November 2012 18: 42
            +2
            Multiposition radar solves many problems in detecting low EPR targets. For multi-position radar, it is assumed in the simplest case that there is one emitting station and several receiving stations, which are significantly spatially separated. Naturally, there are problems in the exchange of information and synchronization of the transmitting and receiving stations, which complicates the processing of the signal and requires high-quality data exchange channels.
            EPR aircraft created by stealth technology (and indeed all the rest) is highly dependent on the exposure vector. That is, the EPR of the stealth is minimized in the direction of the irradiating radar, and if the angular coordinates of the radar receiver relative to the aircraft are very different, then the signal may well be very large. Actually, there is such a parameter backscatter diagram. For aircraft created by stealth technology, it has a minimum in the direction of the radiation source, but has lobes in other directions, which is what they actually need to be discovered, which is what multi-position radar does.
  5. yanus
    yanus 28 November 2012 10: 10
    +1
    And they will work for a long time on radio stations, television towers, cell towers, as well as power plants that feed all this, in a war, where stealth will be used?
  6. spok
    spok 28 November 2012 13: 57
    0
    if it does "Favorite" then the complete shit is checked for "St. John's wort"
  7. Rus2012
    Rus2012 28 November 2012 20: 45
    0
    Quote: Vldmr
    For aircraft created by stealth technology, it has a minimum in the direction of the radiation source, but has lobes in other directions, which is what they actually need to be discovered, which is what multi-position radar does.


    Quote: yanus
    And they will work for a long time on radio stations, television towers, cell towers, as well as power plants that feed all this, in a war, where stealth will be used?


    ... and even modern aircraft cannot fly with the electrical equipment completely turned off, which is also a source of radio emission: radio altimeters, information exchange channels, and the aircraft itself - flying through the magnetic fields of the earth disturb them and induces EMF in its body :)

    Quote: Ilyukha
    Previously, they couldn’t process the received signals so clearly. Although here, too, the separation probably takes place according to the Doppler effect on the moving reflected signal and the stationary one, only the processing quality is different, I don’t know more precisely, can anyone know?


    ... previously the hardware component (microprocessors) did not allow. Well, there was no corresponding software for solving multidimensional dynamic problems. Then, you need to create a corresponding database of the aircraft's electromagnetic forms ... Accordingly, to collect statistical material. In the Ukrainian "Kolchuga" and in domestic counterparts - all this is already there and is constantly being updated.
  8. postman
    postman 29 November 2012 01: 24
    0
    The idea is not new.
    Data Networking, 20th June 2001 15:41 GMT

    The system uses traditional GSM mobile networks to detect stealth aircraft, as they still reflect enough EM energy from mobile phones, TVs, walkie-talkies and can be detected using special receivers.

    The receivers connected to the central computer, which has synchronization with the satellite’s GPS signal, are the ability to position the aircraft with an accuracy of 10 meters.
    [img] http://kn2c.us/s/cc_images/cache_2985247804.jpg?t=1328916916 [/ img]

    The central computer may well be a simple laptop.

    -----
    Everything is great, but probably it can only be used in a peaceful life, so as not to "shine" the radar.
    And as soon as a serious conflict begins, there will be such a cacophony on the air that it is possible to carry out the selection and the target's goal — it is unlikely to even appear with the help of the edge.
    And then there will be no domestic signals GSM, TV and others.
  9. gregor6549
    gregor6549 29 November 2012 03: 25
    0
    The radar shown in the photo in the article is very similar to a multi-band radio finder, such as those used in aviation to determine the azimuth of a radio-controlled aircraft. It is known that in the presence of several direction finders (3 or more), it is possible to determine the coordinates of the radio source using known methods (triangulation, etc.). By the way, the triangulation method was used in the 15M VP object of the already forgotten Air 1М system to determine the coordinates of the directors of active interference. True, as the information sources for the 15M airborne facility, direction finding channels of standard radars and PRV were used

    It seems to me that the radar described is based on the radio direction finding method used by the Yugoslav air defense during the bombing of Yugoslavia. According to the story of one of the officers of this air defense, shown recently on the SBS channel, all attempts to detect the F117 using standard radar equipment did not lead to anything. Then he decided to try to find the "trail" of this stealth with radio direction finders, bearing the coordinates of the disturbances in the radio communication field created in this field during the flight of the aircraft, and he succeeded. Shoot down the discovered stealth was no longer difficult.

    It is hard to say how reliable this geography story is, but it seems that everything was just that.
    1. saturn.mmm
      saturn.mmm 30 November 2012 01: 03
      0
      Quote: gregor6549
      F117 with the help of standard means of radar did not lead to anything.

      Maybe you know the results of the combat use of F-117 in Iraq in 2003.
      I have been looking for data for a long time but did not find anything.
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 30 November 2012 06: 24
        +1
        Dear Saturn,

        Check out this article http://www.f117reunion.org/sfa_newsletter/nighthawks-over-iraq.pdf. It is true in English, but alas, I don’t have time for translation. sorry. In general, materials in English on F117 including its use in Iraq, Yugoslavia, etc. more than enough.
        1. saturn.mmm
          saturn.mmm 30 November 2012 23: 36
          +1
          Quote: gregor6549
          Check out this article

          Gregory thank you for reading the link with pleasure.
          Iraq in 1991 and Yugoslavia in 1999, indeed there is enough material, but for Iraq in 2003 for some reason I could not find anything else on the Internet except the recollection of the F-117. So, when removing the F-117 from armament, 27 units are mentioned, about the rest, again I did not find anything.
          One Ukrainian observer claims that the USA lost about 2003 F-17s in Iraq in 117 and the reason was the presence of the Kolchuga-M SRP in Iraq; I would like to know your opinion on this statement, thanks in advance.
          Honestly for me, the decision of the American military seems to be somewhat strange, to disarm the aircraft that proved to be excellent in military operations.
          1. Alex 241
            Alex 241 30 November 2012 23: 40
            +2
            http://almanacwhf.ru/?no=1&art=7 вот ознакомтесь.
          2. gregor6549
            gregor6549 1 December 2012 06: 40
            +1
            SW Michael,
            As far as I am aware, the only F11 that was shot down by air defense systems was the F117 shot down over Yugoslavia. And even that case cannot be attributed 100% to the merit of the Yugoslav air defense, tk. in this flight, the F16 unit, which usually accompanied the F117 in order to protect it and suppress the air defense means, was withdrawn from the mission and the F117 pilot decided on a single flight. This was recently shown on SBS Australian TV by a doc. the film in which both the pilot of the downed F117 and the colonel of the Yugoslav air defense are shown, who figured out how to detect the F11t by disturbing the radio communication field, and also tells how the fact of the shooting down of the invisible influenced its further fate. There is no place or time to retell everything, but the main thing is that the US officials realized that the stake only on stealth technology to the detriment of the aerobatic and combat qualities of the aircraft did not justify itself, and, therefore, new generations of aircraft created using stealth technologies must have the whole set of qualities that allow such an aircraft to be not only relatively invisible, but also be able to attack and defend well, i.e. possess the aerobatic qualities and weapons necessary in this class of aircraft (bombers, fighters, etc.). Therefore, the FNUMX began to be withdrawn from service and replaced by the FNUMX, FNUMX, etc.
            I can't say anything about Kolchuga and its role in the Iraqi war, but as far as I'm aware, this system is essentially a microbase coherent radio direction finder, which allows determining the coordinates of active radio jammers in cm and dm wavelengths. Perhaps they thought of using this direction finder for the direction finding of disturbances in radio communication fields, created by "invisible men" according to the Yugoslav method.
            Earlier, to solve the problems of determining the coordinates of directors of active interference, broad-based (up to several tens of km) radio direction finding systems were used, including automated ones. For example, the object VP15M of the Air 1M system, created at the end of the 60x and the beginning of the 70x at one of the Belarusian enterprises. Sources of information for the VP15M facility were direction finding channels for full-time radars of circular visibility and PRV. By the way, Kolchug is the brainchild of the same Ukrainian enterprise that made 13 air defense and 17 air defense with very good direction-finding channels at that time and which could work not only as radio altimeters, but also as high-potential radar systems of sector and all-round visibility. Naturally. that with the advent of the radar from the PAR, these PRVs went into the field of memories.
  10. radar69
    radar69 29 November 2012 18: 12
    0
    Guys! You served in the Air Defense Forces in the 60s! There was a war in Vietnam! Soviet Union helped crush US1
    1. gregor6549
      gregor6549 30 November 2012 06: 34
      +1
      Did not serve. but I read a fair amount of closed materials on the experience of combat operations of air defense systems in Vietnam. I would not say that Vietnam crushed the United States. What he gave in the neck is undoubtedly the same as what put the United States and their puppets outside Vietnam. But Vietnam itself suffered terrible losses from the carpet bombing of the US air force. In addition, if at the beginning of this War, in order to shoot down one plane of the Americans, an average of 2 missiles were required, then later, after the Americans began to use active and passive interference and also the PRS of the "Shrike" type, the consumption increased to 8 missiles per plane, and the losses of the air defense troops increased sharply. Those. not everything went smoothly on one side and on the other